Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 126

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 126

संस्कृताध्ययनस्य षड्विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२) पाठः

 

Mr. Himanshu Pota seeks analysis and interpretation of the following सुभाषितम्. On the internet I got it as सुभाषित क्र.८३६ at http://www.sanskritdeepika.org/subhashit_remote_sql.php?subh_id=%27836%20%27

अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम्‌ ।

मेधाविनो नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति ॥

पदच्छेदैः –

अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् उपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम्‌ ।

मेधाविनः नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव दर्शयन्ति ॥

अन्वयः –

  1. अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम्
  2. उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ च
  3. नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव
  4. मेधाविनः दर्शयन्ति |

(1) I thought it good to detail the अन्वय in four parts, thinking that the fourth part contains the subject and the verb, first two parts are objects, the third part is adverbial, especially because of इव (= such as).

(2) Interestingly all words in parts 1, 2 and 3 are feminine, second case, singular, except of course च and इव. That is the reason, why it becomes good to detail the अन्वय in four parts.

With these preliminary observations, we can proceed to get into critical analysis of specific words.

(3) The two words अपायसंदर्शनजाम् and उपायसंदर्शनजाम् have only the first letter different, because of two different prefixes अप and उप. So common portion of them is अयसंदर्शनजाम् or आयसंदर्शनजाम्.

  • To understand अपाय and उपाय, there is also another commonly known word व्यय (वि + अय) or व्यत्यय (वि + अति + अय).  
    • अपायः [इ-अच्] 1 Going away, departure. -2 Separation; ध्रुवमपाये$पादानम् P.I.4.24. (अपायो विश्लेषः Sk.); येन जातं प्रियापाये कद्वदं हंसकोकिलम् Bk.6.75. -3 Disappearance, vanishing, absence; सूर्यापाये Me.82 at the time of sun- set; क्षणदापायशशाङ्कदर्शनः R.8.74 close of night; जलापाय- विपाण़्डुराणि Śi.4.5;4.54;18.1. -4 Destruction, loss, death, annihilation; करणापायविभिन्नवर्णया R.8.42 loss, 83; मालत्यपायमधिगम्य Māl.1.9 death or disappearance of M. -5 An evil, ill, misfortune, risk, calamity, danger (oft. opp. उपाय); तदपि मरणापायचकितः Bh.3.9; तदनेन पापबुद्धिनोपायश्चिन्तितो नापायः Pt.1 not the danger (resulting from the plan); उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम् Pt.1.61; बह्वपाये वने Pt.1 exposed to many dangers, dangerous; कायः संनिहितापायः H.4.65 exposed to dangers or calamities; सत्ये$प्यपायमपेक्षते H.4.12; Ki.14.19. -6 Loss, detriment, injury. -7 The end (of a word).
    • उपायः 1 (a) Means, an expedient, remedy; शक्यो$वाप्तुमुपायतः Bg.6.36. उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; मयि क्षीणोपाये प्रणिपतनमात्रैकशरणे Amaru.25; Bhāg.1.48.2; Ms.8.48,7.177. (b) A plan, con- trivance; ˚निलया Mu.1.5. (c) A mode, way, stratagem. उपायेन तु यच्छक्यं न तच्छक्यं पराक्रमैः । H. -2 A fact, circumstance; U.7. -3 Beginning, commencement. -4 Effort, exertion; वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्यो$वाप्तुमुपायतः (योगः) Bg.6.36; Ms.9.248;1.2. -5 A means of success against an enemy; (these are four:- सामन् conciliation or negotiation, दानम् bribery; भेदः sowing dissensions; and दण्डः punishment (open attack); some authorities add three more :- माया deceit; उपेक्षा trick, deceit or neglect; इन्द्रजाल conjuring, thus making the total number 7); चतुर्थोपायसाध्ये तु रिपौ सान्त्वमपक्रिया Śi.2.54; सामादीनामुपायानां चतुर्णामपि पण्डिताः Ms.7.19. -6 Joining (as in singing). -7 Approach. -8 Initiation, thread ceremony (= उपनयन); अपि वा वेदतुल्यत्वाद् उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् MS.6.2.22 (where शबर explains उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् as उपनयनेन सह प्रवर्तेरन् ।).
    • In Apte’s dictionary, these words अपाय and उपाय are detailed under अपे (अप + इ) and उपे (उप + इ) respectively, treating अय as [इ-अच्].
    • To my mind अयः can as well be considered as अय् + घञ्. Anyway, both इ and अय् have same meaning गतौ. Both अच् and घञ् are कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, used to obtain masculine abstract nouns from धातु-s.
    • Etymologically अपायः means going away (from wellness), hence harmful. उपायः means going near (to wellness), hence helpful.
  • संदर्शनजाम् – संदर्शनज-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • सम्यक्-दर्शनम् इति संदर्शनम् |
    • संदर्शने जायते इति संदर्शनजा (स्त्री.)
  • अपायसंदर्शनजाम् = appearing or occurring when sighting wrong conduct, approach or mismatch
  • उपायसंदर्शनजाम् = occurring when sighting help, solution, remedy.

