Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वाविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२२) पाठः ।

Pun श्लेषः is a very interesting literary ornament अर्थालङ्कारः   of any language. This cannot be more true for a language as Sanskrit. I came across the following one in a post by Dr. Subramanian Swamy on his Facebook page.

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् |

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् ||

When doing search on the internet on this verse, I came across some interesting mention at https://www.facebook.com/INDClub/posts/995595803792674 There it is said that “… In 1982, Gurupad K. Hegde wrote an entire book titled “Pun in Sanskrit Literature”. (published by Mysore College and has more than 300 examples. …”

Since both lines are identical, the pun or difference in meaning would come from splitting the words differently, i.e. by different पदच्छेद-s.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम्

(2) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम्

With these two पदच्छेद-s, the syntax will also be different.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज |

(2) तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज |

For deciphering the meanings, we need to focus mainly on four words अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रम् मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रम्

(1) अज्ञानदायकम् –

  • (1-1) न ज्ञानम् इति अज्ञानम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-2) दायकम् – दा-धातुतः ण्वुल्-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् यद्ददाति तद्दायकम्
  • (1-3) अज्ञानस्य दायकम् इति अज्ञानदायकम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-4) अज्ञानदायकम् = That which causes unintelligence

(2) तमाखुपत्रम् –

  • (2-1) तमाखोः पत्रम् इति तमाखुपत्रम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (2-2) तमाखोः – “तमाखु” (= tobacco) इति नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-3) पत्रम् – “पत्र” (= leaf) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-4) तमाखुपत्रम् = tobacco-leaf

(3) मा-ज्ञानदायकम् – माज्ञानदायक-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (3-1) मायाः ज्ञानम् इति माज्ञानम् (पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुषः अथवा षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-2) माज्ञानस्य दायकः माज्ञानदायकः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-3) मायाः – मा (= Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (3-4) माज्ञानदायकः =
    • (3-4-1) One who provides knowledge of or about (षष्ठी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati
    • (3-4-2) One, who provides knowledge (as available from (पञ्चमी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati

(4) आखुपत्रम् – आखुपत्र-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (4-1) आखुः पत्रं यस्य सः आखुपत्रः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (4-2) आखुः = a mouse
  • (4-3) पत्रम् = vehicle
  • (4-4) आखुपत्रः = one, who has a mouse as his vehicle i.e. गणेशः

(5) The सुभाषितम् is said to have the context of an incident between a king and his well-wishing minister.

  • The king had become addicted to chewing tobacco-leaf. The minister knew that that is not good for the king. So, he said to the king राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज Do not chew the tobacco-leaf, which causes loss of intelligence or which brings to you a blemish of being unintelligent
  • The king agreed, but asked, “What can I do ?” The minister suggested राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज Engage yourself in singing the praise of Ganesh, who provides knowledge.

(6) It was possible for the minister to use the same words, but convey two different meanings, because Sanskrit affords great freedom from syntax.

(7) The two different meanings would get more appropriately conveyed by difference in intonation.

  • In the first instance तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् would have the word तमाखुपत्रं being said in one continuous utterance.
  • In the second instance the same word तमाखुपत्रं would rather be pronounced as तम् आखुपत्रं with clear split of the संधि.

(8) This brings forth some significance of Vedic mantras often written with diacritic marks, called as स्वरांकनम् In the present case,

  • for the first instance the तमाखुपत्रं may rather have a short vertical line, superscript between the letters मा and खु, rather, after the letter मा, indicating some extended pronunciation of मा. So the word would be written as तमा|खुपत्रं
  • for the second instance apart from clear split as तम् आखुपत्रं, there could be an underscore below the letter त suggesting a little stress on this letter, which will also help the split pronunciation. So it may rather be written as म् आखुपत्रं.

(9) Even when writing माज्ञानदायकम्

  • for the first instance, where it is to be interpreted as संधि of मा + अज्ञानदायकम् one may write it with an अवग्रह (ऽ) hence as माऽज्ञानदायकम्
  • for the second instance, where it is intended to be a compound word, one would write it as a single word माज्ञानदायकम्.
  • Note, संधि is compulsory when composing a compound word. In a sentence, it is optional. This is very succinctly clarified in a verse संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

(10) Using स्वरांकनम् would rob the verse of the intended pun. Using the अवग्रह would also rob the pun from the write-up, though the pronunciation would be the same.

(11) Use of स्वरांकनम् or of अवग्रह then is a matter of discretion विवक्षा. When pun is intended, the discretion विवक्षा should rather be not to use them.

(12) Statements of philosophical, eternal truths would have no pun, no double meaning, only one meaning. Hence स्वरांकनम् is very important for such statements as in Vedic literature. स्वरांकनम् is related to pronunciation, related to correct pronunciation, and that is how Vedic literature is said to have been passed on and preserved down thousands of years, we must acknowledge the significance of this oral tradition that we have the Vedic literature till date even though great libraries of Nalanda and Takshshila were burnt down, where, they say, the embers were burning for nearly four weeks (so huge was the store of knowledge !)

(13) Knowledge acquired should be retained in the mind and in the memory. That is the essence of the oral tradition. God has provided human mind with incalculable amount of memory storage, that too with great retrievability. ऋषि-s and मुनि-s had realized that and put a great faith in that and very thoughtfully devised the teacher-disciple scheme of education (गुरु-शिष्य-परंपरा), rather than the present day textbook scheme of education.

(14) Coming back to the verse, most charming part is that two statements, grammatically opposite of each other, one in the affirmative and the other its negative, तमाखुपत्रं मा भज and तमाखुपत्रं भज are both valid !

(15) The verb भज is also interesting. The धातु is, भज् having क्त-कृदन्त as भक्त. This धातु भज् has as many as 20+ shades of meaning as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • भज् I. 1 U. (भजति-ते but usually Atm. only; बभाज, भेजे, अभाक्षीत्, अभक्त, भक्ष्यति-ते, भक्त) 1 (a) To share, distribute, divide; भजेरन् पैतृकं रिक्थम् Ms.9.14; न तत्पुत्रै- र्भजेत् सार्धम् 29,119. (b) To assign, allot, apportion; गायत्रीमग्नये$भजत् Ait. Br. -2 To obtain for oneself, share in, partake of; पित्र्यं वा भजते शीलम् Ms.1.59. -3 To accept, receive; चामुण्डे भगवति मन्त्रसाधनादावुद्दिष्टामुपनिहितां भजस्व पूजाम् Māl.5.25. -4 (a) To resort to, betake oneself to, have recourse to; शिलातलं भेजे K.179; मातर्लक्ष्मि भजस्व कंचिदपरम् Bh.3.64; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमप- कृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5.1; Bv.1.83; R.17.28. (b) To practise, follow, cultivate, observe; तृष्णां छिन्धि भज क्षमाम् Bh.2.77; भेजे धर्ममनातुरः R.1.21; Mu.3.1. -5 To enjoy, possess, have, suffer, experience, entertain; विधुरपि भजतेतरां कलङ्कम् Bv.1.74; न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् Bh.2.8; व्यक्तिं भजन्त्यापगाः Ś.7.8; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43; Māl.3.9; U.1.35. -6 To wait or attend upon, serve; (दोग्ध्रीं) भेजे भुजोच्छिन्नरिपुर्निषण्णाम् R.2.23; Pt.1.181; Mk.1.32. -7 To adore, honour, worship (as a god). -8 To choose, select, prefer, accept; सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते M.1.2. -9 To enjoy carnally; वसोर्वीर्योत्पन्नामभजत मुनिर्मत्स्यतनयाम् Pt.4.5. -1 To be attached or devoted to; आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं विद्याविहीनमकुलीनमसंस्कृतं वा Pt.1.35. -11 To take possession of. -12 To fall to the lot of any one. -13 To grant, bestow. -14 To supply, furnish (Ved.). -15 To favour; ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् Bg.4.11. -16 To decide in favour of, declare for. -17 To love, court (affection). -18 To apply oneself to, be engaged in. -19 To cook, dress (food). -20 To employ, engage. (The meanings of this root are variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected:– e. g. निद्रां भज् to go to sleep; मूर्छां भज् to swoon; भावं भज् to show love for &c. &c.). -Caus. 1 To divide. -2 To put to flight, pursue. -3 To cook, dress. -II. 1.U. (भाजयति-ते, regarded by some as the caus. of भज् I) 1 To cook. -2 To give.
  • Almost each of the 20+ meanings can be applied in the interpretation of the verse. Does not that make the verse such a multifaceted pum ?
    • Especially I think in तमाखुपत्रं मा भज the meaning “Do not become subservient to it” Is not habit of eating तमाखुपत्रं compelling, that one becomes slave of that habit ?
    • The poet seems to have used the verb भज very pleadingly when saying तमाखुपत्रं मा भज. He is not just saying “do not chew the tobacco”. The minister does not want the king to become a slave of that bad habit, which is as good as losing one’s discretionary intelligence. That is what bad habits are अज्ञानदायक. They rob you of your discretionary intelligence.
    • The second line suggests, rather recommends a noble engagement, a perfect antidote to bad habits.

(16) The verse is not just a sage advice given by a minister to his king. It is a caution and advice to all of us to desist from such dangerous things as tobacco. That is why the verse is a सुभाषितम् !

शुभमस्तु !!


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 120

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 120

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२०) पाठः ।

In the Appendix in a book on Vedic Mathematics, I came across the following श्लोक. By being in a book on mathematics, the श्लोक certainly has mathematical connotation. Before getting into that, let us have a look at the श्लोक.

गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग |

खलजीवितखाताव गलहालारसंधर ||

The word गोपी at the beginning suggests reference to Lord krishna. The last word गलहालारसंधर (गल = throat or neck हालारसंधर → धर= having , wearing हालारस = poison, hence गलहालारसंधर = wearing a snake around his neck) suggests Lord Shiva. So, the श्लोक is a prayer to Lord Krishna and to Lord Shiva. Can we attempt deciphering the complete meaning(s) in our usual style ?

Before that, however, let me quote the explanation by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः, which he posted on March 17, 2011, at the forum https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/samskrita/pWNFDE7apiw/PqpLP9G9aO4J

Before proceeding it ought to be noted that the version adopted by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः reads गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग in place of गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग. With this difference in the version, explanation by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः reads as –

कृष्णपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Krishna) –

गोपीभाग्य = गोपीनां गोपस्त्रीणां भाग्य ।

मधुव्रात = मधुदैत्यस्य व्याध नाशक ।

शृङ्गशो दधिसन्धिग = शृङ्गेण (शृङ्गेण कृतेन) अभिषेकेन दधिसन्धिं प्राप्त दधिलिप्त ।


मधुव्रातशृङ्गश = क्षीरसमूहशिखरे शेते इति ।

उदधिसन्धिग = समुद्रमन्थनकाले कूर्मात्मनोदधिं प्राप्त ।

खलजीवितखात = खलानां जीवितानि खातानि येन , खलजीवितेभ्यः खनित्रमिवेति वा ।

गलहालारसन्धर = गले हालारसं यस्य तं सर्पं कालियं धरतीति ।

अव = रक्ष ।

शिवपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Shiva)

गोपीभाग्य = गोप्या जगद्रक्षिकाया उमाया भाग्य ।

मधुव्रातशृङ्गश = मधु क्षीरं तस्य व्रातस्समूहः तत्सन्निभे धवले शृङ्गे कैलासशिखरे शेते इति मधुव्रातशृङ्गश ।

उदधिसन्धिग = समुद्रमन्थनकाले । तत्रैव मोहिन्या मोहितोऽयमभवदिति प्रसिद्धम् ।

खलजीवितखात = खलानां जीवितानि खातानि येन , खलजीवितेभ्यः खनित्रमिवेति वा ।

गलहालारसन्धर = गले हालारसं धारयतीति गलहालारसन्धर ।


गलस्थितविषे रसं स्नेहं धारयतीति । अत एव न तत्त्यक्तमद्यावधि ।


गलहालान्सर्पान्रसेन धारयतीति ।

अव = रक्ष ।

We need not think that above explanation by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः preempts all analysis. Rather, it gives enough of good hints for proceeding.

First of all, all words in the श्लोक – गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग, खलजीवितखाताव गलहालारसंधर end with अ. This ending is typical of सम्बोधन-प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचनम् of अकारान्त पुँल्लिङ्गी words. If this is so, which is the verb ? श्रीमल्ललितालालितः has pointed out that the verb is अव = रक्ष.

This guides us to  take अव as a distinct word, contained in खलजीवितखाताव to be split as खलजीवितखात + अव

But then there are different पदच्छेद-s of the long compilation of 16 letters in the first line of the श्लोक, गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग written as a single word. But as detailed by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः, this can be split variously.

Under कृष्णपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Krishna) the splitting is done as गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग =

  • गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात शृङ्गशो (i.e.शृङ्गशः) दधिसंधिग or
  • गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रातशृङ्गश उदधिसंधिग

Under शिवपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Shiva) the splitting is done as

गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग = गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रातशृङ्गश उदधिसंधिग This splitting is same as the second splitting under कृष्णपक्षे. But the meaning is different, when considering that the deity is Lord Shiva.

However if the version in the book “Vedic Mathematics” is to be considered, the splitting would be still different.

If गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातशृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग is to be split as गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात शृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग, one may think that शृङ्गिशोदधिसंधिग should itself be split as शृङ्गिश उदधिसंधिग. There is a small problem in splitting it like this. The problem is that शृङ्गिश should rather be शृङ्गीश which lends itself to be शृङ्गी + ईश (or शृङ्गि + ईश = शृङ्गीश). शृङ्गी or शृङ्गि means one, who has horn(s). The root word is शृङ्गिन्.

Anyway, शिवः is शृङ्गीश because he has the bull नन्दी as his career. कृष्ण is also शृङ्गीश because he was a cowherd.

The पदच्छेद-s of the second version would then be –

गोपी-भाग्य मधु-व्रात शृङ्गीश उदधिसंधिग |

खल-जीवित-खात अव गल-हालारसं-धर |

To proceed sequentially, first, as usual analysis of specific words विशिष्टानां शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि –

१) गोपीभाग्य  – “गोपीभाग्य” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य सम्बोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • गां पालयति इति गोपः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) | स्त्रीलिङ्गेन गोपी |
  • गोप्याः भाग्यम् येन सः गोपीभाग्यः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • भाग्यम् – a. [भज्-ण्यत् कुत्वम्] 1 To be divided, divisible. -2 Entitled to a share. -3 Forming a part. -4 Subject to fractional deduction. -5 Lucky, fortunate. -ग्यम् 1 Fate, destiny, luck, fortune; स्त्रियश्चरित्रं पुरुषस्य भाग्यं देवो न जानाति कुतो मनुष्यः Subhāṣ; oft. in pl.; सा निन्दन्ती स्वानि भाग्यानि बाला Ś.5.3. -2 Good fortune or luck; R.3.13. -3 Prosperity, affluence; भाग्येष्वनुत्सेकिनी Ś.4.18. -4 Happiness, welfare. (भाग्येन fortunately, happily)
  • गोपीभाग्यः = (कृष्णपक्षे) गोपीनां गोपस्त्रीणां भाग्यम् अनेन इति गोपीभाग्यः | Note, here गोपी is explained as गोपस्त्री. Fate and fortune of many गोपी-s was linked with कृष्ण. Hence कृष्ण is गोपीभाग्यः. In a war, many गोपी-s became widows, some 16000 of them. कृष्ण married them all and redeemed their honor.
  • गोपीभाग्यः = (शिवपक्षे) गोप्याः जगद्रक्षिकायाः उमायाः भाग्यम् अनेन इति गोपीभाग्यः । Note, here गोप्याः has been explained as जगद्रक्षिकायाः उमायाः. The consideration is that the world जगत् is a cow गो. उमा is जगद्रक्षिका hence गोपी. Her fortune is linked with शिव. Hence शिव is गोपीभाग्यः.

