Lesson # 127

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson # 127

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य शताधिकसप्तविंशतितमः (१२७) पाठः |

भवभूति the 8th-century author of the very moving play उत्तररामचरितम् has in his other work मालतीमाधवम् these lines, which serve to be consolation for any author that, even if your work receives not enough praise today, someday the right sort of reader will come along, who will derive great joy or meaning from it.

ये नाम केचिदिह नः प्रथयन्त्यवज्ञाम्

जानन्ति ते किमपि तान्प्रति नैष यत्नः ।

उत्पत्स्यते तु मम कोऽपि समानधर्मा

कालो ह्ययं निरवधिर्विपुला च पृथ्वी ॥

पदच्छेदैः :- ये नाम केचित् इह नः प्रथयन्ति अवज्ञाम् / जानन्ति ते किम् अपि तान् प्रति न एषः यत्नः / उत्पत्स्यते तु मम कः अपि समान-धर्मा कालः हि अयम् निर्-अवधिः विपुला च पृथ्वी //

विशिष्टानां शब्दानाम् अभ्यासाः :-

प्रथयन्ति – प्रथ् (1 उ.) / तस्य लटि प्र.पु. बहु. / To spread word

अवज्ञाम् – अवज्ञा इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम / तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च /

  • अवज्ञा = disrespect, dishonor, disgrace

उत्पत्स्यते – उत्+पत् (1 उ.) / कर्मणिप्रयोगे लृटि प्र.पु. एक. /

समानधर्मा – समानं धर्म यस्य सः समानधर्मा (बहुव्रीहिः) /

  • Note धर्मन् can be masculine or neuter. Here it is neuter. From Apte’s dictionary, n. 1 A religious rite. -2 Support, stay. -3 Religion, duty. -4 Law, custom. -5 A mode, manner.-6 Characteristic quality or mark.
  • By बहुव्रीहि-compounding समानधर्मन् is masculine. समानधर्मा is प्रथमा, एकवचनम्
  • समानधर्मा = One who would have identical mode, manner (of thinking).

निरवधिः – निर्-अवधिः (निर्गतः अवधिः यस्मात् सः)

  • One meaning of अवधिः is limit.
  • निरवधिः = limitless, endless.

विपुला = abundant, (by extended meaning) full of variety of characters.

पृथ्वी = earth; (by extended meaning) what supports mankind of variety of characters.

अन्वयाः (1) ये केचित् इह नः अवज्ञाम् प्रथयन्ति (2) अपि ते जानन्ति किम् (3) एषः यत्नः तान् प्रति न (4) मम समानधर्मा कः अपि तु उत्पत्स्यते / हि अयम् कालः निरवधिः पृथ्वी च विपुला /

Meaning :-

  1. ये केचित् इह नः अवज्ञाम् प्रथयन्ति = whosoever spreads words of disrespect about us
  2. अपि ते जानन्ति किम् = do they know ?
  3. एषः यत्नः तान् प्रति न = This effort (this work) is not for them (to indulge in)
  4. मम समानधर्मा कः अपि तु उत्पत्स्यते = someone will arise, who would have identical mode, manner (of thinking).
  5. हि अयम् कालः निरवधिः पृथ्वी च विपुला = because time is endless and the earth is abundant (supportive of mankind of variety of characters).

Notes टिप्पण्यः

  1. The tone of the verse sounds to be to register a protest against some defamation of character, in which some critiques of the author seem to have indulged in.
  2. But the verse seems to have become popular and famous, primarily because of the eternal principle paraphrased in the last line कालो ह्ययं निरवधिर्विपुला च पृथ्वी.
  3. Even कालिदास resorted to some similar self-defense in the opening verse of मालविकाग्निमित्रम् – पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् / न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् / सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते / मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः // (Everything old is not necessarily laudable. A poetry cannot be treated as unreadable, just because it is new. Gentlemen would indulge by discretion and by self-assessment. The intelligence of the unintelligent is led by what others say.)
  4. Conservatism or not being open-minded seems to have been a trait among people in general and in literary circles in particular, almost through all ages. Even in गीता, श्रीकृष्णभगवान् denounces people, who are not open-minded अविपश्चितः and who would even argue अन्यत् न अस्ति (anything else is not to be acknowledged) – यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः / वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः (2’42) Study of this verse is detailed at https://study1geetaa2sanskrit.wordpress.com/category/2-424344/ 

शुभमस्तु !


On Wed. Feb. 28,2018, commenting on the lesson, Dr. Avinash Sathaye mentions a पाठभेदः in the third line – उत्पत्स्यतेऽस्ति instead of उत्पत्स्यते तु.

The भिन्नः पाठः lends a meaning उत्पत्स्यते (वा) अस्ति (वा) Someone of character similar to mine is already there somewhere or will be born. That पाठभेदः is charming too !

On Thursday March 1, 2018, there is one more पाठभेदः from Dr. Avinash Sathaye => In the second line जानन्तु instead of जानन्ति, लोट्-लकारः instead of लट्. This would bring up change in the अन्वयः from “अपि ते जानन्ति किम् ?” to ते जानन्तु किमपि (यत्) एषः यत्नः तान् प्रति (नैव) अस्ति |

  • In the अन्वयः “अपि ते जानन्ति किम् ?” there are two interrogatives अपि and किम्. At least one is superfluous.
  • In लोट्-लकारः  in the imperative mood, there is no interrogation. ते जानन्तु किमपि just issues a notice to the critics “May they know this much, that this effort is not for them at all.”
  • In so doing, किमपि gets translated as “this much”. And that makes also some sternness in the notice !



Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 126

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 126

संस्कृताध्ययनस्य षड्विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२) पाठः


Mr. Himanshu Pota seeks analysis and interpretation of the following सुभाषितम्. On the internet I got it as सुभाषित क्र.८३६ at http://www.sanskritdeepika.org/subhashit_remote_sql.php?subh_id=%27836%20%27

अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम्‌ ।

मेधाविनो नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति ॥

पदच्छेदैः –

अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् उपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम्‌ ।

मेधाविनः नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव दर्शयन्ति ॥

अन्वयः –

  1. अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम्
  2. उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ च
  3. नीतिविधिप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव
  4. मेधाविनः दर्शयन्ति |

(1) I thought it good to detail the अन्वय in four parts, thinking that the fourth part contains the subject and the verb, first two parts are objects, the third part is adverbial, especially because of इव (= such as).

(2) Interestingly all words in parts 1, 2 and 3 are feminine, second case, singular, except of course च and इव. That is the reason, why it becomes good to detail the अन्वय in four parts.

With these preliminary observations, we can proceed to get into critical analysis of specific words.

(3) The two words अपायसंदर्शनजाम् and उपायसंदर्शनजाम् have only the first letter different, because of two different prefixes अप and उप. So common portion of them is अयसंदर्शनजाम् or आयसंदर्शनजाम्.