(4) आपत्तिम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of आपत्ति

  • आपत्तिः f. [आ-पद्-क्तिन्] 1 Turning or changing into, entering into any state or condition. -2 Obtaining, procuring, getting; स्थानापत्तेर्द्रव्येषु धर्मलाभः Kāty. -3 Misfortune, calamity, adversity; Y.3.42. -4 A fault, transgression. -5 Remonstrance, expostulation. -6 (In phil.) An undesirable conclusion or occurrence (अनिष्टप्रसङ्ग).

(5) सिद्धिम् द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of सिद्धि

  • सिद्धिः f. [सिध्-क्तिन्] 1 Accomplishment, fulfilment, completion, perfection, complete attainment (of an object); विरोधि सिद्धेरिति कर्तुमुद्यतः Ki.14.8; क्रियासिद्धिः सत्त्वे भवति महतां नोपकरणे Subhāṣ. -2 Success, prosperity, welfare, well-being. -3 Establishment, settlement. -4 Substantiation, demonstration, proof, indisputable conclusion. -5 Validity (of a rule, law &c.). -6 Decision; adjudication, settlement (of a law-suit); कार्यकारणसिद्धौ च प्रसन्ना बुद्धिरव्यया Rām.4.18.47; तस्मान्न लेखसामर्थ्यात् सिद्धिरैकान्तिकी मता Śukra. 4.726. -7 Certainty, truth, accuracy, correctness.-8 Payment, liquidation (of a debt); अधमर्णार्थसिद्ध्यर्थमुत्तमर्णेन चोदितः Ms.8.47. -9 Preparing, cooking (as of drugs &c.). -1 The solution of a problem. -11 Readiness. -12 Complete purity or sanctification. -13 A superhuman power of faculty; (these faculties are eight:– अणिमा लघिमा प्राप्तिः प्राकाम्यं महिमा तथा । ईशित्वं च वशित्वं च तथा कामावसायिता ॥). -14 The acquisition of supernatural powers by magical means. -15 Marvellous skill or capability. -16 Good effect or result. -17 Final beatitude, final emancipation. -18 Understanding, intellect. -19 Concealment, vanishing, making oneself invisible. -2 A magical shoe (supposed to convey the wearer wherever he likes). -21 A kind of Yoga. -22 N. of Durgā. -23 Complete knowledge. -24 Advantage, use, good effect. -25 N. of Śiva (m. in this sense). -26 Efficacy, efficiency. -27 Becoming intelligible (as sounds or words). -28 (In Rhet.) The pointing out in the same person of various good qualities.

(6) अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् = अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः (ताम्)

  • अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः = Trouble, which be sighted when seeing harms

(7) उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ = उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धिः (ताम्)

  • उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धिः = Success, achievement, fulfilment, problem-resolution, which be sighted when seeking solution.