२) मधु-व्रात –

  • मधु = a. (-धु or -ध्वी f.) [मन्यत इति मधु, मन्-उ नस्य धः Uṇ.1.18) Sweet, pleasant, agreeable, delightful; आपापयति गोविन्दपादपद्मासवं मधु Bhāg.1.18.12; त्वया सह निवत्स्यामि वनेषु मधुगन्धिषु U.2.18. -f. N. of a plant (जीवा, जीवन्ती). -n. -(धु) 1 Honey; एतास्ता मधुनो धाराश्च्योतन्ति सविषास्त्वयि U.3.34; मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम्. -2 The juice or nectar of flowers; मधु द्विरेफः कुसुमैकपात्रे पपौ प्रियां स्वामनुवर्तमानः Ku.3.36; देहि मुखकमलमधुपानम् Gīt.1. -3 A sweet intoxicating drink, wine, spirituous liquor; विनयन्ते स्म तद्योधा मधुभिर्विजयश्रमम् R.4.65; Ṛs. 1.3. -4 Water. -5 Sugar. -6 Sweetness. -7 Anything sweet. -8 Ved. Soma juice. -9 Milk or anything produced from milk (Ved.). -1 A beehive; केचित्- पीत्वापविध्यन्ति मधूनि मधुपिङ्गलाः Rām.5.62.1. -11 Beewax; Ms.1.88. -m. (धुः) 1 The spring or vernal season; मधुरया मधुबोधितमाधवी Śi.6.2; क्व नु ते हृदयंगमः सखा कुसुमायोजितकार्मुको मधुः Ku.4.24,25;3.1,3. -2 The month of Chaitra; भास्करस्य मधुमाधवाविव R.11.7; मासे मधौ मधुरकोकिलभृङ्गनादै रामा हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् Ṛs.6. 25. -3 N. of a demon killed by Viṣṇu. -4 N. of another demon, father of Rāvaṇa and killed by Śatrughna. -5 The Aśoka tree. -6 N. of king Kārtavīrya.
  • व्रात –
  • This word is not detailed in Apte’s dictionary
  • At  http://spokensanskrit.de/index.php?tinput=vrAta&direction=SE&script=HK&link=yes&beginning= one gets meanings of व्रात = assemblage, guild, association, swarm, multitude, flock, troop, group
  • Hence मधु-व्रात = मधुनः व्रातः or मधूनां व्रातः = (one who is) assemblage of all things pleasant and sweet.
  • One finds this word मधु-व्रात having been interpreted as one, who killed demon मधु. Well, मधु certainly is name of a demon. But the meaning of व्रात does not fit in here.

Apart from deciphering the words गोपीभाग्य and मधुव्रात separately, there can be an option to decipher them together, i.e. by considering गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात as one single compound word.

१ तथा २) गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात = “गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य सम्बोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • मधु इव गोपीभाग्यम् इति गोपीभाग्यमधु (कर्मधारयः) अथवा
  • गोपीभाग्यमेव मधु इति गोपीभाग्यमधु (कर्मधारयः)
  • गोपीभाग्यमधूनां व्रातः इति गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातः = One, who connotes a horde of sweetnesses (pleasantries) of good fortune of गोपी(s).
  • कृष्ण or शिव can be गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रातः for us also if we do devotion to them as ardently as the गोपी(s).

As discussed above the next phrase शृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग or शृङ्गीशोदधिसंधिग needs to be deciphered for different options, viz.

  • शृङ्गशो दधिसंधिग i.e. शृङ्गशः दधिसंधिग
  • (मधुव्रात)-शृङ्गश उदधिसंधिग – Here the word शृङ्गश has been compounded with मधुव्रात as मधुव्रातशृङ्गश
  • शृङ्गीश उदधिसंधिग

Proceeding one by one

३ अ) शृङ्गशः = शृङ्ग + शः where शः (शस्)  is a suffix, meaning “by means of”, “in the manner of” or simply “by”, as a substitute of तृतीया विभक्ति.

  • आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोषे – शस् 1 A technical name for the termination of the acc. plural. -2 A Taddhita affix forming adverbs from nouns, especially from numerals; as द्विशः, शतशः, बहुशः &c.
  • शृङ्गम् – (आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोषे) – [शॄ-गन् पृषो˚ मुम् ह्रस्वश्च Uṇ.1.123] 1 A horn; वन्यैरिदानीं महिषैस्तदम्भः शृङ्गाहतं क्रोशति दीर्घिकाणाम् R.16.13; गाहन्तां महिषां निपानसलिलं शृङ्गैर्मुहुस्ताडितम् Ś.2.6. -2 The top or summit of a mountain; अद्रेः शृङ्गं हरति पवनः किंस्विदित्युन्मुखीभिः Me.14,54.; Ki.5.42; R.13.26. -3 The top of a building, turret. -4 Elevation, height; रक्षो- लोकस्य सर्वस्य कः शृङ्गं छेत्तुमिच्छति Rām.3.31.43. -5 Lordship, sovereignty, supremacy, eminence; शृङ्गं स दृप्तविनयाधिकृतः परेषामत्युच्छ्रितं न ममृषे न तु दीर्धमायुः R.9.62 (where the word means a ‘horn’ also). -6 A cusp or horn of the moon. -7 Any peak, point or projection in general. -8 A horn (of a buffalo &c.) used for blowing. -9 A syringe; वर्णोदकैः काञ्चनशृङ्गमुक्तैः R.16.7. -10 Excess of love, rising of desire. -11 A mark, sign. -12 A lotus. -13 A fountain of water. -14 Pride, self- respect; अवाप्य पृथिवीं कृत्स्नां न ते शृङ्गमवर्धत Mb.3.3.1 (com. शृङ्गं प्रभुत्वाभिमानः). -15 The stick (काण्ड) of an arrow with a horn-like knob; शृङ्गमग्निर्बभूवास्य भल्लः सोमो विशांपते Mb.8.34.18. -16 A particular military array; Mb.6. -17 The female breast.
  • शृङ्गशः = As detailed by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः, शृङ्गशः = शृङ्गेण (शृङ्गेण कृतेन). Taking clue from शृङ्गम् = 10 Excess of love, rising of desire, we can interpret शृङ्गशः = heartily.

३ आ ) (मधुव्रात)शृङ्गश = श्रीमल्ललितालालितः detailed this as मधु क्षीरं तस्य व्रातस्समूहः तत्सन्निभे धवले शृङ्गे कैलासशिखरे शेते इति मधुव्रातशृङ्गश ।

  • मधु = क्षीरं is correct (see above, meaning of मधु -9 Milk or anything produced from milk (Ved.).
  • मधुव्रातशृङ्गश इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मधुनः व्रातः इति मधुव्रातः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • मधुव्रातसमं शृङ्गम् मधुव्रातशृङ्गम् (उपमान-पूर्वपद-कर्मधारयः)
    • मधुव्रातशृङ्गे शेते इति मधुव्रातशृङ्गश (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः)
    • In deciphering मधुव्रातशृङ्गम् as मधुव्रातसमं शृङ्गम् the consideration has been मधुव्रातसमं = धवलम् \
    • In deciphering मधुव्रातशृङ्गश as मधुव्रातशृङ्गे शेते the letter श is connoted to be standing for शेते. One wonders whether there are any other examples of श standing for शेते.
    • मधुव्रातशृङ्ग is further interpreted to imply tops of Kailas mountain. In turn मधुव्रातशृङ्ग is interpreted to suggest Shiva, who rests on Kailas mountain.
    • शेते = शी (2 आ.) इति धातुः | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |
    • आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोशे – शी 2 Ā. (शेते, शयित; pass. शय्यते; desid. (शिशयिषते) 1 To lie, lie down, recline, rest; इतश्च शरणार्थिनः शिखरिणां गणाः शेरते Bh.2.76. -2 To sleep (fig. also); किं निःशङ्कं शेषे शेषे वयसः समागतो मृत्युः । अथवा सुखं शयीथा निकटे जागर्ति जाह्नवी जननी Bv.4.3; Bh.3.79; Ku.5.12. -3 To rest, repose. -Caus. (शाययति-ते) -1 To cause to sleep or lie down; पार्श्वे शायय रावणम् Bk.8.83. -2 To allow to rest or repose.
  • शृङ्गीश = “शृङ्गीश” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • शृङ्गस्य ईशः इति शृङ्गीशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) अथवा
    • शृङ्गिणः ईशः इति शृङ्गीशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • ईशः – आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोशे – ईश a. [ईश्-क] 1 Owning, possessing, sharing, master or lord of; see below. -2 One who is com- pletely master of anything. -3 Capable of (with gen.) -4 Powerful, supreme. -शः 1 A lord, master; with gen. or in comp.; कथंचिदीशा मनसां बभूवुः Ku.3.34 with great difficulty controlled (were masters of) their minds; so वागीश, सुरेश &c. -2 A husband. -3 A Rudra. -4 The number 11 (derived from the eleven Rudras). -5 N. of Śiva (as regent of the north-east quarter. -6 The Supreme god (परमेश्वर); व्यक्ताव्यक्तं भरते विश्वमीश- मीड्यम् Śevt. Up.1.8; प्रसादये त्वामहमीशमीड्यम् Bg.11.44. श्रीवत्सधामापररात्र ईशः Bhāg.6.8.22.
    • अत्र ईश् इति धातुः | आपटेवर्यस्य शब्दकोशे – ईश् 2 Ā. (ईष्टे, ईशाञ्चक्रे, ऐशिष्ट, ईशिता, ईशितुम्, ईशित) 1 To rule, be master of, govern, command (with gen.); नायं गात्राणामीष्टे K.312 v.l.; अर्थानामीशिषे त्वं वयमपि च गिरा- मीश्महे यावदर्थम् Bh.3.3; sometimes with acc.; इमाँल्लोका- नीशत ईशनीभिः Śvet. Up.3.1 (also used in the Veda with gen. of an infinitive or loc. of an abstract noun). -2 To be able, have power; expressed by ‘can’; माधुर्यमीष्टे हरिणान् ग्रहीतुम् R.18.13,14.38; कमिवेशते रमयितुं न गुणाः Ki.6.24; U.7.4; Śi.1.38; Māl.1.13. -3 To act like a master, allow. -4 To own, possess. -5 To belong to.
    • शृङ्गीश = Lord of mountain. OR Lord of those having horns.
      • Because of the episode of Govardhan mountain, Krishna merits the adoration शृङ्गीश = Lord of mountain. Because of his abode in Kailash Shiva is well-acknowledged शृङ्गीश = Lord of mountains
      • As Gopala, Krishna merits the adoration शृङ्गीश = Lord of those having horns. Being master of Nandi, Shiva is certainly शृङ्गीश = Lord of those having horns.

In शृङ्गशोदधिसंधिग or शृङ्गीशोदधिसंधिग there are the parts दधिसंधिग or उदधिसंधिग. Let us study them sequentially.

४ अ) दधिसंधिग = “दधिसंधिग” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • दधिना (सह) सन्धिः इति दधिसन्धिः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • दधिसन्धिं गच्छति इति दधिसन्धिगः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • दधिना – दधि इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • दधि n. [दध्-इन्] 1 Coagulated milk, thick sour milk; क्षीरं दधिभावेन परिणमते Ś.B; दध्योदनः &c. -2 Turpentine. -3 A garment
  • दध् 1 Ā. (दधते) 1 To hold. -2 To have, possess. -3 To give, present.
  • सन्धिम् – संधि-इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च | संधिः 1 Union, junction, combination, connection; संधये सरला सूची वक्रा छेदाय कर्तरी Subhāṣ.; Me.6. -2 A compact, an agreement. -3 Alliance, league, friend- ship, peace, treaty of peace (one of the six expedients to be used in foreign politics); कति प्रकाराः संधीनां भवन्ति H.4; (the several kinds are described in H.4.16- 125); शत्रुणा न हि संदध्यात् सुश्लिष्टेनापि संधिना H.1.85. -4 A joint, articulation (of the body); तुरगानुधावनकाण्डितसंधेः Ś.2. -5 A fold (of a garment). -6 A breach, hole, chasm. -7 Especially a mine, chasm or opening made by thieves in a wall or underneath a building; संधिं छित्त्वा तु ये चौर्यं रात्रौ कुर्वन्ति तस्कराः Ms.9.276; वृक्षवाटिका- परिसरे संधिं कृत्वा प्रविष्टोऽस्मि मध्यमकम् Mk.3. -8 Separation, division. -9 Euphony, euphonic junction or coalition (in gram.) -1 An interval, a pause. -11 A critical juncture. -12 An opportune moment. -13 A period at the expiration of each Yuga or age; त्रेताद्वापरयोः संधौ Mb.1.2.3. -14 A division or joint (in a drama); (they are five; see S. D.33-332); तौ संधिषु व्यञ्जितवृत्तिभेदम् Ku.7.91. -15 The vulva. -16 Distillation. -17 Land etc. donated for the worship of temple deities etc. (cf. Dr. Raghavan’s note on वृत्तिसंन्धिप्रतिपादकः Cholachampū p.1 “संधिः देवपूजार्थमतिसृष्टं तादृशं भूम्यादिकं संधिपदस्य द्रविडदेवालयशिलाशासनेषु तादृशेऽर्थे व्यवहारदर्शनात् ।”). -18 Contrivance, management; तस्य सावरणदृष्टसंधयः काम्यवस्तुषु नवेषु संगिनः R.19.16. -19 Twilight. -2 A seam. -21 The connecting link of a perpendicular (in mensuration). -22 The common side of double triangle.
  • संधा 3 U. 1 To join, bring togethr, unite, combine, put together, compound, mix; यानि उदकेन संधीयन्ते तानि भक्षणीयानि Kull. -2 (a) To treat with, form friendship or alliance with, make peace with; शंत्रुणा न हि संदध्यात् सुश्लिष्टेनापि संधिना H.1.88; Chāṇ.19; Kām.9.41. (b) To unite in friendship, reconcile, make a friend of; सकृद्दुष्टमपीष्टं यः पुनः संघातुमिच्छति Pt.2. 33. -3 To fix upon, direct towards; संदधे दृशमुदग्रतारकाम् R.11.69. -4 To fit to or place upon the bow (as a missile, arrow &c.); धनुष्यमोघं समधत्त बाणम् Ku.3.66; R.3.53;12.97. -5 To produce, cause; पर्याप्तं मयि रमणीय- डामरत्वं संधत्ते गगनतलप्रयाणवेगः Māl.5.3; संधत्ते भृशमरतिं हि सद्वियोगः Ki.5.51. -6 To hold out against, be a match for; शतमेको$पि संधत्ते प्राकारस्थो धनुर्धरः Pt.1.229. -7 To mend, repair, heal. -8 To inflict upon. -9 To grasp, support, take hold of. -1 To grant, yield. -11 To make good, atone for. -12 To contract, close up. -13 To approach, come near. -14 To prepare, make, com- pose. -15 To assist, aid. -16 To comprehend, conceive. -17 To possess, have. -18 To perform, do; स्वलीलया संदधतेऽव्ययात्मने Bhāg.7.8.41; वाङ्मात्रेणापि साहाय्यं मित्रादन्यो न संदधे Pt.2.12. -19 To employ, make use of, apply to use.
  • दधिसंधिग = one, who gets in contact (smeared) with the curds