  • To understand अपाय and उपाय, there is also another commonly known word व्यय (वि + अय) or व्यत्यय (वि + अति + अय).  
    • अपायः [इ-अच्] 1 Going away, departure. -2 Separation; ध्रुवमपाये$पादानम् P.I.4.24. (अपायो विश्लेषः Sk.); येन जातं प्रियापाये कद्वदं हंसकोकिलम् Bk.6.75. -3 Disappearance, vanishing, absence; सूर्यापाये Me.82 at the time of sun- set; क्षणदापायशशाङ्कदर्शनः R.8.74 close of night; जलापाय- विपाण़्डुराणि Śi.4.5;4.54;18.1. -4 Destruction, loss, death, annihilation; करणापायविभिन्नवर्णया R.8.42 loss, 83; मालत्यपायमधिगम्य Māl.1.9 death or disappearance of M. -5 An evil, ill, misfortune, risk, calamity, danger (oft. opp. उपाय); तदपि मरणापायचकितः Bh.3.9; तदनेन पापबुद्धिनोपायश्चिन्तितो नापायः Pt.1 not the danger (resulting from the plan); उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम् Pt.1.61; बह्वपाये वने Pt.1 exposed to many dangers, dangerous; कायः संनिहितापायः H.4.65 exposed to dangers or calamities; सत्ये$प्यपायमपेक्षते H.4.12; Ki.14.19. -6 Loss, detriment, injury. -7 The end (of a word).
    • उपायः 1 (a) Means, an expedient, remedy; शक्यो$वाप्तुमुपायतः Bg.6.36. उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; मयि क्षीणोपाये प्रणिपतनमात्रैकशरणे Amaru.25; Bhāg.1.48.2; Ms.8.48,7.177. (b) A plan, con- trivance; ˚निलया Mu.1.5. (c) A mode, way, stratagem. उपायेन तु यच्छक्यं न तच्छक्यं पराक्रमैः । H. -2 A fact, circumstance; U.7. -3 Beginning, commencement. -4 Effort, exertion; वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्यो$वाप्तुमुपायतः (योगः) Bg.6.36; Ms.9.248;1.2. -5 A means of success against an enemy; (these are four:- सामन् conciliation or negotiation, दानम् bribery; भेदः sowing dissensions; and दण्डः punishment (open attack); some authorities add three more :- माया deceit; उपेक्षा trick, deceit or neglect; इन्द्रजाल conjuring, thus making the total number 7); चतुर्थोपायसाध्ये तु रिपौ सान्त्वमपक्रिया Śi.2.54; सामादीनामुपायानां चतुर्णामपि पण्डिताः Ms.7.19. -6 Joining (as in singing). -7 Approach. -8 Initiation, thread ceremony (= उपनयन); अपि वा वेदतुल्यत्वाद् उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् MS.6.2.22 (where शबर explains उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् as उपनयनेन सह प्रवर्तेरन् ।).
    • In Apte’s dictionary, these words अपाय and उपाय are detailed under अपे (अप + इ) and उपे (उप + इ) respectively, treating अय as [इ-अच्].
    • To my mind अयः can as well be considered as अय् + घञ्. Anyway, both इ and अय् have same meaning गतौ. Both अच् and घञ् are कृत्-प्रत्यय-s, used to obtain masculine abstract nouns from धातु-s.
    • Etymologically अपायः means going away (from wellness), hence harmful. उपायः means going near (to wellness), hence helpful.
  • संदर्शनजाम् – संदर्शनज-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • सम्यक्-दर्शनम् इति संदर्शनम् |
    • संदर्शने जायते इति संदर्शनजा (स्त्री.)
  • अपायसंदर्शनजाम् = appearing or occurring when sighting wrong conduct, approach or mismatch
  • उपायसंदर्शनजाम् = occurring when sighting help, solution, remedy.

(4) आपत्तिम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of आपत्ति

  • आपत्तिः f. [आ-पद्-क्तिन्] 1 Turning or changing into, entering into any state or condition. -2 Obtaining, procuring, getting; स्थानापत्तेर्द्रव्येषु धर्मलाभः Kāty. -3 Misfortune, calamity, adversity; Y.3.42. -4 A fault, transgression. -5 Remonstrance, expostulation. -6 (In phil.) An undesirable conclusion or occurrence (अनिष्टप्रसङ्ग).

(5) सिद्धिम् द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of सिद्धि

  • सिद्धिः f. [सिध्-क्तिन्] 1 Accomplishment, fulfilment, completion, perfection, complete attainment (of an object); विरोधि सिद्धेरिति कर्तुमुद्यतः Ki.14.8; क्रियासिद्धिः सत्त्वे भवति महतां नोपकरणे Subhāṣ. -2 Success, prosperity, welfare, well-being. -3 Establishment, settlement. -4 Substantiation, demonstration, proof, indisputable conclusion. -5 Validity (of a rule, law &c.). -6 Decision; adjudication, settlement (of a law-suit); कार्यकारणसिद्धौ च प्रसन्ना बुद्धिरव्यया Rām.4.18.47; तस्मान्न लेखसामर्थ्यात् सिद्धिरैकान्तिकी मता Śukra. 4.726. -7 Certainty, truth, accuracy, correctness.-8 Payment, liquidation (of a debt); अधमर्णार्थसिद्ध्यर्थमुत्तमर्णेन चोदितः Ms.8.47. -9 Preparing, cooking (as of drugs &c.). -1 The solution of a problem. -11 Readiness. -12 Complete purity or sanctification. -13 A superhuman power of faculty; (these faculties are eight:– अणिमा लघिमा प्राप्तिः प्राकाम्यं महिमा तथा । ईशित्वं च वशित्वं च तथा कामावसायिता ॥). -14 The acquisition of supernatural powers by magical means. -15 Marvellous skill or capability. -16 Good effect or result. -17 Final beatitude, final emancipation. -18 Understanding, intellect. -19 Concealment, vanishing, making oneself invisible. -2 A magical shoe (supposed to convey the wearer wherever he likes). -21 A kind of Yoga. -22 N. of Durgā. -23 Complete knowledge. -24 Advantage, use, good effect. -25 N. of Śiva (m. in this sense). -26 Efficacy, efficiency. -27 Becoming intelligible (as sounds or words). -28 (In Rhet.) The pointing out in the same person of various good qualities.

(6) अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् = अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः (ताम्)

  • अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः = Trouble, which be sighted when seeing harms

(7) उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ = उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धिः (ताम्)

  • उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धिः = Success, achievement, fulfilment, problem-resolution, which be sighted when seeking solution.