(8) नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता

  • नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता – नीतिना विधिना च प्रवृत्ता (ताम्)
  • नीतिः – f. 1 Guidance, direction, management. -2 Conduct, manner of conducting oneself, behaviour, course of action. -3 propriety, decorum. -4 Policy, prudence, wisdom, right course; आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः N.5.13; R.13.69; Ku.1.22. -5 A plan, contriv- ance, scheme; भूयः स्नेहविचेष्टितैर्मृगदृशो नीतस्य कोटिं पराम् Māl.6.3. -6 Politics, political science, statesmanship, political wisdom; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3; दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् Bg.1.38. -7 Righteousness, moral conduct, morality. -8 The science of morality, morals, ethics, moral philosophy; निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु Bh.2.83. -9 Acquirement, acquisition. -1 Giving, offering, presenting. -11 Relation, support.
  • विधिः – [विधा-कि] 1 Doing, performance, practice, an act or action; ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसनविधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य Bh.3.41; योगविधि R.8.22; अस्याः सर्गविधौ V.1.8; लेखाविधि Māl. 1.35. -2 Method, manner, way, means, mode; निः- साराल्पफलानि ये त्वविधिना वाञ्छन्ति दण्डोद्यमैः Pt.1.376. -3 A rule, commandment, any precept which enjoins something for the first time (as distinguished from नियम and परिसंख्या q. v.); विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ; चिकीर्षाकृतिसाध्यत्व- हेतुधीविषयो विधिः; वहति विधिहुतं या हविः Ś.1.1. -4 A sacred precept or rule, ordinance, injunction, law, a sacred command, religious commandment (opp. अर्थवाद which means ‘an explanatory statement coupled with legends and illustrations’; see अर्थवाद); प्रवृत्तिपरं वाक्यं विधिः, as ज्योतिष्टोमेन स्वर्गकामो यजेत; श्रद्धा वित्तं विधिश्चेति त्रितयं तत् समागतम् Ś.7.29; R.2.16. -5 Any religious act or ceremony, a rite, ceremony; स चेत् स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्तरायो भवसि च्युतो विधिः R.3.45;1.34. -6 Behaviour, conduct. -7 Condition; V.4. -8 Creation, formation; सामग्ऱ्यविधौ Ku.3.28; कल्याणी विधिषु विचित्रता विधातुः Ki.7.7. -9 The creator. -1 Fate, destiny, luck; विधौ वामारम्भे मम समुचितैषा परिणतिः Māl.4.4. -11The food of elephants. -12 Time. -13 A physician. -14 N. of Viṣṇu. -15 Use, application. -16 A means, expedient for; अक्षरं गन्तुमनसो विधिं वक्ष्यामि शीघ्रगम् Mb.12. 236.13. -17 Any act, action.
  • प्रवृत्ताम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of प्रवृत्ता
    • प्रवृत्त p. p. 1 Begun, commenced, proceeded with. -2 Set in; अचिरप्रवृत्तं ग्रीष्मसमयमधिकृत्य Ś.1. -3 Engaged in, occupied with. -4 Going to, bound for. -5 Fixed, settled, determined. -6 Unimpeded, undisputed. -7 Round. -8 Flowing, running; प्रवृत्तमुदकं वायु सर्वं वानेयमाश्रयेत् Mb.14.46.12. -9 Circulated (as a book). -1 Offending, hurting. -त्तः A round ornament. -त्तम् An action, undertaking.
  • नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् = endorsed or justified by logic and practice.

(9) पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of पुरःस्फुरन्ती

  • पुरःस्फुरन्ती – पुरः (पुरतः) स्फुरन्ती
    • पुरः – पुरस् ind. 1 Before (in time or space), in front, in the presence of, before the eyes of (by itself or with gen.); अमुं पुरः पश्यसि देवदारुम् R.2.36; तव प्रसादस्य पुरस्तु संपदः Ś.7.3; तस्य स्थित्वा कथमपि पुरः Me.3; Ku.4.3; Amaru.43; often used with कृ, गम्, धा, भू (see below). -2 In the east, from the east. -3 Eastward.
    • स्फुरन्ती – स्त्री. of स्फुरत् which is by शतृ-प्रत्यय to धातुः स्फुर्
    • स्फुर्  6 P. (स्फुरति, स्फुरित) 1 (a) To throb, palpitate (as eyes &c.); शान्तमिदमाश्रमपदं स्फुरति च बाहुः कुतः फल- मिहास्य Ś.1.16; स्फुरता वामकेनापि दाक्षिण्यमवलम्ब्यते Māl. 1.8; अभिमतफलशंसी चारु पुस्फोर बाहुः Bk.1.27; स्फुरति हृदयं वाहय रथम् Pratimā 3.1. (b) To shake, tremble, quiver, vibrate in general; स्फुरदधरनासापुटतया U.1.29; 6.33. -2 To twitch, struggle, become agitated; हतं पृथिव्यां करुणं स्फुरन्तम् Rām. -3 To start, dart, spring for- ward; पुस्फुरुर्वृषभाः परम् Bk.14.46. -4 To spring back, rebound (as a bow.). -5 To spring or break forth, to shoot out, spring up, rise forth; धर्मतः स्फुरति निर्मलं यशः Ku.3.68. -6 To start into view, become visible or manifest, appear clearly, become displayed; मुखात् स्फुरन्तीं को हर्तुमिच्छति हरेः परिभूय दंष्ट्राम् Mu.1.8; रचितरुचिरभूषां दृष्टिमोषे प्रदोषे स्फुरति निरवसादां कापि राधां जगाद Gīt.11. -7 To flash, scintillate, sparkle, glitter, gleam, shine; स्फुरतु कुचकुम्भयोरुपरि मणिमञ्जरी रञ्जयतु तव हृदयदेशम् Gīt.1; (तया) स्फुरत्प्रभामण्डलया चकाशे Ku.1.24; R.3.6;5.51; Me.15,27. -8 To shine, distinguish oneself, become eminent; जातस्तु गण्यते सो$त्र यः स्फुरत्यन्वयाधिकम् Pt.1.27. -9 To flash on the mind, rush suddenly into memory. -1 To go tremulously. -11 To bruise, destroy. -Caus. (स्फारयति-ते, स्फोरयति-ते) 1 To cause to throb or vibrate. -2 To cause to shine, irradiate. -3 To throw, cast. -With अप to shine forth or out. अभि1 to spread or be diffused, expand. -2 to become known.
  • पुरःस्फुरन्ती = springing up, arising, happening, becoming visible, becoming manifest in front.