४ आ) उदधिसंधिग = “उदधिसंधिग” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • उदधिना (सह) सन्धिः इति उदधिसन्धिः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • उदधिसन्धिं गच्छति इति उदधिसन्धिगः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • उदधिना – उदधि इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • उदधि – उदधिः See under 2. उदन्. → 2. उदन् n. [उन्द्-कनिन् P.VI.1.63] Water (usually occurring in compounds either at the beginning or at the end, and as an optional substitute for उदक after the acc. dual. It has no forms for the first five inflections. In comp. it drops its न्); e. g. उदधि, अच्छोद, क्षीरोद &c.  -धिः [उदकानि धीयन्तेऽत्र धा-कि उदादेशः] 1 the receptacle of waters, ocean; उदधेरिव निम्नगाशतेष्वभवन्नास्य विमानना क्वचित् R.8.8. -2 a cloud. -3 a lake, any large reservoir of water. -4 a water-jar. -5 a symbolical expression for the number 4 or 7. ˚कन्या, तनया, सुता Lakṣmī, the daughter of the ocean (produced from the ocean among the 14 jewels). ˚क्रमः, -क्राः m. a voyager, mariner. ˚मलः 1 cuttle-fish-bone. -2 the foam of the ocean. ˚मेखला or ˚वस्त्रा the earth (girdled by the ocean, sea-girt). ˚राजः the king of waters, i. e. the chief ocean. ˚संभवम् sea-salt. ˚सुता N. of Lakṣmī; and of Dvārakā, the capital of Kṛiṣṇa (said to have been reclaimed from the ocean).
  • धिः (At the end of comp. only) A receptacle store, reservoir &c.; as in उदधि, इषुधि, वारिधि, जलधि &c.
  • धि I. 6 P. (धियति) T hold, have, possess. -With सम् to make peace, treat with; cf. संधा -II. (or धिन्व्) 5 P. (धिनोति) To please, delight; satisfy; पश्यन्ति चात्मरूपं तदपि विलुलितस्रग्धरेयं धिनोति Gīt.12; धिनोति नास्माञ्जलजेन पूजा त्वयान्वहं तन्वि वितन्यमाना N.8.97; U.5.27; Ki.1.22.
  • संधिग already detailed.
  • उदधिसंधिग = One, who is connected with the ocean.
    • कृष्णपक्षे (Considering that the deity is Lord Krishna) The connection with कृष्ण is explained by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः as समुद्रमन्थनकाले कूर्मात्मनोदधिं प्राप्त. This seems to be a protracted interpretation, since कूर्म was an incarnation of VishNu, so was कृष्ण.
    • In शिवपक्षे the explanation given is  समुद्रमन्थनकाले । तत्रैव मोहिन्या मोहितोऽयमभवदिति प्रसिद्धम् which refers to Shiva having been enchanted by Mohinee. I think more emphatic reference of Shiva’s connection with ocean during churning of the ocean is of his having swallowed the poison.

५) खलजीवितखात – This is deciphered by श्रीमल्ललितालालितः as खलानां जीवितानि खातानि येन , खलजीवितेभ्यः खनित्रमिवेति वा ।

  • खलजीवितखात इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • खलस्य जीवितम् इति खलजीवितम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • खलजीवितं खातम् येन सः खलजीवितखातः (बहुव्रीहिः) |
  • खलस्य – खल-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • खलः लम् [खल्-अच्] 1 A threshing floor; खले न पर्षान् प्रति हन्मि भूरि Rv.1.48.7; Ms.11.17,115; Y.2.282. -2 Earth, soil. -3 Place, site; Bhāg.5.26.14. -4 A heap of dust. -5 Sediment, dregs, deposit of oil &c; दत्ते खले नु निखिलं खलु येन दुग्धम् Pt.2.53. -6 A mill. -7 A contest, battle. -लः 1 A wicked or mischievous person, a villain; (also a.) low, mischievous, base, villainous, inferior, mean; सर्पः क्रूरः खलः क्रूरः सर्पात् क्रूरतरः खलः । मन्त्रौषधि- वशः सर्पः खलः केन निवार्यते ॥ Chān.26; विषधरतो$प्यतिवि- षमः खल इति न मृषा वदन्ति विद्वांसः । यदयं नकुलद्वेषी सकुलद्वेषी पुनः पिशुनः ॥ Vās.; cf. Bv.1.76,78,91,98; पीडनं बहुधान्यस्य …… करोति यः । खलानां तु वरं ग्रामाद्बहिरेव निवेशनम् ॥ Subhaṣ. Mark the pun on the words खल and बहुधान्यस्य. -2 The sun. -3 The thorn-apple. [खलीकृ means (1) ‘to crush’; (2) ‘to hurt or injure’; (3) ‘to ill-treat, scorn’; परोक्षे खलीकृतो$यं द्यूतकारः Mk.2.]
  • जीवितम् – जीवित p. p. [जीव् कर्तरि क्त] 1 Living, existent, alive; R.12.75. -2 Returned to life, revived. -3 Animated, enlivened. -4 Lived through (as a period). -तम् 1 Life, existence; त्वं जीवितं त्वमसि मे हृदयं द्वितीयम् U.3.26; कन्येयं कुलजीवितम् Ku.6.63; Me.83; नाभिनन्देत मरणं नाभिनन्देत जीवितम् Ms.6.45;7.111. -2 Duration of life. -3 Livelihood. -4 A living being.
  • अत्र जीव्-इति धातुः | जीव् 1 P. (जीवति, जीवित) 1 To live, be alive; यस्मिञ् जीवति जीवन्ति बहवः सो$त्र जीवति Pt.1.23; मा जीवन् यः परावज्ञादुःखदग्धो$पि जीवति Śi.2.45; Ms.2.235. -2 To revive, come to life. -3 To live by, subsist on, make a livelihood by (with instr,); सत्यानृतं तु वाणिज्यं तेन चैवापि जीव्यते Ms.4.6; विपणेन च जीवन्तः 3.152,162; 11.26; sometimes used with a cognate accusative in this sense; अजिह्मामशठां शुद्धां जीवेद् ब्राह्मणजीविकाम् Ms.4.11. -4 (Fig.) To live or prey upon, depend upon as one’s source of existence (with loc.); चौराः प्रमत्ते जीवन्ति व्याधितेषु चिकित्सकाः । प्रमदाः कामयानेषु यजमानेषु याचकाः ॥ राजा विवदमानेषु नित्यं मूर्खेषु पण्डिताः Mb. -Caus. 1 To restore to life. -2 To nourish, nurture, bring up.
  • खात p. p. 1 Dug up, excavated, bored; तुभ्यं खाता अवता अद्रिदुग्धा Rv.4.5.3; कीट˚ …शुल्कस्य कीटखातस्य वह्नि- दग्धस्य सर्वतः । तरोरप्यूषरस्थस्य वरं जन्म न चार्थिनः ॥ Pt.2.89. -2 Torn, rent. -तम् 1 An excavation. -2 A hole. -3 A ditch, moat; पतति कदाचिन्नभसः खाते Pt.5.29. -4 An oblong pond. -5 A cavern. -6 Digging a hole. -ता An artificial pond.
  • अत्र खन्-इति धातुः | खन् 1 U. (खनति-ते, खात; pass. खन्यते or खायते) To dig up, delve, excavate; खनन्नाखुबिलं सिंहः Pt.3.17; Ms. 2.218; Ṛs.1.17. -2 To dig into the earth, bury.

६) अव – अव् इति धातुः | तस्य लोटे (आज्ञार्थे) मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • अव् 1 P. [अवति, आव, आवीत्, अविष्यति, अवितुम्, अवित or ऊत] 1 To protect, defend; सह नाववतु Tait 2.1.1. यमवता- मवतां च धुरि स्थितः R.9.1; प्रत्यक्षाभिः प्रपन्नस्तनुभिरवतु वस्ता- भिरष्टाभिरीशः Ś.1.1. -2 To please, satisfy, give pleasure to; do good to; विक्रमसेन मामवति नाजिते त्वयि R.11.75; न मामवति सद्वीपा रत्नसूरपि मेदिनी. 1.65. -3 To like, wish, desire, love. -4 To favour, promote, animate. (In the Dhātu- pāṭha several other meanings are assigned to this root, but they are very rarely used in classical literature; e. g. गति, कान्ति, अवगम, प्रवेश, श्रवण, स्वाम्यर्थ or सामर्थ्य, याचन, क्रिया, दीप्ति, अवाप्ति, ग्रहण, व्याप्ति,आलिङ्गन, हिंसा, आदान, दहन, भाव, भाग, and वृद्धि). -Caus. To consume, devour. -With अनु to encourage, inspire. -उद् 1 to regard, attend to. -2 to wait for. -3 to promote, impel. -उप 1 to cherish, behave friendly towards. -2 to encourage. -सम् 1 to satisfy, satiate. -2 to protect, maintain. [cf. L. aveo].

७) गलहालारसंधर – श्रीमल्ललितालालितः has explained this as

  • (कृष्णपक्षे) गले हालारसं यस्य तं सर्पं कालियं धरतीति ।
  • (शिवपक्षे) गले हालारसं धारयतीति | Here हालारसं = विषम्
  • गलहालारसंधर-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य संबोधन-प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • In this compound word, there are four component words गल, हाला, रसं and धर.
  • गल – गलः [गल्-भक्षणे बा˚ करणे अच्] 1 The throat, neck; शितिना गलेन विलसन्मरीचिना Ki.12.23; न गरलं गले कस्तूरीयम्; cf. अजागलस्तन; Bh.1.64; Amaru.88. -2 The resin of the Śāla tree. -3 A kind of musical instrument. -4 A rope. -5 A kind of fish. -6 A large kind of grass (बृहत्काश).
    • अत्र गल्-इति धातुः | गल् 1 P. (गलति, -जगाल, अगालीत्, गलितुम्, गलित) 1 To drop, drip, ooze, trickle; जलमिव गलत्युपदिष्टम् K.13; अच्छकपोलमूलगलितैः (अश्रुभिः) Amaru.29,96; Bv.2.21; R.19.22. -2 To drop or fall down; शरदमच्छगलद्वस- नोपमा Śi.6.42;9.75; प्रतोदा जगलुः Bk.14.99;17.87. गलद्धम्मिल्ल Gīt.2; R.7.1; Me.46. -3 To vanish, disappear, pass away, be removed; गलति मध्यरात्रे Dk.; शैशवेन सह गलति गुरुजनस्नेहः K.289; विद्यां प्रमादगलिता- मिव चिन्तयामि Ch. P.1; Bh.2.44; Bk.5.43; R.3.7. -4 To eat, swallow (connected with गॄ). -Caus. or 1 U. (p. p. गलित) 1 To pour out. -2 To filter, strain. -3 To flow (Ā.). -4 To fuse, liquefy, dissolve, melt. -With निस् to ooze or flow out, trickle down; निर्गलिताम्बुगर्भं शरद्घनं नार्दति चातको$पि R.5.17. -पर्या to drop down; Bk.2.4.
  • हाल (ला) हलम् 1 A sort of deadly poison produced at the churning of the ocean; (being of a very viru- lent character it began to burn up everything when it was swallowed by the god Śiva); अहमेव गुरुः सुदारुणानामिति हालाहल मास्म तात दृप्यः । ननु सन्ति भवादृशानि भूयो भुवने$स्मिन् वचनानि दुर्जनानाम् Subhāṣ.; हालाहलं न विषं विषं रमा Subhāṣ. -2 (Hence) A deadly poison or poison in general; हालाहलं खलु पिपासति कौतुकेन Bv.1.95;2.73; मधु तिष्ठति वाचि योषितां हृदये हालहलं महद्विषम् Pt.1.188. (Also written हलाहल or हालहाल).
  • रसः [रस्-अच्] 1 Sap, juice (of trees); इक्षुरसः, कुसुमरसः &c. -2 A liquid, fluid; यष्टव्यं पशुभिर्मुख्यैरथो बीजै रसैरिति Mb.14.91.21; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र Ku.1.7. -3 Water; सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः R.1.18; Bv.2.144. -4 Liquor, drink; Ms.2.177. -5 A draught, potion. -6 Taste, flavour, relish (fig. also) (considered in Vaiś. phil. as one of the 24 gunas; the rasas are six; कटु, अम्ल, मधुर, लवण, तिक्त and कषाय); परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथ- मिव रसं वेत्तु पुरुषः Mu.3.4; U.2.2. -7 A sauce, condi- ment, -8 An object of taste; मनो बबन्धान्यरसान् विलङ्ध्य सा R.3.4. -9 Taste or inclination for a thing, liking, desire; रसवर्जं रसो$प्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते Bg.2.59; इष्टे वस्तुन्युपचितरसाः प्रेमराशीभवन्ति Me.114. -1 Love, affec- tion; जरसा यस्मिन्नहार्यो रसः U.1.39; प्रसरति रसो निर्वृतिघनः 6.11 ‘feeling of love’; रसादृते V.2.21; Ku. 3.37. -11 Pleasure, delight, happiness; चिरात्सुतस्पर्श- रसज्ञतां ययौ R.3.26. -12 Charm, interest, elegance, beauty. -13 Pathos, emotion, feeling. -14 (In poetic compositions) A sentiment; नवरसरुचिरां निर्मितिमादधती भारती कवेर्जयति; K. P.1. (The rasas are usually eight :– शृङ्गारहास्यकरुणरौद्रवीरभयानकाः । बीभत्साद्भुतसंज्ञौ चेत्यष्टौ नाट्ये रसाः स्मृताः ॥ but sometimes शान्तरस is added; thus making the total number 9; निर्वेदस्थायिभावो$स्ति शान्तो$पि नवमो रसः K. P.4; sometimes a tenth, वात्सल्यरस, is also added. Rasas are more or less a necessary factor of every poetic composition, but, according to Viśvanātha, they constitute the very essence of poetry; वाक्यं रसात्मकं काव्यम् S. D.3.). -15 Essence, pith, best part; ब्रह्म तेजोमयं शुक्रं यस्य सर्वमिदं रसःMb.12.24.9. -16 A con- stituent fluid of the body. -17 Semen virile. -18 Mer- cury. -19 A poison, poisonous drink; as in तीक्ष्णरस- दायिनः; रसविधानकौशलैः Dk.2.8. -2 Any mineral metallic salt. -21 Juice of the sugar-cane. -22 Milk. -23 Melted butter. -24 Nectar; मयः कूपरसे$क्षिपत् Bhāg.7.1.59-6. -25 Soup, broth. -26 A symbolical expression for the number ‘six’. -27 Green onion. -28 Myrrh. -29 Gold. -3 A metal in a state of fusion. -31 See रसातल; अनेन नूनं वेदानां कृतमाहरणं रसात् Mb.12.347.67. -32 The tongue (as the organ of taste); वाण्यां च छन्दांसि रसे जलेशम् Bhāg.8.2.27; जितं सर्वं जिते रसे 11.8.21. -33 (With Vaiṣṇavas.) Dispo- sition of the heart or mind (the five Rasas are शान्ति, दास्य, सख्य, वात्सल्य and माधुर्य).
    • अत्र रस्-इति धातुः | रस् I. 1 P. (रसति, रसित) 1 To roar, yell, cry out, scream; करिव वन्यः परुषं ररास R.16.78; Śi.3.41. -2 To sound, make a noise, tinkle, jingle &c.; राजन्योपनिमन्त्रणाय रसति स्फीतं यशोदुन्दुभिः Ve.1.25; रसतां निर्भरं नूपुराणाम् Ratn.1.19; रसतु रसनापि तव घनजघनमण्डले Gīt.1. -3 To resound, reverberate. -4 To sing. -5 Ved. To praise. -II. 1 U. (रसयति-ते, रसित) 1 To taste, relish; रसती रसना रसान् Mb.12.285.19; मृद्वीका रसिता Bv.4.13; Śi. 1.27; Mv.7.3. -2 To feel, perceive. -3 To love.
    • Word रसम् can be interpreted adverbially also, to mean ‘with love’ or lovingly.
  • धर – अत्र धृ-इति धातुः | धृ I. 6 Ā. (Supposed by some to be a passive form of धृ); (ध्रियते, धृत) 1 To be or exist, live, continue to live, survive; आर्यपुत्र ध्रिये एषा ध्रिये U.3; ध्रियते यावदेको$पि रिपु- स्तावत्कुतः सुखम् Śi.2.35;15.89; नष्टा शरीरैः क्रतुभिर्धरन्ते Pt.1. -2 To be maintained or preserved, remain, continue; सुरतश्रमसंभृतो मुखे ध्रियते स्वेदलवोद्गमो$पि ते R.8.51; Ku.4.18. -3 To resolve upon. -II. 1. P., 1 U. (धरति, usually धारयति-ते, धृत, धारित) 1 To hold, bear, carry; भुजङ्गमपि कोपितं शिरसि पुष्पवद्धारयेत् Bh.2.4; वैणवीं धारयेद्यष्टिं सोदकं च कमण्डलुम् Ms.4.36; Bk.17.54; V.4.36. -2 To hold or bear up, maintain, support, sustain; अभिनवजलधरसुन्दर धृतमन्दर…… Gīt.1.2.7; यथा सर्वाणि भूतानि धरा धारयते समम् Ms.9.311; Pt.1.126; प्रातःकुन्दप्रसवशिथिलं जीवितं धारयेथाः Me.115; चिरमात्मना धृताम् R.3.35; U.3.29. -3 To hold in one’s possession, possess, have, keep; या संस्कृता धार्यते Bh.2.19. -4 To assume, take (as a form, disguise &c.); केशव धृतसूकररूप Gīt.1.1.4; धारयति कोकनदरूपम् 1.4. -5 To wear, put on, use (clothes, ornaments &c.); श्रितकमलाकुचमण्डल धृत- कुण्डल ए Gīt.1.2.1. -6 To hold in check, curb, restrain, stop, detain; त्वया हि धर्मो विधृतः कृत्स्नं धारयते जगत् Mb.1. 63.5; दधार द्रोणमायान्तं वेलेव सरितां पतिम् Mb.7.16.21. -7 To fix upon, direct towards; (with dat. or loc.) ब्राह्मण्ये धृतमानसः, मनो दध्रे राजसूयाय &c. -8 To suffer, undergo. -9 To assign anything to any person, allot, assign. -1 To owe anything to a person (with dat.; rarely gen. of person, 1 only in this sense); वृक्षसेचने द्वे धारयसि मे Ś.1; तस्मै तस्य वा धनं धारयति &c. -11 To hold, contain. -12 To observe, practise. -13 To cite, quote. -14 To keep, retain (in one’s service). -15 To preserve, maintain. -16 To seize, lay hold of. -17 To hold out or on, endure. -18 To fix, place, deposit. -19 To intend in mind; स यद्यदेवासृजत तत्तदत्तुमध्रियत Bṛi. Up.1.2.5. (The senses of this root may be variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected; e. g. मनसा धृ to bear in mind, remember; शिरसा, मूर्ध्नि धृ to bear on the head, respect highly; अन्तरे धृ to pledge, deposit any- thing as surety; समये धृ to bring to terms or agreement; दण्डं धृ to punish, chastise, use force; जीवितम्, प्राणान्, गात्रम्, शरीरम्, देहम् &c. धृ to continue to live, main- tain the soul &c.; preserve the vital spirits; व्रतं धृ to observe a vow; इत्थं व्रतं धारयतः प्रजार्थम् R.2.25; तुलया धृ to hold in a balance, weigh &c.; मनः, मतिम्, चित्तम्, बुद्धिम् धृ to bend the mind to a thing, fix the mind upon, think of, resolve upon; गर्भं धृ to become pregnant, conceive; धारणां धृ to practise concentration or self- control &c.)
  • Proceeding with deciphering the compound word गलहालारसंधरः
    • गले हाला इति गलहाला (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • गलहालायाः रसम् इति गलहालारसम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • गलहालारसं धरति इति गलहालारसंधरः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः of अलुक्-type)
  • Alternatively
    • रसेण धरति इति रसंधरः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • हालां रसंधरः इति हालारसंधरः (द्वितीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • गले हालारसंधरः इति गलहालारसंधरः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) इति शिवः
  • Yet another option –
    • हाला एव रसः हालारसः (कर्मधारयः)
    • हालारसं धरति इति हालारसंधरः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः of अलुक्-type) इति सर्पः
    • हालारसंधरः गले यस्य सः गलहालारसंधरः (बहुव्रीहिः) इति शिवः
  • Fourth option
    • हाला एव रसः हालारसः (कर्मधारयः)
    • हालारसं धरति इति हालारसंधरः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः of अलुक्-type) इति सर्पः
    • हालारसंधरः (कालिया-सर्पः) गलेन (धृतः) येन सः गलहालारसंधरः (बहुव्रीहिः) इति कृष्णः