(8) नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता

  • नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता – नीतिना विधिना च प्रवृत्ता (ताम्)
  • नीतिः – f. 1 Guidance, direction, management. -2 Conduct, manner of conducting oneself, behaviour, course of action. -3 propriety, decorum. -4 Policy, prudence, wisdom, right course; आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः N.5.13; R.13.69; Ku.1.22. -5 A plan, contriv- ance, scheme; भूयः स्नेहविचेष्टितैर्मृगदृशो नीतस्य कोटिं पराम् Māl.6.3. -6 Politics, political science, statesmanship, political wisdom; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3; दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् Bg.1.38. -7 Righteousness, moral conduct, morality. -8 The science of morality, morals, ethics, moral philosophy; निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु Bh.2.83. -9 Acquirement, acquisition. -1 Giving, offering, presenting. -11 Relation, support.
  • विधिः – [विधा-कि] 1 Doing, performance, practice, an act or action; ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसनविधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य Bh.3.41; योगविधि R.8.22; अस्याः सर्गविधौ V.1.8; लेखाविधि Māl. 1.35. -2 Method, manner, way, means, mode; निः- साराल्पफलानि ये त्वविधिना वाञ्छन्ति दण्डोद्यमैः Pt.1.376. -3 A rule, commandment, any precept which enjoins something for the first time (as distinguished from नियम and परिसंख्या q. v.); विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ; चिकीर्षाकृतिसाध्यत्व- हेतुधीविषयो विधिः; वहति विधिहुतं या हविः Ś.1.1. -4 A sacred precept or rule, ordinance, injunction, law, a sacred command, religious commandment (opp. अर्थवाद which means ‘an explanatory statement coupled with legends and illustrations’; see अर्थवाद); प्रवृत्तिपरं वाक्यं विधिः, as ज्योतिष्टोमेन स्वर्गकामो यजेत; श्रद्धा वित्तं विधिश्चेति त्रितयं तत् समागतम् Ś.7.29; R.2.16. -5 Any religious act or ceremony, a rite, ceremony; स चेत् स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्तरायो भवसि च्युतो विधिः R.3.45;1.34. -6 Behaviour, conduct. -7 Condition; V.4. -8 Creation, formation; सामग्ऱ्यविधौ Ku.3.28; कल्याणी विधिषु विचित्रता विधातुः Ki.7.7. -9 The creator. -1 Fate, destiny, luck; विधौ वामारम्भे मम समुचितैषा परिणतिः Māl.4.4. -11The food of elephants. -12 Time. -13 A physician. -14 N. of Viṣṇu. -15 Use, application. -16 A means, expedient for; अक्षरं गन्तुमनसो विधिं वक्ष्यामि शीघ्रगम् Mb.12. 236.13. -17 Any act, action.
  • प्रवृत्ताम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of प्रवृत्ता
    • प्रवृत्त p. p. 1 Begun, commenced, proceeded with. -2 Set in; अचिरप्रवृत्तं ग्रीष्मसमयमधिकृत्य Ś.1. -3 Engaged in, occupied with. -4 Going to, bound for. -5 Fixed, settled, determined. -6 Unimpeded, undisputed. -7 Round. -8 Flowing, running; प्रवृत्तमुदकं वायु सर्वं वानेयमाश्रयेत् Mb.14.46.12. -9 Circulated (as a book). -1 Offending, hurting. -त्तः A round ornament. -त्तम् An action, undertaking.
  • नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् = endorsed or justified by logic and practice.

(9) पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् – द्वितीया-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of पुरःस्फुरन्ती

  • पुरःस्फुरन्ती – पुरः (पुरतः) स्फुरन्ती
    • पुरः – पुरस् ind. 1 Before (in time or space), in front, in the presence of, before the eyes of (by itself or with gen.); अमुं पुरः पश्यसि देवदारुम् R.2.36; तव प्रसादस्य पुरस्तु संपदः Ś.7.3; तस्य स्थित्वा कथमपि पुरः Me.3; Ku.4.3; Amaru.43; often used with कृ, गम्, धा, भू (see below). -2 In the east, from the east. -3 Eastward.
    • स्फुरन्ती – स्त्री. of स्फुरत् which is by शतृ-प्रत्यय to धातुः स्फुर्
    • स्फुर्  6 P. (स्फुरति, स्फुरित) 1 (a) To throb, palpitate (as eyes &c.); शान्तमिदमाश्रमपदं स्फुरति च बाहुः कुतः फल- मिहास्य Ś.1.16; स्फुरता वामकेनापि दाक्षिण्यमवलम्ब्यते Māl. 1.8; अभिमतफलशंसी चारु पुस्फोर बाहुः Bk.1.27; स्फुरति हृदयं वाहय रथम् Pratimā 3.1. (b) To shake, tremble, quiver, vibrate in general; स्फुरदधरनासापुटतया U.1.29; 6.33. -2 To twitch, struggle, become agitated; हतं पृथिव्यां करुणं स्फुरन्तम् Rām. -3 To start, dart, spring for- ward; पुस्फुरुर्वृषभाः परम् Bk.14.46. -4 To spring back, rebound (as a bow.). -5 To spring or break forth, to shoot out, spring up, rise forth; धर्मतः स्फुरति निर्मलं यशः Ku.3.68. -6 To start into view, become visible or manifest, appear clearly, become displayed; मुखात् स्फुरन्तीं को हर्तुमिच्छति हरेः परिभूय दंष्ट्राम् Mu.1.8; रचितरुचिरभूषां दृष्टिमोषे प्रदोषे स्फुरति निरवसादां कापि राधां जगाद Gīt.11. -7 To flash, scintillate, sparkle, glitter, gleam, shine; स्फुरतु कुचकुम्भयोरुपरि मणिमञ्जरी रञ्जयतु तव हृदयदेशम् Gīt.1; (तया) स्फुरत्प्रभामण्डलया चकाशे Ku.1.24; R.3.6;5.51; Me.15,27. -8 To shine, distinguish oneself, become eminent; जातस्तु गण्यते सो$त्र यः स्फुरत्यन्वयाधिकम् Pt.1.27. -9 To flash on the mind, rush suddenly into memory. -1 To go tremulously. -11 To bruise, destroy. -Caus. (स्फारयति-ते, स्फोरयति-ते) 1 To cause to throb or vibrate. -2 To cause to shine, irradiate. -3 To throw, cast. -With अप to shine forth or out. अभि1 to spread or be diffused, expand. -2 to become known.
  • पुरःस्फुरन्ती = springing up, arising, happening, becoming visible, becoming manifest in front.

(10) मेधाविनः – पुँ. प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of मेधाविन्

  • मेधाविन् – a. [मेधा-विनि] 1 Very intelligent, having a good memory. -2 Intelligent, wise, endowed with intellect; मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरः स्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति Pt. 1.61; मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः Bg.18.1.-m. 1 A learned man, sage, scholar. -2 A parrot. -3 An intoxicating drink.
  • Note मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ) 1 Retentive faculty, retentiveness (of memory); धीर्धारणावती मेधा Ak. -2 Intellect, intelligence in general; यत् सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता Bṛi. Up.1.5.1; Bg. 1.34; आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् Ms.3.263; Y. 3.173. -3 A form of Sarasvathī. -4 A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.).