(10) मेधाविनः – पुँ. प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of मेधाविन्

  • मेधाविन् – a. [मेधा-विनि] 1 Very intelligent, having a good memory. -2 Intelligent, wise, endowed with intellect; मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरः स्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति Pt. 1.61; मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः Bg.18.1.-m. 1 A learned man, sage, scholar. -2 A parrot. -3 An intoxicating drink.
  • Note मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ) 1 Retentive faculty, retentiveness (of memory); धीर्धारणावती मेधा Ak. -2 Intellect, intelligence in general; यत् सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता Bṛi. Up.1.5.1; Bg. 1.34; आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् Ms.3.263; Y. 3.173. -3 A form of Sarasvathī. -4 A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.).

(11) Putting together meanings obtained above,

  1. अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् = Trouble, which be sighted when seeing wrong conduct, approach or mismatch
  2. उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ च = Success, achievement, fulfilment, problem-resolution, which be sighted when seeking solution.
  3. नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् = endorsed or justified by logic and practice.
  4. पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव = arising, happening, becoming manifest in front.
  5. मेधाविनः = wise, endowed with intellect
  6. दर्शयन्ति = show.
  7. The wise show trouble(s), which be sighted when seeing harms, problem-resolution(s), which be sighted when seeking solution. (They show these) endorsed or justified by logic and practice and as if the troubles or problem-resolutions are arising, happening, becoming manifest in front.

(12) As can be noted, this सुभाषितम् is quoted in meanings of various words in Apte’s dictionary. There the reference is given as Pt.1.61 i.e. पञ्चतन्त्रे (1) मित्रभेदे. In a पञ्चतन्त्रम् book with me with Hindi translation by श्री भारतीय योगी, 1975-edition published by संस्कृति संस्थान, बरेली, this सुभाषितम् reads अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम् | मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव वर्णयन्ति ||

(13) Since words in this सुभाषितम् have various shades of meanings, there can be various interpretations. For example, a simple example of अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः can be a student going by a wrong approach, when solving any problem in any subject. He is bound to fail. He is bound to face the विपत्तिः of failure, because his approach is wrong. The wise would know has the संदर्शन that the approach itself is wrong, अपाय going awry. If the procedure विधि is correct and also if there are no mistake at any step, i.e. if नीति is also correct, then सिद्धि problem-resolution will follow.

(14) One may face विपत्ति or सिद्धि, depending upon whether one’s company is अपायसंदर्शनजा or उपायसंदर्शनजा and नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता.

(15) This सुभाषितम् also brings to mind two मन्त्र-s in ईशावास्योपनिषत् – विद्यां चाविद्याञ्च यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह | अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययामृतमश्नुते || also संभूतिञ्च विनाशञ्च यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह | विनाशेन मृत्युं तीर्त्वा संभूत्यामृतमश्नुते || Wisdom of the wise is complete only when they are able to see both अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् and उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌.

(16) In उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनसतत्त्वदर्शिनः || (गीता 4-34) two requirements are specified for one who has to be eligible to give उपदेश. He must be ज्ञानी and also तत्त्वदर्शी. The words पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति in this सुभाषितम् seem to exactly connote this.

(17) This सुभाषितम् seems to fit well to astrologers. A good astrologer may see both अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् and उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ as if a motion picture is unfolding पुरःस्फुरदिव in front of him. He may not divulge it all, though, because he has to abide by some unwritten नीतिविधिप्रवृत्तम् code about how much to divulge and how.

(18) In मित्रभेदविभाग in पञ्चतन्त्रम्, this सुभाषितम् is in a dialogue between करकट and मदनक. It is मदनक, who says this in response to करकट’s curiosity, “What will you say, when you go there ?” This सुभाषितम् is an advice that one should be alert at all times and must be a good judge of अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः and उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धि of one and all, who may be present in a given instance. One must have a good judgement of what elements are favorable and what are antagonistic and strategize नीतिविधिप्रवृत्तम् putting forth one’s own thoughts with absolute clarity पुरःस्फुरदिव. Ambiguity is itself अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः. To win a debate good communication skills prove to be उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धि.

So many shades of meaning , so many interpretations and the सुभाषितम् seems relevant in so many contexts !

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

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