अन्वयाः – With all this analysis and detailing we can now put the verse into a syntax, where also there will be options.

  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात, शृङ्गीश, उदधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्यमधुव्रात, शृङ्गीश, उदधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रातशृङ्गश, उदधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • (भोः) गोपीभाग्य मधुव्रात, शृङ्गशः दधिसन्धिग, खलजीवितखात, गलहालारसंधर (अस्मान्) अव
  • There could be more permutations.

Since there are many meanings of each word, number of meanings will be many more than the number of syntactic permutations also.

But the most interesting aspect of this verse is way it codifies the value of pi (π), the ratio of circumference and diameter of a circle. Every letter of the verse is a value, which is defined by, what is known as कटपयादि-सूत्रम्. Note, कटपयादि means taking क, ट, प, य as आदि-s, i.e. taking these as the starting number, i.e. number 1. The complete कटपयादि-सूत्रम् is कादिनव, टादिनव, पादिपंचक, याद्यष्टक, क्षश्-शून्यम्.  This will be best understood by following table.


It can be noted that numbers १ to ५ has four options each. Numbers ६,  ७ and ८ have three options each, number ९ has two options and number ० has just one code, the letter क्ष.

Now let us see how we get the value of pi (π) by evaluating every letter of the verse using the above code or using कटपयादि-सूत्रम्.

गो पी भा ग्य धु व्रा शृ ङ्ग शो धि सं धि
जी वि खा ता हा ला सं

Note, व्रा = २* because,  व्रा = व् + र् + आ. Here व् is not completed by a vowel. र्  is completed by the vowel आ. Implicit in कटपयादि-सूत्रम् is to consider values of only those consonants, which are completed by a vowel. By the same logic, ग्य the third letter gets its value as १, from the value of the completed consonant य. In शृ, the consonant is श, completed by vowel ऋ. Hence value of शृ is ५.

One may wonder why the composer would have thought it good to compose a verse to codify the value of pi (π), that too, accurate to 32 digits. Only one logic comes to my mind is that to calculate accurately values of perimeters of orbits of planets, one would need value of pi (π), as accurate as possible. If a and b are major and minor axes of an ellipse, its perimeter is π.a.b. Since values of a and b are large, any inaccuracy in the value of π will magnify the error.

Sanskrit mathematicians have been not only expert mathematicians, they were quite at ease even in composing verses, so much so that complete mathematical treatise सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिः by भास्कराचार्य is 1000-odd verses, that too in different meters.

It is being realised that many mathematical formulas, which were invented by Pythagoras and the like were known to Sanskrit mathematicians centuries before. Even today the scientists and mathematicians of the world can be saved lot of trouble of reinventing, if Sanskrit literature would be researched to explore what secrets have been codified there. Recently in around 1965, a book Vedic Mathematics came forth based on some 16 aphorisms decoded by जगद्गुरु श्री भारती-कृष्ण-तीर्थ of शाङ्करमठ, जगन्नाथपुरी. As mentioned in the beginning, the verse studied here is from an appendix in this book only.

शुभमस्तु |


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 119

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 119

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकोनविंशत्यधिकशततमः (११९) पाठः ।


In Sanskrit literature one vast treasure is of literature comprising aphorisms सूत्राणि. Maybe commonly known among such सूत्रवाङ्मय are योगसूत्राणि of पातञ्जलिमुनि, ब्रह्मसूत्राणि said to have been composed by बादरायणव्यासमुनि and of course entire grammar of Sanskrit compiled in some 4000 सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनिमुनि.


But the foremost question would be what is a सूत्र ? There is a good definition of a सूत्रम्, in a श्लोक in वायुपुराण –

स्वल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् |

अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः ||

पदच्छेदैः –

 सु-अल्प-अक्षरं असंदिग्धं सारवत्‌ विश्वतः-मुखम्‌।

अस्तोभं अन्-अवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदः विदुः॥

शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि –

  1. स्वल्पाक्षरम् – “स्वल्पाक्षर” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य (अत्र) द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • सुष्ठु अल्पम् इति स्वल्पम् (उपपद-कर्मधारय)
  • स्वल्पानि अक्षराणि यस्मिन् तत् स्वल्पाक्षरम् (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • अल्पानि – अल्प-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा/द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
    • अल्प a. [अल्-प] 1 Trifling, unimportant, insignificant (opp. महत् or गुरु); अल्पविद्यः Ms.11.36. -2 Small, little, minute, scanty (opp. बहु)
    • अल्प = little → स्वल्प = minimal
  • अक्षराणि – अक्षर-इति विशेषणम् | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम अपि | तस्य प्रथमा/द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
    • न क्षरः यस्य तत् इति अक्षरम् (नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः)
    • क्षरः – क्षर् 1 प. इति धातुः | क्षर सञ्चलने (To move, to melt away, to perish) | तस्मात् क्षर्-अच् एवं विशेषणम् |
      • क्षर a. [क्षरति स्यन्दते मुञ्चति वा, क्षर्-अच्] 1 Melting away. -2 Movable. -3 Perishable
    • अक्षराणि = letters, syllables
  • स्वल्पाक्षरम् = having minimal number of letters
  1. असंदिग्धम् –
  • न संदिग्धम् इति असंदिग्धम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • संदिग्धम् –
    • सम् + दिह् (2 प.) इति धातुः |
    • दिह् (2 प.) – देग्धि, दिग्धे, दिग्ध; desid. दिधिक्षति
    • दिह उपचये (1 To anoint, smear, plaster, spread over; स चन्दनोशीरमृणाल- दिग्धः BK.3.21, अदिहंश्चन्दनैः शुभैः 17.54. -2 To soil, defile, pollute; अस्रदिग्धं पदम् R.16.15) |
  • असंदिग्धम् = clear, non-confusing
  1. सारवत्‌
  • सारवत्‌ = सार + वत्‌
  • सार = सारः
    • सार a. [सृ-घम्, सार्-अच् वा]
    • सार सृ 1, 3 P. (सरित, ससर्ति, also धावति; ससार, असार्षीत्, असरत्, सरिष्यति, सर्तुम्, सृत) 1 To go, move, proceed 6 To flow. -7 To cross, traverse
    • सार् –
    • सारः = 1 Essential. -2 Best, highest, most excellent; Summary, epitome, compendium
  • वत्‌ = suffix denoting “containing”
  • सारवत् = containing the essential, summary 1 Substantial. -2 Fertile. -3 Having sap. -4 Solid, firm.
  1. विश्वतोमुखम् =
  • विश्वतोमुखम् = विश्वतः + मुखम् इति अलुक्-समासः
  • विश्वतोमुखम् = मुखं विश्वतः यथा भवेत्तथा (अव्ययीभावः) अथवा विश्वतः मुखं यस्य तत् (बहुव्रीहिः) |
  • विश्वतः = विश्व + तः
    • विश्व इति सर्वनाम pron. a. [विश्-व Uṇ.1.151] 1 All, whole, entire, universal; स सर्वनामा स च विश्वरूपः Bhāg.6.4.28. -2 Every, every one. -3 All-pervading, omnipresent
    • तः – पञ्चम्यै विभक्त्यै पर्यायी प्रत्ययः
  • मुखम् – [खन् अच् डित् धातोः पूर्वं मुट् च cf. Uṇ.5.2] 1 The mouth (fig. also) -9 A direction, quarter; as in अन्तर्मुख
  • विश्वतोमुखम् = unto the universe, universal, omnipresent
  1. अस्तोभम् –
  • न स्तोभः यस्य तत् अस्तोभम् (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • स्तोभः – [स्तुभ्-घञ्] 1 Stopping, obstructing. -2 A stop, pause
  • स्तुभ् I. 1 P (स्तोभति) 1 To praise. -2 To celebrate, extol, worship. -II. 1. Ā (स्तोभते) 1 To stop, suppress. -2 To paralyse, benumb, stupefy.
  • अस्तोभम् = non-stoppable, eternal
  1. अनवद्यम् –
  • अनवद्यम् = अन् + अवद्यम्
  • न वद्यम् इति अवद्यम् ((नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • न अवद्यम् इति अनवद्यम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • वद्यम् – वद् इति धातुः | तस्य यत्-प्रत्ययेन कर्मणि-विध्यर्थवाचकं विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा/द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • वद् 1 P. (वदति, but Ātm. in certain senses and with certain prepositions; see below; उवाद, अवादीत्, वदिष्यति, व दितुम्, उदित; pass. उद्यते desid. विवदिषति) 1 To say, speak utter, address, speak to -2 To announce, tell, communicate, inform; यो गोत्रादि वदति स्वयम्. -3 To speak of, describe; आश्चर्यवद्वदति तथैव चान्यः Bg.2.29. -4 To lay down, state; श्रुतिस्मृत्युदितं धर्ममनुतिष्ठन् हि मानवः Ms.2.9;4.14.
  • वद्यम् = speakable → अवद्यम् = unspeakable → अनवद्यम् = not unspeakable, hence speakable, worth quoting
  1. सूत्रम् –
  • सूत्रम् – [सूत्र्-अच्] 1 A thread, string, line, cord -7 A short rule or precept, an aphorism. -8 A short or concise technical sentence used as a memorial rule; it is thus defined:– स्वल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद् विश्वतोमुखम् । अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. -9 Any work or manual containing such aphoristic rules; e. g. मानवकल्पसूत्र, आपस्तम्बसूत्र, गृह्यसूत्र &c. -1 A rule, canon, decree (in law).
  • सूत्र् (10 U) इति धातुः | सूत्र वेष्टने | विमोचने इत्यन्ये |
  1. सूत्रविदः – सूत्रवित्/द् इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
  • सूत्रं वेत्ति इति सूत्रवित्/द् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः)
  • सूत्रवित्/द् = one who is knowledgeable of aphorism(s)
  1. विदुः – विद् (2 प.) धातुः | विद ज्ञाने | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |
  • विद् I. 2 P. (वेत्ति or वेद, विवेद-विदांचकार, अवेदीत्, वेत्स्यति, वेत्तुम्, विदित; desid. विविदिषति) 1 To know, understand, learn, find out, ascertain, discover; न चैतद्विमः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः Bg.2.5; तं मोहान्धः कथमय- ममुं वेत्तु देवं पुराणम् Ve.1.23;3.39; Ś.5.27; R.3.43; Bg.4.34;18.1. -2 To feel, experience; परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्ति पुरुषः Mu.3.4. -3 To look upon, regard, consider, know or take to be; य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारम् Bg.2. 19; विद्धि व्याधिव्यालग्रस्तं लोकं शोकहतं च समस्तम् Moha M.5; Bg.2.17; Ms.1.33; Ku.6.3.