(11) Putting together meanings obtained above,

  1. अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् = Trouble, which be sighted when seeing wrong conduct, approach or mismatch
  2. उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ च = Success, achievement, fulfilment, problem-resolution, which be sighted when seeking solution.
  3. नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ताम् = endorsed or justified by logic and practice.
  4. पुरःस्फुरन्तीम् इव = arising, happening, becoming manifest in front.
  5. मेधाविनः = wise, endowed with intellect
  6. दर्शयन्ति = show.
  7. The wise show trouble(s), which be sighted when seeing harms, problem-resolution(s), which be sighted when seeking solution. (They show these) endorsed or justified by logic and practice and as if the troubles or problem-resolutions are arising, happening, becoming manifest in front.

(12) As can be noted, this सुभाषितम् is quoted in meanings of various words in Apte’s dictionary. There the reference is given as Pt.1.61 i.e. पञ्चतन्त्रे (1) मित्रभेदे. In a पञ्चतन्त्रम् book with me with Hindi translation by श्री भारतीय योगी, 1975-edition published by संस्कृति संस्थान, बरेली, this सुभाषितम् reads अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिम् | मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव वर्णयन्ति ||

(13) Since words in this सुभाषितम् have various shades of meanings, there can be various interpretations. For example, a simple example of अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः can be a student going by a wrong approach, when solving any problem in any subject. He is bound to fail. He is bound to face the विपत्तिः of failure, because his approach is wrong. The wise would know has the संदर्शन that the approach itself is wrong, अपाय going awry. If the procedure विधि is correct and also if there are no mistake at any step, i.e. if नीति is also correct, then सिद्धि problem-resolution will follow.

(14) One may face विपत्ति or सिद्धि, depending upon whether one’s company is अपायसंदर्शनजा or उपायसंदर्शनजा and नीतिविधिप्रवृत्ता.

(15) This सुभाषितम् also brings to mind two मन्त्र-s in ईशावास्योपनिषत् – विद्यां चाविद्याञ्च यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह | अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययामृतमश्नुते || also संभूतिञ्च विनाशञ्च यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह | विनाशेन मृत्युं तीर्त्वा संभूत्यामृतमश्नुते || Wisdom of the wise is complete only when they are able to see both अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् and उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌.

(16) In उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनसतत्त्वदर्शिनः || (गीता 4-34) two requirements are specified for one who has to be eligible to give उपदेश. He must be ज्ञानी and also तत्त्वदर्शी. The words पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव दर्शयन्ति in this सुभाषितम् seem to exactly connote this.

(17) This सुभाषितम् seems to fit well to astrologers. A good astrologer may see both अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिम् and उपायसंदर्शनजां सिद्धिम्‌ as if a motion picture is unfolding पुरःस्फुरदिव in front of him. He may not divulge it all, though, because he has to abide by some unwritten नीतिविधिप्रवृत्तम् code about how much to divulge and how.

(18) In मित्रभेदविभाग in पञ्चतन्त्रम्, this सुभाषितम् is in a dialogue between करकट and मदनक. It is मदनक, who says this in response to करकट’s curiosity, “What will you say, when you go there ?” This सुभाषितम् is an advice that one should be alert at all times and must be a good judge of अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः and उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धि of one and all, who may be present in a given instance. One must have a good judgement of what elements are favorable and what are antagonistic and strategize नीतिविधिप्रवृत्तम् putting forth one’s own thoughts with absolute clarity पुरःस्फुरदिव. Ambiguity is itself अपायसंदर्शनजा विपत्तिः. To win a debate good communication skills prove to be उपायसंदर्शनजा सिद्धि.

So many shades of meaning , so many interpretations and the सुभाषितम् seems relevant in so many contexts !

शुभमस्तु !



Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

संस्कृताध्ययनस्य पञ्चविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२५) पाठः

In a question, श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला asks how the word धीवरः gets one of its meanings as ‘a fisherman’. Detailing this word धीवर, Apte’s online dictionary also quotes the following सुभाषितम् from भर्तृहरेः शृङ्गारशतकम् So, question from श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला becomes a good prompt to study this सुभाषितम् –

मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61

पदच्छेदैः –

मृग-मीन-सज्जनानां तृण-जल-संतोष-विहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः निष्कारणवैरिणः जगति ॥

!. What are mentioned in this सुभाषितम्, are three species of living beings, what they are content with and who their ill-wishers are, though there is no good cause for the ill-wishers to be ill-wishers !

I think, tabulation will make the thought better illustrated.