टिप्पण्यः Notes

  1. This श्लोक defines six qualifications, by verification of which, a statement can be called as an aphorism सूत्रम्.
  2. In a way, this श्लोक lays down six criteria for composing aphorisms.
  3. While सूत्रम् is a statement with minimal number of letters, it summarises a deep, eternally valid meaning of universal applicability.
  4. Apart from योगसूत्राणि of पातञ्जलिमुनि and ब्रह्मसूत्राणि, mentioned by me in the introduction, in the dictionary meaning of the word सूत्रम् at (7) above, there is mention of मानवकल्पसूत्र, आपस्तम्बसूत्र, गृह्यसूत्र &c.
  5. One of the qualifications of a सूत्रम् is that it is असंदिग्धम् = clear, non-confusing. But most सूत्रम् prompt सूत्रवित्/द् persons, persons, who are knowledgeable of aphorism(s) to explain them by their commentaries. Typically commentaries on सूत्र-s are known as भाष्य-s, or वृत्ति-s.
  • One famous भाष्य on ब्रह्मसूत्र-s is शाङ्करभाष्य by श्रीमदादिशङ्कराचार्य.
  • Likewise a famous भाष्य on अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनिमुनि is व्याकरणमहाभाष्यम् by पातञ्जलिमुनि. It is not known whether पातञ्जलिमुनि who authored व्याकरणमहाभाष्यम् is the same पातञ्जलिमुनि who authored योगसूत्राणि
  • One famous वृत्ति on अष्टाध्यायी of पाणिनिमुनि is काशिकावृत्ति. This वृत्ति in many ways is said to supplement अष्टाध्यायी by additional सूत्र-s and does not limit itself to commenting on सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी.
  • Possibly, अष्टाध्यायी by पाणिनिमुनि is not as easy to understand, as one would have liked it to be. Some simplification was lent by भट्टोजी दीक्षित in his सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, by rearranging सूत्र-s in अष्टाध्यायी by different topics of Sanskrit grammar.
  1. Certainly every सूत्रग्रन्थ is worthy of dedicated study, which may span even the entire lifetime of the student, especially because the सूत्रग्रन्थ-s delineate universal, eternal truths, which transcend all bindings of this religion or that. पातञ्जलिमुनि’s योगसूत्राणि stand out as an eminent example. Even here, teachers of योग are often seen to teach only योगासन-s. But पातञ्जलिमुनि’s योगसूत्राणि detail eight-fold path, of which the आसन-s become, by simple arithmetic, only one-eighth. First सूत्र in योगसूत्राणि actually focuses on training oneself to have control on one’s mind योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः | Just nine letters ! But how well they summarise an eternal universal truth !
  2. May study of सूत्रग्रन्थ-s spread awareness and knowledge of eternal universal truths and in turn guide all human conduct towards eternal, universal good, eternally, universally.


शुभं भवतु !



Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 118

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 118

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य अष्टादशाधिकशततमः (११८) पाठः ।

The following beautiful श्लोक was mentioned by Mr. Avinash Varna in response to a question about मृगजवाक्षमयेव posted at the Samskrita Google-group by a person having his email ID “jbardisban”.

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकाया
निष्कम्पचामरशिखा निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णाः ।
आत्मोद्धतैरपि रजोभिरलङ्घनीया
धावन्त्यमी मृगजवाक्षमयेव रथ्याः ॥ ८ ॥

Mr. Varna also gave the context that the श्लोक presents a beautiful description of the speed of दुष्यन्त’s horses, as they pursue कृष्णसार (कालिदासस्य अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तले प्रथमोऽङ्कः) ।

(१) पदच्छेदैः –

There are विसर्ग-संधि-s at the endings of first and third lines. It is hence better to write the verse in two lines, to bring forth the पदच्छेद-s properly.

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः निभृत-ऊर्ध्व-कर्णाः ।
आत्म-उद्धतैः अपि रजोभिः अलङ्घनीयाः धावन्ति अमी मृग-जव-अक्षमया इव रथ्याः ॥

(२) सामासिक-शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि – Since we have been doing word-by-word analysis all along, now it should be alright to focus mainly on compound words.

(२-१) निरायतपूर्वकायाः =

  • निरायता (निर् + आयता) = न आयता (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • पूर्वं निरायता निरायतपूर्वा (कर्मधारयः)
  • निरायतपूर्वा काया यस्य सः निरायतपूर्वकायः (बहुव्रीहिः) –> ते निरायतपूर्वकायाः (अश्वाः)

(२-२) निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः

  • चामरस्य शिखाः इति चामरशिखाः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • निष्कम्पाः – निर्गतः कम्पः याभ्यः ताः निष्कम्पाः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • निष्कम्पाः चामरशिखाः येषां ते निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः (अश्वाः)

(२-३) निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णाः

  • निभृतौ ऊर्ध्वम् निभृतोर्ध्वौ (कर्मधारयः)
  • निभृतोर्ध्वौ कर्णौ यस्य सः निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णः (बहुव्रीहिः) –> ते निभृतोर्ध्वकर्णाः (अश्वाः)

(२-४) आत्मोद्धतैः

  • आत्मना उद्धतः इति आत्मोद्धतः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) –> तैः (रजोभिः)

(२-५) अलङ्घनीयाः

  • न लङ्घनीयाः इति अलङ्घनीयाः (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)

(२-६) मृगजवाक्षमया

  • मृगस्य जवः इति मृगजवः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • न क्षमा इति अक्षमा (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • मृगजवेऽपि अक्षमा मृगजवाक्षमा (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • तद्विधया क्षमया इति मृगजवाक्षमया
  • Ability of speed, which cannot be matched by deers
  • It comes to mind that the word can as well be मृगजवक्षमया
    • मृगस्य जवः इति मृगजवः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • मृगजवस्य (इव) क्षमा मृगजवक्षमा (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • Ability of speed, which is similar to that of deer
  • Thanks to Dr. Avinash Sathaye for pointing out a very valid point. Very correctly he advises “.. It seems that you are using the fem. word क्षमा in the same sense as क्षमता. That seems unusual. I would propose the following alternate: क्षमा has the sense of tolerance, patience.  Thus, अक्षमा would be the opposite – intolerance, impatience etc. Thus the horses are impatient with the speed of the deer that they are chasing and want to catch it soon! So they are running without tolerance for the speed of the deer. ..”

(३) अन्वयानुवादौ (Syntax and translation) –

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः निभृत-ऊर्ध्व-कर्णाः ।
आत्म-उद्धतैः अपि रजोभिः अलङ्घनीयाः धावन्ति अमी मृग-जव-अक्षमया इव रथ्याः ॥

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः निभृत-ऊर्ध्व-कर्णाः आत्म-उद्धतैः अपि रजोभिः अलङ्घनीयाः अमी रथ्याः मृग-जव-अक्षमया इव धावन्ति ।
Now that the reins are left loose, these horses of this chariot, whose bodies are already relaxed, are so running with the speed of the deer (OR with the speed, which cannot be matched (even) by deers) that their plumes have become straight, their ears pricked up and dust raised by them is left behind (the dust cannot catch up with them).

(४) वृत्त-विश्लेषणम्

मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु निरायतपूर्वकायाः (१४ अक्षराणि)
(२-२-१) (२-१-१) (१-२-१)-(१-२-१)-२-२ इति मात्राः ।
त-भ-ज-ज-ग-ग गणाः

वृत्तलक्षणम् – उक्ता वसन्ततिलका तभजाः जगौ गः
(५) टिप्पण्यः (Notes) –

5-1) In this श्लोक, कालिदास presents a picture-perfect description of the high-speed horses of दुष्यन्त’s chariot. This underscores how a good poet would have keen observation.

5-2)  At http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sha/sha05.htm one gets the translation of this श्लोक by Arthur W. Ryder (1914) as –

The lines hang loose; the steeds unreined
Dart forward with a will.
Their ears are pricked; their necks are strained;
Their plumes lie straight and still.
They leave the rising dust behind;
They seem to float upon the wind.

Here, the line, “.. lines hang loose; the steeds unreined ..” seems to miss the correct interpretation of निरायतपूर्वकायाः, i.e. whose bodies are already relaxed. Maybe, the words “with a will” in the line “.. Dart forward with a will ..” imply translation of निरायतपूर्वकायाः

An expert charioteer would make sure that the horses are relaxed, before they are reined to a chariot. So the word निरायतपूर्वकायाः very much brings forth the essential expertise of a charioteer, that he must know his horses very well and he knows how to get them in the right mood.

5-3) The words मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु also brings forth that an expert charioteer would have the confidence that the horses would be under control, even when driving the chariot at speed would need letting the reins loose.

Since the words मुक्तेषु रश्मिषु connote the सति-सप्तमी construct, which is a special construct in Sanskrit, I thought it good to translate this as “Now that the reins are left loose, ..”

5-4) It appeals to be a good discretion of कालिदास to compose this verse in वसन्ततिलका-meter, which has a rhythm, similar to the rhythm of tapping of hoofs of the horses.

5-5) In अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् in this श्लोक, the charioteer is seeking दुष्यन्त’s appreciation of how the horses are running. The sight of the horses is so charming that even a charioteer became poetic. That is the poetic skill of कालिदास, to put this verse as being said by a charioteer. That subtle ! Simply great !!

शुभमस्तु |




Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 117

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 117

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्तदशाधिकशततमः (११७) पाठः ।


When I went to our study circle, a couple of days back, Mr. Takale had put up following सुभाषितम् on the black board.


यस्य षष्ठी चतुर्थी च विहस्य च विहाय च ।

अहं कथं द्वितीया स्यात् द्वितीया स्यामहं कथम् ।।


There is only one संधि – स्यामहम् = स्याम् अहम्


So on splitting the conjugation the verse would read –

यस्य षष्ठी चतुर्थी च विहस्य च विहाय च ।

अहं कथं द्वितीया स्यात् द्वितीया स्याम् अहम् कथम् ।।


There are no compound words. There are no very complex or difficult words either. To go by word-by-word meaning –


यस्य = of whom

षष्ठी = the sixth one (feminine)

चतुर्थी = the fourth one (feminine)

च = and

विहस्य = after laughing

विहाय = after forsaking

च = and

अहं = I, myself

कथं = how, how come

द्वितीया = the second one (feminine)

स्यात् = (she) may become

द्वितीया = the second one (feminine)

स्याम् = (I) may become

अहम् = I, myself

कथम् = how, how come


There is very obvious grammatical difficulty to identify subject words for the two verbs स्यात् and स्याम्.

  • The pronoun अहम् in प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् comes twice but has a good match only with स्याम्, not at all with स्यात्.
  • The word द्वितीया is also twice, is in प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् but has a good match only with स्यात्, not at all with स्याम्.
  • If one अहम् (out of two) is matched with स्याम्, and one द्वितीया out of two is matched with स्यात्, the intrigue remains about what to do with the extra अहम् and extra द्वितीया.


So the सुभाषितम् started sounding challenging and intriguing to set it in proper syntax अन्वय. Understanding the meaning can be attempted only after getting the syntax proper. I hence requested Mr. Takale to please explain.


He said, one needs to know the background, sort of a story or incident. It is something like this –


There were two friends.

  • द्वे मित्रे आस्ताम् |


One was wise but poor.

  • एकः विद्वान् परन्तु दरिद्रः |


He had a daughter, who was also smart, intelligent and was also beautiful

  • विदुषः पुत्री अपि विदुषी आसीत् सौन्दर्यवती च ।


The other person, was rich but had no intellectual acclaim.

  • अन्यः धनिकः | तथापि न कापि तस्य विद्वत्ता |


He had a son, who also had no wisdom of letters.

  • आसीद्धनिकस्य पुत्रः | सः तु अक्षरशत्रुः ।


The rich person caught the fancy to have his wise but poor friend’s daughter as his daughter-in-law.

  • धनिकस्य मनस्यागच्छत् यत् दरिद्रस्य विदुषः मित्रस्य विदुषी सौन्दर्यवती पुत्री तस्य स्नुषा भवेदिति ।


He did make the proposal to the poor wise man.

  • धनिकेन विद्वांसं प्रति तद्विधः प्रस्तावोऽपि प्रस्तुतः ।


Poor wise man knew that his daughter will not be happy by marrying the dim-witted son of his rich but uneducated friend.

  • विदुषा तु ज्ञातं यत् तस्य विदुषी पुत्री सुखिनी न भवेत् तेन धनिकस्य विद्याविहीनेन पुत्रेण सह विवाहेन |


But he was also worried of saying no to his rich friend’s proposal.

  • तथापि सः चिन्तितोऽपि कथं तस्य धनिकमित्रस्य प्रस्तावः नकारणीयः इति |


On knowing her father’s anxiety, she said there was a simple way out.

  • पितुः चिन्तां ज्ञात्वा पुत्र्या पिता समाहितः यदस्ति एकः सरलः उपायः |


Can you tell uncle, that I have a simple condition for accepting the proposal ?

  • किं न श्रेष्ठी ज्ञाप्यते यत् अस्ति मम किञ्चित् सरलं गतिकम् प्रस्तावं स्वीकर्तुमिति ?


I am stuck up at deciphering the meaning of a simple verse.

  • अहं एकस्य श्लोकस्य अर्थस्य विवरणे अवगुण्ठितास्मि |


If the son can help me, I can consider the proposal.

  • यदि सः धनिकपुत्रः श्लोकस्य अर्थस्य विवरणे मम सहाय्यं करोति तर्हि विचारणीयः खलु प्रस्तावः मया |


Actually she composed a verse herself. This was the verse.

  • सत्येन तु तया स्वयमेव रचितः श्लोकः | अयमेव सः श्लोकः |


To decipher the meaning, one needs to understand and make explicit some implicit words.


यस्य विहस्य(शब्दे) षष्ठी च विहाय(शब्दे) चतुर्थी च (भवति) ।

  • One for whom word विहस्य is of sixth case and word विहाय is of fourth case

कथं अहं(शब्दे) द्वितीया च स्यात् ?

  • How can the word अहं (ever) be of second case ?

कथम् अहम् (तस्य) द्वितीया स्याम्

  • How can I be a wife of such person ?
  • Note, alternate meaning of द्वितीया is wife.


Is it not interesting that a dim-witted may think word विहस्य is of sixth case and word विहाय is of fourth case, simply because they have suffix-like endings of स्य and अय as in देवस्य and देवाय ?


A dim-witted may as well think the word अहम् to be of second case, simply because the word has suffix-like ending of म् as in देवम् ! He may even think the word कथम् to be of second case !!


It is also interesting to think how and why alternate meaning of द्वितीया is wife. Meaning of द्वितीया is not just “second” as in द्वितीयोऽध्यायः. The word also means “next (to)”. A lady “next to” a person would be his wife. That is how the word द्वितीया has this alternate meaning of द्वितीया = wife.


There seems to be some smartness even in selecting for the verse the words विहस्य and विहाय maybe, to suggest that a smart lady will give a wry smile when succeeding in  forsaking a dim-witted.


  • विदुषी विद्याविहीनं विहस्य विहाय च तिष्ठेत् !
  • Wow ! Some onomatopoeia of letter वि 5 times !
    • पञ्चवारस्य वि-वर्णस्य कश्चिदनुप्रासः खलु !


Learning Sanskrit and Sanskrit-verses can sharpen wit and help overcome piquant situations !!


शुभं भवतु !


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य षोडशाधिकशततमः (११६) पाठः ।

Everyone gets to know the गायत्रीमन्त्र. I too have known it. But its meaning is not always very clear, especially by the grammar of every word and the meaning based on the grammar. So, this is an attempt rather an indulgence to learn the Sanskrit of the गायत्रीमन्त्र.

ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् |

पदच्छेदैः – ॐ भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः वरेण्यं भर्गः देवस्य धीमहि धियः यः नः प्रचोदयात् |

अन्वयेन – ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् |

शब्दशः विश्लेषणम्

  1. ॐ = invocation

  2. धीमहि =

    1. धी 4 Ā (धीयते) 1 To disregard, disrespect. -2 To propitiate. -3 To hold, contain. -4 To accomplish, fulfil.

    2. प्रायः धी-धातोः विधिलिङ्-लकारे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचने आर्षरूपम् |

    3. Let us meditate

  3. यः = यत्-सर्वनाम | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  4. भूः =

    1. भूः f. [भू-क्विप्] 1 The earth (opp. अन्तरीक्ष or स्वर्ग); दिवं मरुत्वानिव भोक्ष्यते भुवम् R.3.4;18.4; Me.18; मत्तेभ- कुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः । -2 Earth as one of the nine substances. -3 The universe, globe. -4 Ground, floor; मणिभयभुवः (प्रासादाः) Me.66. -5 Land, landed property. -6 A place, site, region, plot of ground; काननभुवि, उपवनभुवि &c. -7 Matter, subject-matter. -8 A symbo- lical expression for the number ‘one’. -9 The base of a geometrical figure. -1 A sacrificial fire. -11 The act of becoming, arising. -12 The first of the three Vyāhṛitis or mystic syllables (भूः, भुवः, स्वः) –representing the earth–repeated by every Brāhmaṇa at the commencement of his daily Sandhyā.

  5. भुवः =

    1. भुवः Ved. 1 Fire. -2 The earth (भुवोलोक). -3 The air, atmosphere (भुवस्).

  6. स्वः =

    1. सुवरिति वा एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः T. Up.1.5.1; वेदत्रयान्निरदुहद्भूर्भुवःस्वरितीति च Ms.2.76; according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम्.

  7. तत्-सवितुः =

    1. तत्सवितुः = तस्य सवितुः

    2. तत्सवितृ-इति सामासिकं नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. सः सविता इति “तत्सवितृ” (कर्मधारयः) |

  8. देवस्य = “देव”-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  9. वरेण्यम् =

    1. वृ-इति धातुः | तस्मात् अनीयर्-प्रत्ययेन “वरणीय”-इति विशेषणम् | वरेण्यम् इति प्रायः आर्षरूपम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    2. वृ I. 1, 5, 9 U. (वरति-ते, वृणोति-वृणुते, वृणाति-वृणीते, वृत; pass. व्रीयते) 1 To choose, select as a boon; वृतं तेनेदमेव प्राक् Ku.2.56; ववार रामस्य वनप्रयाणम् Bk.3.6. -2 To choose for oneself (Ātm.); वृणते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव संपदः Ki.2.3; यदेव वब्रे तदपश्यदाहृतम् R.3.6. -3 To choose in marriage, woo, court; अयोनिजां राजसुतां वरीतुम् Mv.3.28; A. R.3.42. -4 To beg, solicit, ask for. -5 To cover, conceal, hide, screen, envelop; मेघैर्वृतश्चन्द्रमाः Mk.5.14. -5 To surround, encompass; वृतस्त्वं पात्रेसमितैः खट्वा$$रूढः प्रमादवान् Bk.5.1; U.4.18; R.12.61. -7 To ward off, keep away, restrain, check. -8 To hinder, oppose, obstruct. -9 To love, adore. -Caus. (वारयति-ते) 1 To cover, conceal. -2 To avert from (with abl.). -3 To prevent, ward off, restrain, sup- press, check, hinder; शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् Bh.2. 11. -Desid. (वुवूर्षति-ते, विवरिषति-ते; विवरीषति-ते) To wish to choose. -II. 1 U. (वरयति-ते) 1 To choose, select; वरं वरयते कन्या माता वित्तं पिता श्रुतम् Pt.4.68. -2 To choose in marriage. -3 To ask for, beg, solicit, (with two acc.); तां त्वां संवरणस्यार्थे वरयामि विभावसो Mb.; शैलेन्द्रं वरयामासुर्गङ्गां त्रिपथगां नदीम् Rām.

    3. वरेण्य a. [वृ-एन्य Uṇ.3.98] 1 To be wished for, desirable, eligible; अनेन चेदिच्छसि गृह्यमाणं पाणिं वरेण्येन R.6.24. -2 (Hence) Best, most excellent, pre-eminent, most worthy or distingushed, chief; वेधा विधाय पुनरुक्तमिवन्दुबिम्बं दूरीकरोति न कथं विदुषां वरेण्यः Bv.2.158; तत् सवितुर्वरेण्य भर्गो देवस्य धीमही Rv.3.62.1; R.6.24,84. Bk.1.4; Ku.7.9; A. Rām.2.6.62. -ण्यः A particular class of deceased ancestors. -ण्यम् Saffron.

  10. भर्गः –

    1. भर्गस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    2. भर्गस् n. Radiance, Iustre; देवस्य भर्गो मनसेदं जजान Bhāg.5.7.14; ऊँ तत् सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि Gāyatrīmantra, Rv.3.62.1.

  11. नः – अस्मद्-इति उत्तमपुरुषवाचकं सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

  12. धियः

    1. धीः [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.

    2. धी-इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

    1. प्रचोदयात् –
      1. प्रचुद्-इति धातुः (प्र-इति उपसर्गेण सहितः) | तस्य आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

        1. Dr. H. N. Bhat has noted in his comment that प्रचोदयात् is not आशीर्लिङ्-लकार.

        2. I had checked up at http://tdil-dc.in/san/skt_gen/generators.html# and found that the रूपम् of चुद् in आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् is given as चोदयिषीष्ट/चोद्यात्. I had hence thought that प्रचोदयात् is an आर्षरूपम्.

        3. Dr. Bhat considers it to be लेट्-लकार. This लकार is anyway to be found only in Vedas (लेट् वेदे). By that consideration also it becomes an आर्षरूपम्. But I do not know whether in Vedas, as a लकार, लेट्-लकार has the sense of आशीर्लिङ्.

        4. The रूपम् प्रचोदयात् sounds similar to many आशीर्लिङ्-रूपाणि such as ब्रूयात्, भूयात्, कुर्यात् etc.

अन्वयार्थः Overall meaning as per the syntax

ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् =

ॐ = In all serenity

धीमहि = Let us meditate or pray (that)

तत्-सवितुः देवस्य of that God Sun

  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is (and pervades) this earth, the environment above it and the heavens OR

  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is consummation of all the three mystic syllables

वरेण्यं भर्गः = (His) most benevolent radiance (lustre)

प्रचोदयात् = may (प्र = ever and vigorous and energetic) motivate, may enlighten

नः धियः = our intellects

टिप्पण्यः Notes

  1. When exploring the words भूः भुवः स्वः, I have noted from Apte’s on-line dictionary, the mention, “.. एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः (from तैत्तिरीय उपनिषत्) ..”, but further on, “.. according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम् ..”. This brings to mind a possibility that the seven व्याहृति-s may actually be referring to seven levels of atmosphere above earth. In modern sciences, different names such as troposhere, stratosphere, etc. are given to layers of atmosphere above earth as can be seen in the picture below. Interestingly, these are also seven in number !

  2. This मन्त्र is known as गायत्रीमन्त्रः There are many such मन्त्र-s or prayers which have some common features and words. Some गायत्रीमन्त्र-s illustrated at http://www.speakingtree.in/spiritual-slideshow/seekers/faith-and-rituals/content-233849/47042 are –

    1. गणेशगायत्री – एकदंताय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। महाकर्णाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।। गजाननाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।।

    2. ब्रह्म-गायत्री – ॐ वेदात्मने विद्महे, हिरण्यगर्भाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ओं चतुर्मुखाय विद्महे, कमण्डलु धाराय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ परमेश्वराय विद्महे, परतत्वाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।।

    3. शिव-गायत्री – ॐ तत्पुरुषाय विद्महे, महादेवाय धीमहि, तन्नो रुद्र: प्रचोदयात् ।।

    4. विष्णु-गायत्री ॐ त्रैलोक्य-मोहनाय विद्महे काम-देवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात् ।।

    5. नारायण-गायत्री – ॐ नारायणाय विद्महे वासुदेवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात्। ।।

    6. कृष्ण-गायत्री – ॐ देवकीनन्दनाय विद्महे, वासुदेवाय धीमहि, तन्न: कृष्ण: प्रचोदयात् ।।

    7. सूर्य-गायत्री – ॐ आदित्याय विद्महे मार्तण्डाय धीमहि तन्नः सूर्यः प्रचोदयात् ।।

    8. देवी-गायत्री – महादेव्यै विद्महे दुर्गायै धीमहि तन्नो देवी प्रचोदयात् ।।

    9. अन्नपूर्णा-गायत्री – ॐ भगवत्यै च विद्महे, महेश्वर्यै च धीमहि, तन्नो पूर्णा प्रचोदयात् ।।

    10. हनुमान्-गायत्री – ॐ आञ्जनेयाय विद्महे, वायुपुत्राय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ वायुपुत्राय विद्महे, रामदूताय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।।

    11. Even there is साई-गायत्री – ॐ शिरडीवासाय विद्महे सच्चिदानन्दाय धीमहि तन्नो साई प्रचोदयात् ।।

  3. Some meter can be seen to be applicable to all गायत्रीमन्त्र-s. Possibly the name of the meter itself is गायत्रीच्छन्दस्. The meter typically has three lines, each of eight letters as in एकदंताय विद्महे | वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि | तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। First line ends in विद्महे, second in धीमहि, and the third one in प्रचोदयात् ।।

    1. This गणेश-गायत्री is a part of श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् where there is a mention of the name of the meter as निचृद्-गायत्रीच्छन्दः

    2. It may also be noted that for the deity to whom the prayer is offered by the verbs विद्महे and धीमहि the case used is the fourth case संप्रदानकारकविभक्ति (चतुर्थी विभक्ति). Basic understanding of the use of this विभक्ति seems to be that the prayer is “offered”. It is for the deity to accept the prayer or not.

  4. The गायत्रीमन्त्र – ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् | is of course the most famous. It is hence known as गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः It can also be noted that its deity is God Sun. Any person of any faith should be able to derive strength and inspiration from this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः, because the deity Sun ought to be respectable, regardless of faith and hence for all.

  5. Motivation or enlightenment obtained from the deity Sun can never be untoward or unwarranted motivation. It will be the most appropriate and the most energetic motivation. This prayer seeks only such energetic motivation.

  6. The verb धीमहि is First person plural. “Let us meditate”. That pronoun “us” is very inviting, all-encompassing, universal, at all times, eternal.

  7. The reference of this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः is quoted as Rv 3-62-1. So it is from ऋग्वेद. Certainly such great, universal and eternally valid thought of Vedic philosophy will sustain and will enlighten the world anytime, anywhere. It has sustained over thousands of years and would sustain for many more thousands of years !

  8. Humanity will always need such solemn and sublime, blissful and energetic, thoughts and prayers at all times.

शुभं भवतु !


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य पञ्चदशाधिकशततमः (११५) पाठः ।

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्

Commenting on my previous Lesson No. 113, on आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Shri. Shrinivas Tilak suggested that this quote कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् also merits a study.

It does. One common aspect in both these quotes is the word विश्व. This word in these and many other quotes in वेद-s more than establish that वेद-s always focused on Universal good. To think of वेद-s as scriptures of Hindus will hence be a narrow-minded view and will prevent universal benefit that can certainly happen from the wisdom advocated in the वेद-s .

In his extended comment Shri. Shrinivas Tilak also clarified …

कृण्वन्तो विश्वं आर्यम् occurs in Rigveda

  1. at 3:30.6 in a सूक्त composed by विश्वामित्र. It is one of the six of his सम्पत्-सूक्त-s. Here an appeal is made to इन्द्र to render the entire cosmos ‘आर्य’. (Shri. Deshpande of पुदुच्चेरी however informs on Nov. 10, 2017 that text of 3’30’6 does not contain this phrase.)

  2. It also occurs at 9:63.5 in the सोमसूक्त, where an appeal is made to सोम to render the entire cosmos ‘आर्य’. (Shri. Deshpande of पुदुच्चेरी confirms on Nov. 10, 2017 that the phrase is very much contained in 9’63’5.)

As has been mentioned by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak the point to be dealt with is the interpretation of the word आर्य.

Since I have set the style of word-by-word analysis for posts at this blog, I should of course do that.

This quote is even shorter than the previous one. Just two words.

By पदच्छेद

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् = कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्

So, now it becomes three words कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्.

Going into word-by-word analysis

(1) कृण्वन्तः =

it is noted – (अ) धातुपाठसूच्याम् –

  1. कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ ||

  2. कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७ ||

  3. कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० ||

    • Study there was limited to कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० because it was only this, which was relevant there.

    • However here, study of

      • कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ and/or of

      • कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७

      • becomes necessary, because the word here is कृण्वन्तः

    • Grammar of कृण्वन्तः is -कृञ् (कृ) धातुः | तस्मात् शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् कृण्वन् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

      • The धातुः  for कृण्वन् is कृञ्, not the धातुः डुकृञ्. because शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् from धातुः डुकृञ् is कुर्वन्, not कृण्वन्.

  • It is smartness of पाणिनि to give different name to the same धातु, when it is in another गण. By that we can clearly say कृण्वन् is from कृञ् and कुर्वन् is from डुकृञ्

  • Although धातुपाठसूची enlists the धातु as भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८, this is not so detailed in बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः

  • In Apte’s dictionary also only 5 U. and 8 U. are mentioned and meaning of 5U. conforms to कृञ् हिंसायाम् as can be seen from => कृ I. 5 U. (कृणोति-कृणुते) To hurt, injure, kill. -II. 8 U. (करोति-कुरुते, चकार-चक्रे, अकार्षीत्-अकृत; कर्तुम्, करिष्यति-ते कृत) 1 To do (in general); तात किं करवाण्यहम् -2 To make; गणिकामवरोधमकरोत् Dk; नृपेण चक्रे युवराजशब्दभाक् R.3.35; युवराजः कृतः &c.

  • The dilemma is

    • The meaning कृञ् हिंसायाम् does not at all fit the context of the quote under study.

    • कृञ् करणे is mentioned only in धातुपाठसूची obtained from http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/dhatupathaindex_sa.html.

    • Simple way to resolve the matter is to consider that कृण्वन्तः is Vedic usage in place of कुर्वन्तः with meaning identical to classical usage कुर्वन्तः

(2) विश्वं – विश्व is a pronoun in Sanskrit ! See in गणपाठ –

  • सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि १.१.२७

    • सर्वादि। सर्व। विश्व। उभ। उभय। डतर। डतम। अन्य। अन्यतर। इतर। त्वत्। त्व। नेम। सम। सिम।

  • विश्व being a सर्वनाम really prompts a question what is a सर्वनाम ?