Species मृग Deer मीन Fish सज्जन Gentleman
what they are content with तृण Grass जल Water संतोष Contentedness
who their ill-wishers are लुब्धक Hunter धीवर Fisherman पिशुन The wicked
  1. There are just five words in the entire सुभाषितम्  But four of them are compound words. Counting the component words, contained in the compound words, the total number of words would be 14. That should make deciphering the compound words interesting.
  2. मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् –
  • (3-1) मृगः च मीनः च सज्जनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वेन मृगमीनसज्जनाः → तेषाम्  
  • (3-2) मृगः [मृग्-क] 1 (a) A quadruped, an animal in general; नाभिषेको न संस्कारः सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः । विक्रमार्जित- राज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेन्द्रता; see मृगाधिप below. (b) A wild beast. -2 A deer, an antelope; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः Ś.1.14; R.1.4,5; आश्रममृगो$यं न हन्तव्यः Ś.1. -3 Game in general. -4 The spots on the moon represented as an antelope. -5 Musk. -6 Seeking, search. -7 Pursuit, chase, hunting. -8 Inquiry, investigation. -9 Asking, soliciting. -10 A kind of elephant; N. of the third caste of elephants; Mātaṅga L.1.26.29; ‘भद्रा मन्द्रा मृगाश्चेति विज्ञेयास्त्रिविधा गजाः । क्रमेण हिमवद्विन्ध्यसह्यजाः ।’ com. on Rām.1.6.25. -11 N. of a particular class of men; मृगे तुष्टा च चित्रिणी; वदति मधुरवाणीं दीर्घनेत्रा$तिभीरुश्चपलमतिसुदेहः शीघ्रवेगो मृगो$यम् Śabdak. -12 The lunar mansion called मृगशिरस्. -13 The lunar month called मार्गशीर्ष. -14 The sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -15 N. of a district in Śākadvīpa.  
    • (3-2-1) Etymology of मृगः is from धातुः मृग् – 4 P., 1 Ā. (मृग्यति, मृगयते, मृगित) 1 To seek, search for, seek after; न रत्नमन्विष्यति मृग्यते हि तत् Ku.5. 45; गता दूता दूरं क्वचिदपि परेतान् मृगयितुम् G. L.25. -2 To hunt, chase, pursue. -3 To aim at, strive after. -4 To examine, investigate; अविचलितमनोभिः साधकैर्मृग्यमाणः Māl.5.1; अन्तर्यश्च मुमुक्षुभिर्नियमितप्राणादिभिर्मृग्यते V.1.1 ‘inwardly sought or investigated’. -5 To ask for, beg of one; एतावदेव मृगये प्रतिपक्षहेतोः M.5.2. -6 To visit, frequent.
  • (3-3) मीनः [मी-नक्] 1 A fish; सुप्तमीन इव ह्रदः R.1.73; मीनो नु हन्त कतमां गतिमभ्युपैतु Bv.1.17. -2 The twelfth sign of the zodiac (Pisces). -3 The first incarnation of Viṣṇu; see मत्स्यावतार.
    • Etymology of मीनः is from धातुः मी I. 9 U. (मीनाति मीनीते; seldom used in classical literature) 1 To kill, destroy, hurt, injure. -2 To lessen, diminish. -3 To change, alter. -4 To transgress, violate. -5 To disappear, be lost. -6To stray, go astray. -II. 1. P., 1 U. (मयति, माययति-ते) 1 To go, move. -2 To know, understand (गीतमत्योः). -III. 4. Ā. (मीयते) To die, perish; see प्रमी; जन्तोः प्रमीयमाणस्य जीवो नैवोपलभ्यते Mb.12.186.3.
    • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning.Meaning of  धातुः मी has violence in it. मीनः is what is nonviolent.
    • Meaning of मीनः should then be taken not as synonym of मत्स्यः – [मद्-स्यन्; Uṇ.4.2] 1 A fish; शूले मत्स्यानिवा- पक्ष्यन् दुर्बलान् बलवत्तराः Ms.7.2. -2 A particular variety of fish. -3 A king of the Matsyas. -त्स्यौ (dual) The sign Pisces of the zodiac. -त्स्याः(pl.) N. of a country and its inhabitants, the country of Virāṭa q. v.; Ms. 2.19.
      • The word मत्स्यः is from धातुः मद् I. 4 P. (माद्यति, मत्त) 1 To be drunk or intoxicated; वीक्ष्य मद्यमितरा तु ममाद Śi.1.27. -2 To be mad. -3 To revel or delight in. -4 To be glad or rejoiced. -5 Ved. To satisfy, delight, gladden.-6 To enjoy supreme felicity. -Caus. (मादयति) 1 To intoxicate; inebriate, madden. -2 (मदयति) To exhilarate, gladden, delight; मायूरी मदयति मार्जना मनांसि M.1.21; प्रकृतिमधुराः सन्त्येवान्ये मनो मदयन्ति ये Māl.1.36; Śi.13.38; Ki.5.26. -3 To inflame with passion; मदयति हृदयम् Māl.3.6. -4 (Ātm.) To be glad, rejoice, be pleased. -II. 1 Ā. (मादयते) To please, gratify. -III. 1 P. (मदति) 1 To be proud. -2 To be poor.
      • It seems मत्स्य-s are more energetic than मीन-s.
  • (3-4) सज्जन – सत् जनः इति सज्जनः (कर्मधारयः)
    • सत् a. (-ती f.) 1 Being, existing, existent; सन्तः स्वतः प्रकाशन्ते गुणा न परतो नृणाम् Bv.1.12; सत्कल्पवृक्षे वने Ś.7.12. -2 Real, essential, true; Bṛi. Up.2.3.1. -3 Good, virtuous, chaste; सती सती योगविसृष्टदेहा Ku.1. 21; Ś.5.17. -4 Noble, worthy, high; as in सत्कुलम्. -5 Right, proper. -6 Best, excellent. -7 Venerable, respectable. -8 Wise, learned. -9 Handsome, beautiful. -1 Firm, steady. -m. A good or virtuous man, a sage; आदानं हि विसर्गाय सतां वारिमुचामिव R.4.86; अविरतं परकार्यकृतां सतां मधुरिमातिशयेन वचो$मृतम् Bv.1.113; Bh.2. 78; R.1.1. -n. 1 That which really exists, entity, existence, essence. -2 The really existent truth, reality. -3 Good; as in सदसत् q. v. -4 Brahman or the Supre- me Spirit. -5 Ved. Water. -6 The primary cause (कारण); य ईक्षिता$हं रहितो$प्यसत्सतोः Bhāg.1.38.11. -7 (In gram.) The termination of the present parti- ciple. (सत्कृ means 1 to respect, treat with respect, receive hospitably. -2 to honour, worship, adore. -3 to adorn.)
    • जनः [जन्-अच्] 1 A creature, living being, man. -2 An individual or person (whether male or female); क्व वयं क्व परोक्षमन्मथो मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः Ś.2.18; तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः U.2.19; so सखीजनः a female friend; दासजनः a slave, अबलाजनः &c. (In this sense जनः or अयं जनः is often used by the speaker- whether male or female, in the sing. or pl. –instead of the first personal pronoun to speak of himself in the third person); अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने Ku.5.4 (male); भगवन् परवानयं जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे R.8.81 (female); पश्यानङ्गशरातुरं जनमिमं त्रातापि नो रक्षसि Nag.1.1. (female and pl.). -3 Men collectively, the people, the world (in sing. or pl.); एवं जनो गृह्णाति M.1; सतीमपि ज्ञातिकुलैक- संश्रयां जनो$न्यथा भर्तृमतीं विशङ्कते Ś.5.17. -4 Race, nation, tribe. -5 The world beyond Maharloka, the heaven of deified mortals. -6 A low man, the mob; L. D. B.
  • (3-5) मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen

(4) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम्

  • (4-1) (अनुक्रमेण) तृणेन जलेन संतोषेण वा विहिता वृत्तिः येषांस्ते तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तिनः → तेषाम्
    • (4-1-1) तृणम् – [तृह्-नक् हलोपश्च Uṇ.5.8] 1 Grass in general; किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसरः केसरी Bh.2.29. -2 A blade of grass, reed, straw. -3 Anything made of straw (as a mat for sitting); often used as a symbol of worthlessness or uselessness; तृणमिव लघुलक्ष्मीर्नैव तानसंरुणद्धि Bh.2.17; .
      • Etymology of तृणम् is from धातुः तृह् – 7. P., 1 U., 6 P. (तृणेढि, तर्हयति-ते, तृहति, तृढ; desid. तितृक्षति, तितर्हिषति, तितृंहिषति) To injure, hurt, kill, strike; न तृणेह्मीति लोको$यं मां विन्ते निष्पराक्रमम् Bk.6.39; (तानि) तृणेढु रामः सह लक्ष्मणेन 1.19.
      • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning. तृह् means To injure, hurt, kill, strike; तृणम् is what does not at all hurt.
  • (4-2) जलम् – जल a. [जल् अच् डस्य लो वा] 1 Dull, cold, frigid = जड q. v. -2 Stupid, idiotic. -लम् 1 Water; तातस्य कूपो$-यमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति । Pt.1.322. -2 A kind of fragrant medicinal plant or perfume (ह्रीवेर). -3 The embryo or uterus of a cow. -5 The constellation called पूर्वाषाढा.
    • Etymology of जल is from धातुः जल् – I. 1 P. (जलति) 1 To be rich or wealthy. -2 To cover, hide, screen. -3 To cover (as with a net), encircle, entangle. -4 To be sharp. -5 To be cold, stiff, dull, or dumb. -II. 10 P. (जालयति) To cover, screen &c.
  • (4-3) संतोषः 1 Satisfaction, contentment; संतोषमूलं हि सुखम् Ms.4.12; संतोष एव पुरुषस्य परं निधानम् Subhāṣ. -2 Pleasure, delight, joy. -3 The thumb and fore-finger.
    • Etymology of संतोषः is from धातुः संतुष् 4 P. 1 To be pleased, satisfied or contented; संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भर्त्रा भार्या तथैव च Ms.3.6; तृष्णे जृम्भसि पापकर्मनिरते नाद्यापि संतुष्यसि Bh.3.5; Bg.3.17. -2 To have great pleasure in. -Caus. 1 To satisfy; please, gratify. -2 To present with (anything).
    • Actually धातुः संतुष् is सं + तुष् where तुष् 4 P. (तुष्यति, तुष्ट) 1 To be pleased or satisfied, be contented or delighted with anything (usually with instr.); रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः Bh.2.8; Ms.3.27; Bg.2.55; Bk.2.13;15.8; R.3.62. -2 To become calm or quiet. -3 To satisfy, please (with acc.). -Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
    • As can be noted, meaning such as “To be pleased” has passive voice inherent. In case of verbs, which have passive voice inherent, the sense of active voice such as “To please” is obtained by its causative, such as Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
      • Another such धातु is जन् 4 Ā. (जायते, जज्ञे, अजनि-अजनिष्ट, जनितुम्, जात; pass. जन्यते or जायते) 1 To be born or produced (with abl. of source of birth); अजनि ते वै पुत्रः Ait. Br.; Ms.1.9; 3.39,41; प्राणाद्वायुरजायत Rv.1.9.12; Ms.1.8; 3.76;1.75. -2 To rise, spring up, grow (as a plant &c.) -3 To be, become, happen, take place, occur; अनिष्टादिष्टलाभे$पि न गतिर्जायते शुभा H.1.6; रक्तनेत्रो$जनि क्षणात Bk.6.32; Y.3.226; Ms.1.99. -4 To be possible, applicable &c. -5 To be born or destined for anything. -Caus. (जनयति) 1 To give birth, beget, cause, produce. -2 To cause, occasion.
  • (4-4) विहित – अत्र धातुः वि+धा  
    • धा – 3 U. (दधाति, धत्ते, दधौ-दधे, अधात्-अधित धास्यति-ते, धातुम्, हित; -pass. धीयते; -caus. धापयति-ते; -desid. धित्सति-ते) 1 To put, place, set, lay, put in, lay on or upon; विज्ञातदोषेषु दधाति दण्डम् Mb.; निःशङ्कं धीयते (v. l. for दीयते) लोकैः पश्य भस्मचये पदम् H.2.132. -2 To fix upon, direct (the mind or thoughts &c.) towards (with dat. or loc.); धत्ते चक्षुर्मुकुलिनि रणत्कोकिले बालचूते Māl.3.12; दधुः कुमारानुगमे मनांसि Bk.3.11;2.7; Ms.12.23. -3 To bestow anything upon one, grant, give, confer, present (with dat., gen., or loc.); धुर्यां लक्ष्मीमथ मयि भृशं धेहि देव प्रसीद Māl.1.3; यद्यस्य सो$दधात्सर्गे तत्तस्य स्वयमाविशत् Ms.1.29. -4 To hold, contain; तानपि दधासि मातः Bv.1.68; Ś.4.4. -5 To seize, take hold of (as in the hand); धनुररिभिरसह्यं मृष्टिपीडं दधाने Bk.1.26;4.26; -6 To wear, put on, bear; गुरूणि वासांसि विहाय तूर्णं तनूनि…… धत्ते जनः काममदालसाङ्गः Rs.6.13,16; धत्ते भरं कुसुमपत्रफलावलीनाम् Bv.1.94; दधतो मङ्गलक्षौमे R.12.8;9.4; Bk.17.54. -7 To assume, take, have, show, exhibit, possess; (usually Ātm.); काचः काञ्चनसंसर्गाद्धत्ते मारकतीं द्युतिम् H. Pr.35; शिरसि मसीपटलं दधाति दीपः Bv.1.74; R.2.7; Amaru. 27.7; Me.38; Bh.3.46; R.3.1; Bk.2.1;4.16,18; Śi.9.3;1.86; Ki.5.5. -8To hold up, sustain, bear up; गामधास्यत्कथं नागो मृणालमृदुभिः फणैः Ku.6.68. -9 To support, maintain संपद्विनिमयेनोभौ दधतुर्भुवनद्वयम् R.1.26. -1 To cause, create, produce, generate, make; मुग्धा कुड्मलिताननेन दधती वायुं स्थिता तत्र सा Amaru.72. -11 To suffer, undergo, incur; दधती रतेन भृशमुत्सुकताम् Śi.9.2, 32,66. -12 To perform, do. -13 Ved. To bring, convey. -14 To appoint, fix. [The meanings of this root, like those of दा, are variously modified according to the word with which it is connected; e. g. मनः, मतिम्, धियम्, &c. धा to fix the mind or thoughts upon, resolve upon; पदं धा to set foot on, to enter; कर्णे करं धा to place the hand on the ear &c.] -With अपि (the अ being sometimes dropped). 1 (a) to close, shut; ध्वनति मधुपसमूहे श्रवणमपिदधाति Gīt.5; so कर्णौ-नयने-पिदधाति (b) to cover, hide, conceal; प्रायो मूर्खः परिभवविधौ नाभिमानं पिधत्ते Ś. Til.17. (v.l.); प्रभावपिहिता V.4.2; Śi.9.76; Bk.7. 69. -2 to hinder, obstruct, bar; भुजंगपिहितद्वारं पातालमधि- तिष्ठति R.1.8. (The following verse illustrates the use of धा with some prepositions:– अधित कापि मुखे सलिलं सखी प्यधित कापि सरोजदलैः स्तनौ । व्यधित कापि हृदि व्यजनानिलं न्यधित कापि हिमं सुतनोस्तनौ N.4.111; or, better still, the following verse of Jagannātha:– निधानं धर्माणां किमपि च विधानं नवमुदां प्रधानं तीर्थानाममलपरिधानं त्रिजगतः । समाधानं बुद्धेरथ खलु तिरोधानमधियां श्रियामाधानं नः परिहरतु तापं तव वपुः ॥ G. L.18).