    • As a compound word it can have a derivation विग्रहवाक्य – सर्वस्य नाम इति सर्वनाम (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

  • Here विश्वं = “विश्व” (= ) इति सर्वनाम | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे –

    • विश्व pron. a. [विश्-व Uṇ.1.151] 1 All, whole, entire, universal; स सर्वनामा स च विश्वरूपः Bhāg.6.4.28. -2 Every, every one. -3 All-pervading, omnipresent. -m. pl. N. of a particular group of deities, ten in number and supposed to be sons of विश्वा; their names are:- वसुः सत्यः क्रतुर्दक्षः कालः कामो धृतिः कुरुः । पुरूरवा माद्रवश्च विश्वेदेवाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ देवाः साध्यास्तथा विश्वे तथैव च महर्षयः Mb. 3.261.6; Bg.11.22. -श्वम् 1 The universe, the (whole) world; इदं विश्वं पाल्यम् U.3.3; विश्वस्मिन्नधुनान्यः कुलव्रतं पाल- यिष्यति कः Bv.1.13.

      • उणादि 1-151 अशूप्रुषिलटिकणिखटिविशिभ्यः क्वन्

    • धातुः विश् धातुपाठसूच्याम् – विश् | तु० अनिट् प० | विश प्रवेशने ६. १६०

(3) आर्यम् –

  • Etymology given in Apte’s dictionary is ऋ-ण्यत्

    • So, it is from धातुः ऋ.

    • ण्यत् (य) = a termination प्रत्यय of potential passive participle as in कार्य, हास्य

  • धातुः ऋ, धातुपाठसूच्याम् –

    • ऋ | भ्वा० अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६ ||

    • ऋ | जु० अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ]३. १७ ||

    • ऋ | स्वा० सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके]५. ३८ |

  • बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् – (१) तत्र धातुकोशे –

      • Interesting to note – अर्यः स्वामिवैश्ययोः | आर्यो ब्राह्मणः |

    • (२) धातुरूपावल्याम् –

    • Here also see  –

      • footnote for अर्यः १० स्वामी वैश्यो वा

      • footnote for आर्यः ११ स्वामिवैश्याभ्यामन्यत्र

  • Basically अर्य / आर्य is from धातुः ऋ and is similar to कार्य from कृ.

  • धातुः ऋ and आर्य are detailed in Apte’s dictionary as follows –

  •  I. 1 P. [ऋच्छति, आर, आर्षीत्, अरिष्यति, ऋत; caus. अर्पयति; desid. अरिरिषति; अरार्यते reduplicative (अत्यर्थमृच्छति) cf. किमभीरुररार्यसे Bk.4.21.] 1 To go, move; अम्भच्छा- यामच्छामृच्छति Śi.4.44. यथाश्मानमृत्वा लोष्ठो विध्वंसेत Bṛi. Up.1.3.7. -2 To rise, tend towards. -II. 3 P. (इयर्ति, आरत्, ऋत Mostly used in the Veda.) 1 To go. -2 To move, shake. -3 To obtain, gain, acquire, reach, meet with. -4 To move, excite, raise (as voice, words &c.) वाचमियर्ति. -5 To display. –
  • आर्य a. [ऋ-ण्यत्] 1 Āryan, an inhabitant of आर्यावर्त, N. of the race migrated into India in Vedic times. -2 Worthy of an Ārya. -3 Worthy, venerable, respectable, honourable, noble, high; यदार्यमस्यामभिलाषि मे मनः Ś.1.22; R.2.33; so आर्यवेषः respectable dress; oft. used in theatrical language as an honorific adjective and a respectful mode of address; आर्यचाणक्यः, आर्या अरुन्धती &c.; आर्य revered or honoured Sir; आर्ये revered or honoured lady. The following rules are laid down for the use of आर्य in addressing persons:– (1) वाच्यौ नटीसूत्रधारावार्यनाम्ना परस्परम् । (2) वयस्येत्युत्तमैर्वाच्यो मध्यैरार्येति चाग्रजः । (3) (वक्तव्यो) अमात्य आर्येति चेतरैः । (4) स्वेच्छया नामभिर्विप्रैर्विप्र आर्येति चेतरैः । S. D.431. -4 Noble, fine, excellent. -र्यः 1 N. of the Hindu and Iranian people, as distinguished from अनार्य, दस्यु and दास; विजानीह्यार्यान्ये च दस्यवः Rv.1.51.8. -2 A man who is faithful to the religion and laws of his country; कर्तव्यमाचरन् कार्यमकर्तव्यमनाचरन् । तिष्ठति प्रकृताचारे स वा आर्य इति स्मृतः ॥

With all above details simple word by word meaning of कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् becomes –

कृण्वन्तः = those, making

विश्वं = the whole world

आर्यम् = noble

कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् = those, making the whole world noble

The phrase does not have an explicit subject and predicate.

Considering the context explained by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak, as a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively, subject and predicate become explicit by adding भवन्तु

Note –

भवन्तु = भू इति धातुः | तस्य आज्ञार्थे (लोटि) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

भवन्तु is प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्.

For this verb, there are options for कर्तृपदं as – ते, ताः, तानि and भवन्तः.

  • ते, ताः, तानि = They

  • भवन्तः = You (plural of respectful second person masculine pronoun भवान्)

Being a prayer, the कर्तृपदं should be भवन्तः = You

भवन्तु = May you be

भवन्तः i.e. इन्द्र or सोम connote the Supreme Powers. By कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् we pray to them “… May you be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

When reading the quote independently, there can be another option to make the subject and predicate explicit by adding भवेम (= Let us all be)

Note –

भवेम = भू इति धातुः | तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

अन्वयः – विश्वं आर्यम् कृण्वन्तः भवेम

भवेम is already उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्. Hence कर्तृपदं is वयम् only.

With this, the meaning of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् becomes “… Lets us all be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

The basic concept is of whole world noble विश्वमार्यम् ! means nothing ignoble, no negativity of any type, any time, anywhere !

Whole world noble, has to of course include oneself and include everyone else, even every other being.

  • Hindu Gods and Goddesses have been caricatured to be congenial to all sorts of creatures, even venomous cobra, worn around the neck by शिव, The gigantic serpent शेष being the couch for विष्णु. Mouse a rodent being the carrier of गणेश, Maybe, this is all symbolism. If it is symbolism, all the more the reason to delve deeper and understand the meaningfulness of all this symbolism.

विश्वमार्यम् means no negativity. Negativity of human character has been delineated, with mention six enemies षड्रिपु-s, which make the character negative – काम, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, मद, मत्सर

काम = desire

क्रोध = anger

लोभ = greed

मोह = distraction, fallibility

मद = ego

मत्सर = jealousy

For विश्वमार्यम् to come true, cleansing of character has to begin with oneself !

The word आर्य has been associated also with the Aryan tribe or race, which is said to have descended from the Arctic region and spread around the world, one stream moving into Europe, another into Arabian Gulf and yet another into Indian subcontinent across the हिन्दुकुश ranges.

  • Lokmanya Tilak is said to have concluded it to be so, in his book Orion or Arctic Home in the Vedas

  • Based on similar hypothesis, Adolf Hitler is said to have adopted स्वस्तिक (unfortunately in anticlockwise direction) on the shoulders of his military uniform.

  • I think, Shah of Iran, who was made to flee Iran, had, in the long array of his regal titles, one title as आर्यमिहिर

But such meaning of आर्य, being the name of a tribe or race, does not fit to the context of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्, being a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively.

One must go by the nobler meaning, obtaining from grammar and etymology, that आर्य is ऋ-ण्यत् an adjective derived from ऋ and meaning noble.

शुभं भवतु |


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114 वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुर्दशाधिकशततमः (११४) पाठः ।

There is a verse to be studied in this lesson also. But before coming to the verse, let me give a background. I was led to it by a statement in the “Introduction” paragraph in a book.

I came across a book by श्रीशङ्करशास्त्री मारुलकर basically a commentary on श्रीकौण्डभट्टविरचितः वैयाकरणभूषणसारः (published by आनन्दाश्रम, Pune, 1957)

In the “Introduction”, the author makes a statement प्रतिपाद्यविषयदृष्ट्या व्याकरणग्रन्थाः द्विधा विभज्यन्ते शब्दग्रन्थाः अर्थग्रन्थाश्च suggesting that works on grammar can be classified into two types according to the theme or focus of delineation –

  1. शब्दग्रन्थाः = those dealing in linguistics, phonetics, philology, etymology, formation of words, &c.

    1. पाणिनि’s अष्टाध्यायी is eminently of this type

  2. अर्थग्रन्थाः = those dealing in meanings and interpretations

    1. पाणिनि’s धातुपाठः, पाणिनिशिक्षा is better considered of this type, since it gives meanings of धातु-s also. However

      1. धातूनां गणशः प्रस्तुतीकरणम् Listing of धातु-s by their गण, includes the विकरण-aspect, which has, at its basis, the concept of formation of words

    2. All commentaries on अष्टाध्यायी are interpretative in their spirit. So, they are अर्थग्रन्थाः. These would include

      1. व्याकरणमहाभाष्य of पातञ्जलि

      2. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी of भट्टोजी दीक्षित

    3. Dictionaries शब्दकोशाः are basically interpretative, but do touch upon

      1. details of etymology,

        1. the word-formation aspect, giving typical forms in लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्, क्त-कृदन्तम्, णिचि &c

      2. meanings with different prefixes उपसर्गैः

      3. meanings of different compound words सामासिकाः

      4. निघण्टु, अमरकोशः are more thesaurus’ than dictionaries, are primarily interpretative but, with the declaration in अमरकोश, of the intent of the composition, as नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् “unto the discipline of nouns and their genders”. Obviously, there is very much, such शब्द concept also.

The “introduction” begins with a श्लोक, selected from कालिदास’s रघुवंशम् The श्लोक is basically an invocation, but fits well, being significant and relevant to the above statement regarding two – शब्द and अर्थ – approaches of works of grammar. The श्लोक is –

वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये |

जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||

By पदच्छेद-s

वाक्-अर्थौ इव संपृक्तौ वाक्-अर्थ-प्रतिपत्तये |

जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||

विश्लेषणम् of grammar and meanings of words in this श्लोक.

(1) वागर्थौ = वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |

वाक् = वाच् (speech, formation of words) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम |

  – तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

वाच् (वच्-क्विप् दीर्घोऽसंप्रसारणं च)

  वच्-क्विप् = a feminine noun derived from धातुः वच्

अर्थः = अर्थ (meaning, purpose, intent) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम |

(2) इव (= ) इति अव्ययम् |

(3) संपृक्तौ = सं + पृच् इति धातुः | तस्य रुधादेः (7 प) क्त-कृदन्तम् पृक्त |

    रु० सेट् प० | पृची सम्पर्के (पृच् = to unite) ७. २५ |

    संपृक्त (= intimately united) इति विशेषणम् |

 – अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |

(4) वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये =

वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |

तयोः प्रतिपत्तिः वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

प्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge

वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge of words and their meanings

तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(5) जगतः – जगत् (= world, universe) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम |

तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(6) पितरौ – माता च पिता च इति पितरौ | एकशेषद्वंद्वः |

पितरौ = parents

अत्र द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |

(7) वन्दे – वन्द् इति धातुः | भ्वा० (१) सेट् आ० |

वदि अभिवादनस्तुत्योः | वन्द् = to pay obeisance, to pray, to eulogize, to pay obeisance and pray

    तस्य वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(8) पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ – पार्वती च परमेश्वरः च इति पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ | इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः |

    पार्वती – पर्वतस्य इयं इति पार्वती |

      – पर्वतः अचलः, पार्वती = अचला, निश्चितार्था

 – निश्चितार्था – she had three incarnations. In all three incarnations   she preferred शिव to be her concert.

    परमेश्वरः – परमः ईश्वरः इति परमेश्वरः | कर्मधारयः |

       – परमः – परम-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा वि, एकवचनं च |

         – परम (परं परत्वं माति क)

        परम = परतम ?

        परम = The best, nothing better than this,

          पर → परतर → परतम (परम)

मत्तः परतरं नान्यत् किञ्चिदस्ति धनञ्जय (गीता 7-7)

          पर = the other, different म = not

 परम = one, that is not different (from oneself)

       – ईश्वरः – ईशानां (ईषाणां) वरः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

        ईशानाम् (ईषाणां) –

          – ईश = ईश्-क | ईश्-धातुतः विशेषणम् | प्रायः पुंल्लिङ्गि नामापि |

 – तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

 – ईश् अ० (२) सेट् आ० | ईश ऐश्वर्ये ईश् = to be glorious, to command

 – ईशः = one who commands gloriously

वरः – वर इति विशेषणम् |

 – वर (वृ कर्मणि अप्) | वृ-धातुतः कर्मणिप्रयोगान्वितं विशेषणम् |

 – वर = preferable, outstanding, excellent

  – ईश्वरः = Excellent among ईश-s

  – परमेश्वरः = Supreme ईश्वर

Dr. Avinash Sathaye sent in a comment –

There is a well known alternate derivation of पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ
पार्वतीप-रमेश्वरौ and here पितरौ becomes पिता च पिता. … I think this was suggested by the famous मल्लीनाथ.

For पार्वतीप-रमेश्वरौ the विश्लेषणम् would be –

पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ = पार्वतीपः च रमेश्वरः च इति पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ | इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः |

पार्वतीपः = Here प is उपपदम् As in the word गोपः (= cowherd), उपपदम् प stands for पालकः (पालयति protects, takes care of)

    पार्वतीपः = पार्वत्याः पालकः इति पार्वतीपः | उपपद-तत्पुरुषः |

रमेश्वरः = रमायाः ईश्वरः इति रमेश्वरः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

    रमा = विष्णुपत्नी

Thus one can say that by पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वन्दे Kalidasa pays obeisance to both शिव and विष्णु. There is a concept of two bifurcations in Hinduism वैष्णव-s and शैव-s, (in South India अय्यर-s अय्यंगार-s). To my mind that is simple immaturity. There are any number of स्तोत्र-s, in which there is respectful mention of both शिव and विष्णु. In श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् – त्वं ब्रह्मा त्वं विष्णुस्त्वं रुद्रस् … | At the pinnacle of spiritual attainment, it is all one, maybe, only self-realization !

By paraphrasing अन्वयेन

(अहं) वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ जगतः पितरौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये वन्दे |

I pay obeisances to and pray

the duet of Supreme ईश्वर and पार्वती (who connotes epitome of steadfastness),

who are also parents of this world (and the universe),

who are as intimately united as words and intents are,

for right knowledge of words to convey only the right intents.

टिप्पण्यः Notes –

(1) Hinduism has number of Gods and Goddesses. It is poetic charm of Kalidasa to have chosen पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ for paying obeisance to, in this verse. He wants to plead for वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये. Between वाक् and अर्थ, वाक् is feminine, अर्थ is masculine. Between पार्वती and परमेश्वर, पार्वती is feminine, परमेश्वर is masculine.

(2) पार्वती and परमेश्वर are never two. अर्धनारीनटेश्वर form of शिव is the most charming, most enchanting form. In this form पार्वती and परमेश्वर are संपृक्तौ intimately united.

(3) वाक् and अर्थ also are possibly never two. One may think that वाक् is the manifestation of अर्थ. But Indian philosophy is very clear that वाक् has four stages or four options of manifestation – परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी. The अर्थ aspect, the aspect of intent or thought is implicit in all the four options of its manifestation as वाक्. So, between वाक् and अर्थ, there is no question of which comes occurs first. They are संपृक्तौ intimately united. It is only such deep perception, which can explain Kalidasa saying वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ.

(4) This brings to mind another famous quote, that of भवभूती in उत्तररामचरितम्

लौकिकानां हि साधूनामर्थं वागनुवर्तते ।

ऋषीणां पुनराद्यानां वाचमर्थोऽनुधावति ॥१-१०॥

It is said that रामायणम् as composed by वाल्मिकी had such compulsive force of idealism, that God thought it fit to incarnate and enact, lend अर्थः, bring meaningfulness, give manifestation to, not to leave it to be regarded as a fiction or fancy to  वाच् of वाल्मिकी, composed by him in his रामायणम्.

(5) Kalidasa’s invocation was to seek वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः i.e. right knowledge of words and their meanings. Words can have different meanings. The meaning can become different even by change in accent. No poet would like meanings to become widely distorted from his own intent. But Kalidasa was well aware, पिण्डे पिण्डे मतिर्भिन्ना “Many people, many minds”. No poet or author has any control on different interpretations by different people. The best option was to pray to the Supreme, that may there be no distortions.

(6) संपृक्तौ वागर्थौ brings to mind a सुभाषितम् –

यथा चित्तं तथा वाचो यथा वाचस्तथा क्रियाः ।

चित्ते वाचि क्रियायाञ्च साधूनामेकरूपता ॥

Unity in thoughts, words and deeds is the hallmark of gentlemen. That can be so, only when वाक् and अर्थ are संपृक्त

(7) What deep philosophical thought and also practical wisdom are presented even in an invocation !

शुभं भवतु !


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रयोदशाधिकशततमः (११३) पाठः ।

आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः

Considering its length and number of words, this is the shortest quote I am putting forth. But some interesting background about the prompt to take this up.

I reached my daughter’s new place yesterday night. She told me, “internet will be installed tomorrow.”

I slept over digesting that ! And got this prompt to present this study of आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः

Readers may wonder what the connection is between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)

I hope this study will bring forth that.

Before going into the study, let me also appraise that I came to first read the quotation some 55+ years back, when in the public library at our hometown, I used to read Bhavan’s Journal. I read the quote on the cover page itself, since Bhavan’s Journal is published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan and this quote is adopted by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan as its guiding quote. Bhavan’s English translation of the quote is also given alongside आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.

Frankly, one reason, why this quote has stayed put in my mind for all these years, is also that I am intrigued by this translation. That is also another reason for this study.


आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः = आ नः भद्राः क्रतवः यन्तु विश्वतः |

I am intrigued because of a few questions –

First question –

the verb is यन्तु  – How come then translation mentions “may come” ?

Inquiring on this, I am told that the verb to be considered is आयन्तु. I am told that in Vedic texts one would often find the उपसर्ग (here आ) separated from the verb and put at the beginning of the sentence.

But I do not think that doing so is to be taken as a rule. It may be an option. Then we have two options to analyze for the verb – यन्तु and आयन्तु

Second question –

Does not interpretation of विश्वतः become different, depending upon the verb being यन्तु or आयन्तु and are not both interpretations valid ?

Third question –

Is grammar of नः to be taken as second case plural or sixth case plural and again are not both interpretations valid ?

As can be appreciated, all the three questions are not just questions of grammar but also of the syntax and then the interpretations. Two syntaxes seem possible.

  1. भद्राः क्रतवः नः विश्वतः आयन्तु = Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.

  2. आ ! नः भद्राः क्रतवः विश्वतः यन्तु = Let our noble thoughts spread across the universe.

May I tabulate a comparative study of these two optional interpretations –

Sr. No.

Interpretation of

In Option 1

In Option 2


prefix of verb यन्तु hence verb is to be taken as आयन्तु

An invocation at the beginning

An indeclinable



= to us,

second or fourth case plural of pronoun अस्मद्

= our,

sixth case plural of pronoun अस्मद्



The verb is आयन्तु, but the prefix आ is separated and taken to the beginning of the sentence

आयन्तु = may come

The verb is यन्तु = may go to, may  spread



= from all sides

suffix तः = from (fifth case)

= across the universe

suffix तः = unto, at (seventh case)

Study of Grammar and meaning of आ and of suffix तः merit detailing.

From details obtaining in Apte’s dictionary as below, आ is both

  1. an independent word,

    1. an indeclinable स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (पाणिनि १।१।३६) and

    2. From the different meanings given, meaning of ‘आ = verily’ appeals to me very much. This meaning fits beautifully as invocation at the beginning of a ऋच् of ऋग्वेद

  2. a prefix – In उपसर्गवृत्तिः posted at संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् as many as 27 different meanings are given for prefix आ

* *

In काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar आ is detailed as follows –

* *

Suffix तः also has different meanings, primarily from different cases inherent in its usages –

  1. fifth case, ‘from’ e.g. ग्रामतः आगतः (= came from town)

  2. third case, ‘with’ or ‘by’ e.g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते = वृत्तेन न व्यथते = is not disturbed by the news.

  3. sixth, ‘of’ e,g. देवाः अर्जुनतः अभवन् = देवाः अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् = Gods came to the side of Arjuna or

  4. seventh case ‘at, in” e.g. अग्रतः तिष्ठ = stand in front

Meaning of तः is detailed in काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar as follows –

* *

Notes टिप्पण्यः

  1. By above analysis, both the interpretations seem to be valid.

  2. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (= Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides), one can appreciate that

    1. Rigvedic thoughts of course advocate open-mindedness to all noble thoughts from anywhere

    2. Internet can obtain to us thoughts from all over the world, from all times, whatever will keep on getting recorded on the internet.

  3. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (= May our noble thoughts spread across the universe), one can appreciate that

    1. Rigvedic thoughts promote universal good, benevolence for all.

    2. By grammar whether यन्तु or आयन्तु are forms in Imperative mood, an order. So, it must not be wishful thinking that “our noble thoughts “may” spread across. Imperative mood is आज्ञार्थ an order

      1. If you have good thoughts, you must not keep them to yourself. You must spread the good word.

      2. Every good word is a gospel. The person who got the good thought in his mind has no ownership or authority to it and has no business to keep it to oneself. He must lend expression to it.

    3. Internet affords to us the facility to upload and share good thoughts and knowledge, not only during the lifetime, but for the benefit of future generations as well.

I guess this study does bring forth a positive connection between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)

शुभं भवतु |


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वादशाधिकशततमः (११२) पाठः ।

There are many verses eulogizing गीता. They are often found in books of गीता as a compilation, popularly known as गीतामाहात्म्यम्. One verse, which has great poetic beauty is –

पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् |

नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

पदच्छेदान् कृत्वा –

पाराशर्य-वचः सरोजम् अमलं गीता-अर्थ-गन्ध-उत्कटम् |

नाना-आख्यानक-केसरं हरि-कथा-संबोधन-आबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहः-अहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयात् भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

The split-up of संधि-s, both explicit and also those implicit in compound words are shown above. We can now study all the words, deciphering also the compound words.

  1. पाराशर्यवचः = पाराशर्यम् वचः (कर्मधारयः)

    1. पाराशर्यम् = पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् | नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

      1. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः = son of पराशर, hence पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः

      2. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः (तद्धितं नाम) |

      3. पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् (तद्धितनाम्नः अन्यत्तद्धितम्) |

    2. वचः = वचस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. पाराशर्यवचः = (this) वचः speech of पाराशर i.e. of व्यासमुनिः

  2. सरोजम् = lotus

  3. अमलम् =

    1. न मलः यस्य (अथवा यस्मिन्) तत् – (नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः)

    2. मलः dirt, dust, blemish

    3. अमलम् = having no blemish

  4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् =

    1. गीतार्थः

      1. गीतायाः अर्थः → (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) अथवा

      2. गीतायां अर्थः अथवा

      3. गीता एव अर्थः → गीतार्थः (कर्मधारयः)

      4. गीतार्थः = meaningfulness contained in गीता or meaningfulness derived from गीता or meaningfulness by virtue of having been contained in गीता

    2. गीतार्थस्य गन्धः → गीतार्थगन्धः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

      1. गीतार्थगन्धः = fragrance of गीतार्थ

    3. गीतार्थगन्धेन उत्कटम् → गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)

      1. उत्कटम् = overwhelming

    4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ.

  5. नानाख्यानककेसरम् =

    1. आख्यानकं एव केसरं → आख्यानककेसरम् (कर्मधारयः)

    2. नाना आख्यानककेसराणि यस्य तत् (बहुव्रीहिः) → नानाख्यानककेसरम्

    3. आख्यानकम् = आ + ख्या इति धातुः | तस्मात् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “आख्यान” |

      1. तस्य प्रियं च लघुत्वम् च “आख्यानकम्” |

      2. आख्यानम् → आख्यानकम् (तद्धितम्)

      3. आख्यानकम् = short story, episode, story within a story

    4. केसरम् (पुष्पस्य) = filament of a flower

    5. नाना – विशेषणात्मकं बहुवचनात्मकं तथापि अव्ययम् | नाना = many, innumerable

    6. नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having many innumerable episodes, which are like the innumerable filaments in a (lotus) flower

  6. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् =

    1. हरेः कथा इति हरिकथा | अथवा हरिणा कथा इति हरिकथा |

    2. हरिकथा च (तेन) संबोधनं च → हरिकथासंबोधनम् (समाहारद्वन्द्वः)

      1. हरिकथासंबोधनम् = story (biography) of हरि and also his advice

    3. हरिकथासंबोधनेन आबोधितम् = हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्

      1. आबोधितम् = made vibrant, excited, exciting

    4. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice

  7. लोके = जगति = in the world

  8. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः =

    1. षट् पदानि यस्य सः षट्पदः (बहुव्रीहिः) = भृङ्गः = honeybee

    2. सज्जनः एव षट्पदः सज्जनषट्पदः (कर्मधारयः)

    3. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees

  9. अहरहः अहनि अहनि इति अहरहः (अव्ययीभावः) | अहरहः = day after day

  10. पेपीयमानम् –

    1. “पा” इति धातुः – पा (पिबति to drink)|

    2. तस्मात् कर्मणिप्रयोगे “पीयते” (= is drunk) |

    3. तस्मात् यङि (frequentative) “पेपीयते” |

    4. तस्य शानच्-कृदन्तं “पेपीयमान” |

    5. पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively

  11. मुदा =

    1. मुद् इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – मुद् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | मुद हर्षे १. १६

    2. मुद् इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम अपि | मुदा = तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. मुदा = हर्षेण, सहर्षम् = with joy, joyously

  12. भूयात् –

    1. भू इति धातुः |

    2. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – भू | भ्वा० सेट् प० | भू सत्तायाम् १. १

    3. तस्य विध्यर्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

    4. भूयात् = may it be

  13. भारत-पंकजं

    1. भारतं एव पंकजम् → भारतपंकजम् (कर्मधारयः)

    2. पङ्के जायते इति पङ्कजम् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) = born in mud, lotus

    3. भारतम् इति महाभारतम् |

    4. भारतपङ्कजम् = this महाभारतम्, which is a lotus itself

  14. कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि

    1. कलेः मलः इति कलिमलः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) = dirt of कलि

    2. कलिमलस्य प्रध्वंसि इति कलिमलप्रध्वंसि (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

    3. प्रध्वंसि – “प्र + ध्वंस्” इति धातुः |

      1. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – ध्वंस् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | ध्वंसु- [अवस्रंसने]| ध्वंसु गतौ च १. ८५८

      2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “प्रध्वंसिन्” | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

      3. प्रध्वंसि = remover

    4. कलिमलप्रध्वंसि = remover of dirt of कलि

  1. नः – “अस्मद्” सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च | नः = our

  2. श्रेयसे –

    1. “श्रि” इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – श्रि | भ्वा० सेट् उ० | श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४

    2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “श्रेयस्” | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम अपि श्रेयस् = serviceable, useful, for good, beneficial|

    3. श्रेयसे – श्रेयस् → चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च = for our benefit

Having deciphered meaning of all words, my father always advised that deciphering the meaning of the sentence or of clauses and sub-clauses should start by first analyzing the sentence(s), also the clauses and sub-clauses. The clauses and sub-clauses have either a verb क्रियापदम् or a verbal derivative धातुसाधितम् .

Here there is one clear क्रियापदम् verb – भूयात्

The subject-word कर्तृपदम् can be deciphered by asking question to the verb

कः/का/किम् भूयात् ? भारत-पंकजं भूयात् |

भूयात् is an intransitive verb. So, we do not have to decipher the कर्मपदम् object-word.

Then we can ask questions – How कथम्, when कदा, why किमर्थम्, where कुत्र.

भारत-पंकजं कथं भूयात् ? – भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |

किमर्थं भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् ? – नः श्रेयसे भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |

This covers and puts into syntax all the words in the last line.

Since we located a verb-word भूयात् in the fourth line, we did the syntax of the fourth line.

Now going upwards to the third line पेपीयमानम् (= being drunk repetitively) is

  • a verbal derivative and has passive voice inbuilt.

  • So the subject of this verbal derivative ought to be with “with” or “by”.

  • पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively → by whom ? सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, when ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कदा ? अहरहः = day after day

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, how ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कथम् ? मुदा = joyously

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, where ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कुत्र ? लोके = in the world.

This brings the third line into syntax –

Being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्

This is an adjectival phrase. Which noun does it qualify ? सरोजम् lotus.

Which lotus ? पाराशर्यवचः the speech of पाराशर

The other words and phrases in the first two lines are also adjectival of the सरोजम् lotus.

  • अमलम् = blemishless

  • गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ

  • नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower

  • हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice

First three lines having so many adjectival words and phrases do not have an explicit verb. The most common implicit verb is “is अस्ति / भवति”

The syntax can then be –


लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्

गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम्, नानाख्यानककेसरम्, हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्, अमलम् सरोजम् अस्ति / भवति |

The speech of पाराशर is a blemish-less lotus, (nectar of) which,

– is being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees,

– is overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ,

– is having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower,

– is, what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice !

To analyze the meter

पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् | (१९ अक्षराणि)

(२-२-२)-(१-१-२) (१-२-१)-(१-१-२) (२-२-१)-(२-२-१)-२ इति मात्राः ।

म, स, ज, स, त, त, ग इति गणाः

नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

अत्र शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम् |

अस्य लक्षणपदम् – सूर्याश्वैर्यदि मः सजौ सततगाः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् |

Notes टिप्पण्यः

  1. The poetic beauty of the verse is obvious, right ?

    1. The poetic beauty is not just from the metrical discipline शब्दालङ्कार of शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम्  but

      1. The choice of the meter is also intelligent. शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम् has as many 19 letters in each line. It becomes an expansive meter.

      2. Eulogy should be expansive, right ?

    2. Possibly, poetic beauty is more charming due to the रूपक-अर्थालङ्कार use of ‘metaphor’ figure of speech.

      1. There is metaphor in महाभारतम् as the lotus

      2. also in calling the episodes as filaments of a lotus and

      3. in calling the readers, the gentlemen as honey-bees

      4. and in calling the reading of महाभारतम् as drinking the nectar, as by the honey-bees !

  2. In अहरहः पेपीयमानम् there is both repetitiveness, day after day, and also frequentative action. So the action “to drink” is not just day after day (once in a day), but frequentative, even in a day !

  3. Mention is of ‘speech of  पाराशर’. पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः composed it, narrated it, but got it written by श्रीगणेशः. As far as पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः is concerned, his was वचः only.

  4. Although it was mentioned in the beginning that the verse is found in verses eulogizing गीता, it is not just about गीता. It speaks about the entire महाभारतम्, especially by virtue of mention of नानाख्यानककेसरम्.

  5. The lotus, being itself blemish-less, can remove dirt from us also !

शुभं भवतु |