    • बिहित = p. p. 1 Done, performed, made, acted. -2 Arranged, fixed, settled, appointed, determined. -3 Ordered, prescribed, decreed; विहिता व्यङ्गिता तेषाम् Pt. 1.21. -4 Framed, constructed. -5 Placed, deposited. -6 Furnished with, possessed of. -7 Fit to be done. -8 Distributed, apportioned. (See धा with वि)
  • (4-5) वृत्तिः – अत्र धातुः वृत्
    • वृत् – I. 4 Ā. (वृत्यते) 1 To choose, like; cf. वावृत्. -2 To distribute, divide. -II. 1 U. (वर्तयति-ते) To shine. III. 1 Ā. (वर्तते but Paras. also in the Aorist, Second Future and Conditional; also in the Desiderative; ववृते, अवृतत्-अवर्तिष्ट, वर्तिष्यते-वर्त्स्यति, वर्तितुम्, वृत्त) 1 To be, exist, abide, remain, subsist, stay; इदं मे मनसि वर्तते Ś.1; अत्र विषये$स्माकं महत् कुतूहलं वर्तते Pt.1; मरालकुलनायकः कथय रे कथं वर्तताम् Bv.1.3; often used merely as a copula; अतीत्य हरितो हरींश्च वर्तन्ते वाजिनः Ś.1. -2 To be in any particular condition or circumstances; पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य K.; so दुःखे, हर्षे, विषादे &c. वर्तते. -3 To happen, take place, occur, come to pass; सीतादेव्याः किं वृत्तमित्यस्ति काचित् प्रवृत्तिः U.2; सायं संप्रति वर्तते पथिक रे स्थानान्तरं गम्यताम् Śubhas. ‘now it is evening’ &c.; Ś. Til.6; अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदिता- त्मनाम् Bg.5.26. -4 To move on, proceed in regular course; सर्वथा वर्तते यज्ञः Ms.2.15; निर्व्याजमज्या ववृते Bk. 2.37; R.12.56. -5 To be maintained or supported by, live on, subsist by (fig. also); कस्त्वं किं वर्तसे ब्रह्मन् ज्ञातु- मिच्छामहे वयम् Rām.1.1.12; फलमूलवारिभिर्वर्तमाना K.172; Ms.3.77. -6 To turn, roll on, revolve; यावदियं लोकयात्रा वर्तते Ve.3. -7 To occupy or engage oneself, be occupied or engaged in, set about (with loc.); भगवान् काश्यपः शाश्वते ब्रह्मणि वर्तते Ś.1; इतरो दहने स्वकर्मणां ववृते ज्ञानमयेन वह्निना R.8.2; Ms.8.346; नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि Bg. 3.22. -8 To act, behave, conduct or demean oneself towards, do, perform, practise (usually with loc. or by itself); आर्यो$स्मिन् विनयेन वर्तताम् U.6; कविर्निसर्गसौहृदेन भरतेषु वर्तमानः Māl.1; औदासीन्येन वर्तितुम् R.1.25; मित्रवन् मय्यवर्तिष्ट Dk.; Ms.7.14;8.173;11.3. -9 To act a part, enter upon a course of conduct; साध्वीं वृत्तिं वर्तते ‘he acts an honest part’. -1 To act up to, abide by, follow; तदशक्यारम्भादुपरम्य मातुर्मते वर्तस्व Dk. -11 To have the sense of, signify, be used in the sense of; पुष्यसमीपस्थे चन्द्रमसि पुष्यशब्दो वर्तते Mbh. on P.IV.2.3 (often used in lexicons in this sense). -12 To tend or conduce to (with dat.); पुत्रेण किं फलं यो वै पितृदुःखाय वर्तते. -18 To rest or depend upon.
    • वृत्तिः – f. [वृत्-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Abiding, remaining, attitude, being in a particular state; as in विरुद्धवृत्ति, विपक्षवृत्ति &c. -3 State, condition; त्रयीं तिस्रो वृत्तीस्त्रिभुवनमथो त्रीनपि सुरान् Śiva-mahimna 27. -4 Action, movement, function, operation; शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिः R.3.43; Ku.3.73; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् (बाष्पम्) Ś.4. 15. -5 Course, method; विनयवारितवृत्तिः Ś.2.12. -6 Conduct, behaviour, course of conduct, mode of action; कुरु प्रियसखीवृत्तं सपत्नीजने Ś.4.18; Me.8; वैतसी वृत्तिः, बकवृत्तिः &c. -7 Profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of comp.); आश्रमांश्च यथासंख्यमसृजत् सहवृत्तिभिः Bhāg.3.12.41; वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् R.1.8; Ś.5.6; Pt.3.126. -3 Livelihood, maintenance, means of subsistence or livelihood; often in com.; सिंहत्वमङ्कागतसत्त्ववृत्तिः R.2.38; Ś.7.12; स्वयं- विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता Ku.5.28; (for the several means of subsistence, see Ms.4.4-6.) -9 Wages, hire. -1 Cause of activity. -11Respectful treatment; ब्रह्मचारिणः… आचार्ये प्राणान्तिकी च वृत्तिः Kau. A.1.3; त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रील्लँोकांश्च विजेष्यसि । पितृवृत्या त्विमं लोकं मातृवृत्त्या तथा परम् ॥ Mb.12.18.8. -12 Gloss, commentary, exposition; सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना Śi.2.112; काशिकावृत्तिः &c. -13 Revolving, turning round. -14 The circumference of a wheel or circle. -15 (In gram.) A complex formation requiring resolution or explanation. -16 The power or force of a word by which it expresses, indicates, or suggests a meaning; (these are three अभिधा, लक्षणा and व्यञ्जना); general character or force of a word; भ्रमयत भारती त उरुवृत्तिभिरुक्थजडान् Bhāg.1.87.36. -17 A style in composition (these are four; कौ(कै)शिकी, भारती, सात्वती and आरभटी q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारे कैशिकी वीरे सात्वत्यारभटी पुनः । रसे रौद्रे च बीभत्से वृत्तिः सर्वत्र भारती । चतस्रो वृत्तयो ह्येताः सर्वनाठ्यस्य मातृकाः ॥ S. D. -18Customary allowance. -19 Manner of thinking.
  • (4-6) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness

(5) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः – लुब्धकः च धीवरः च पिशुनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः | अतः बहुवचनम् |

  • (5-1) लुब्धक – अत्र धातुः लुभ्
    • लुभ् – I. 6 P. To bewilder, confound, perplex. -II. 4 P. (लुभ्यति, लुब्ध) 1 To covet, long for, desire eagerly (with dat. or loc.); तथापि रामो लुलुभे मृगाय. -2 To allure, entice. -3 To be bewildered or perplexed, go astray. -Caus. (लोभयति-ते) 1 To make greedy, cause to long for, produce or excite desire for; पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk. 5.48. -2 To excite lust. -3 To entice, seduce, allure, attract; लोभ्यमाननयनः श्लथांशुकैर्मेखलागुणपदैर्नितम्बिभिः R.19.26. -4 To derange, disorder, disturb.
    • लुब्धकः 1 A hunter, fowler; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजल- संतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61. -2 A covetous or greedy man. -3 A libertine. -4 The star Sirius. -5The hinder part; वैशसं नाम विषयं लुब्धकेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.53.
  • (5-2) धीवरः – धिया वरः इति धीवरः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • (5-2-1) धिया – धीः इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      • धीः – [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
      • अत्र धातुः ध्यै  –  1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.
    • (5-2-2) वर a. [वृ-कर्मणि अप्] 1 Best, excellent, most beautiful or precious, choicest, finest, royal, princely; with gen. or loc. or usually at the end of comp.; वदतां वरः R.1.59; वेदविदां वरेण 5.23;11.54; Ku.6.18; नृवरः, तरुवराः, सरिद्वरा &c. -2 Better than, preferable to; ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वराः Ms.12.13; Y.1.352. -रः 1 The act of choosing, selecting. -2 Choice, selection. -3 A boon, blessing, favour (तपोभिरिष्यते यस्तु देवेभ्यः स वरो मतः); वरं वृ or याच् ‘to ask a boon’; प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरं वृणीष्व R.2.63; भवल्लब्धवरोदीर्णः Ku.2.32; (for the distinction between वर and आशिस् see आशिस्). -4 A gift, present, reward, recompense. -5 A wish, desire in general. -6 Solicitation, entreaty. -7 Charity, alms. -8 Surrounding, enclosing. -9 Obstructing, checking. -1 A bridegroom, husband; वरं वरयते कन्या; see under वधू (1) also. -11 A suitor, wooer. -12 A dowry. -13 A son-in-law; ‘वरो जामातरि श्रेष्ठे’ इति विश्वः; रथाङ्गभर्त्रे$भिनवं वराय Śi.3.36. -14 A dissolute man, libertine. -15 A sparrow. -16 Bdellium. -रम् Saffron; (for वरम् see separately).  
      • वरम् ind. Rather or better than, preferably to, it is better that &c. It is sometimes used with the ablative; समुन्नयन् भूतिमनार्यसंगमाद्वरं विरोधो$पि समं महात्मभिः Ki.1.8. But it is generally used absolutely, वरम् being used with the clause containing the thing preferred, and न च, न तु or न पुनः with the clause containing the thing to which the first is preferred, (both being put in the nominative case); वरं मौनं कार्यं न च वचनमुक्तं यदनृतं … वरं भिक्षाशित्वं न च परधनास्वादनसुखम् H.1.116; वरं प्राणत्यागो न पुनरधमानामुपगमः ibid; वरं गर्भस्रावो वरमृतुषु नैवाभिगमनम्, वरं जातप्रेतो वरमपि च कन्यैव जनिता । वरं वन्ध्या भार्या वरमपि च गर्भेषु वसतिर्न चाविद्वान् रूपद्रविणगुणयुक्तो$पि तनयः ॥ Pt.; sometimes न is used without च, तु or पुनः; याच्ञा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा Me.6.
    • (5-2-3) धीवरः A fisherman; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61; 1.85. -रम् Iron. -री 1 A fisherman’s wife. A kind of harpoon for catching fish. -3 A fish-basket.
      • In my response to श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला I had said, “.. I would agree with you that for the word धीवर to have one meaning as fisherman, there must have been some story or logic.
      • Actually instead of the meaning ‘fisherman’ I would think that the meaning of धीवर should be ‘boatman’.
      • Then the logic can be that a boatman who takes you safely to the other bank is no less than God, who also can take you safely to the other bank. So a boatman is धीवर !
      • Recently during a trip to Kerala we saw Chinese fishing nets. Those were huge nets installed on a river bank and were mainly mechanisms to lower and lift the nets. That was fishermanship, not boatmanship.
      • I think धीवर is boatman. Most blessed among boatmen is निषादराज, who in श्रीरामायणम् ferried प्रभु श्रीरामचन्द्र to the other bank. It could be that story from which the word धीवर got its meaning, ‘a boatman’.
    • Nevertheless, in the context of मीन in this श्लोक, meaning of धीवर as fisherman seems appropriate.
  • (5-3) पिशुनाः – पिशुन a. [पिश्-उनच् किच्च; Uṇ.3.55] 1 (a) Indicating, manifesting, evincing, displaying, indicative of; शत्रूनामनिशं विनाशपिशुनः Śi.1.75; तुल्यानुरागपिशुनम् V.2.14; R.1.53; Amaru.97. (b) Memorable for, commemorating; क्षेत्रं क्षत्रप्रधनपिशुनं कौरवं तद् भजेथाः Me.48. -2 Slan- derous, back-biting, calumniating; पिशुनजनं खलु बिभ्रति क्षितीन्द्राः Bv.1.74. -3 Betraying, treacherous. -4 Harsh, cruel, unkind. -5 Wicked, malicious; malignant. -6 Low, vile, contemptible; of a wicked person; पिशुनं भोजनं भुङ्क्ते ब्रह्महत्यासमं विदुः Mb.13.136.16. -7 Foolish, stupid. -नः 1 A slanderer, back-biter, tale-bearer, base informer, traitor, calumniator; वरं प्राणत्यागो न च पिशुनवाक्येष्वभिरुचिः; H.1.116; Pt.1.34; Ms.3.161; पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः Bh.1.55. -2 Cotton. -3 An epithet of Nārada. -4 A crow. -5 N. of a goblin (said to be dangerous to pregnant women). -6 N. of a writer on अर्थशास्त्र mentioned by Kauṭilya in connection with राज- पुत्ररक्षण; Kau. A.1.17.
    • अत्र पिश् धातुः – पिश् 6 U. (पिंशति-ते) To shape, fashion, form; त्वष्टा रूपाणि पिंशतु Rv.1.184.1. -2 To be organised. -3 To light, irradiate. -4 To be reduced to one’s constituent parts. -5 Ved. To adorn, decorate.-6 To make ready, prepare.
  • (5-4) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)

(6) निष्कारणवैरिणः –

    • (6-1) निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत् निष्कारणम् |
      • निष्कारणं वैरमिति निष्कारणवैरम् |
      • निष्कारणवैरमस्यास्तीति निष्कारणवैरिन् |
      • तस्मात् निष्कारणवैरिणः-इति प्रथमाविभक्त्या बहुवचनेन च |
    • (6-2) निष्कारणम् 1 Removing, taking away. -2 Killing; cf. निकारण.
      • The prefix निष् has many shades of meaning. In explaining निष्कारणम् as निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत्, I am considering निष् to mean निषिद्धम्.
      • निष्कारणम् = without plausible reason
    • (6-3) वैरिणः – वैरिन् इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
      • वैरिन् – a. [वैरमस्त्यस्य इनि] Hostile, inimical. -m. 1 An enemy; शौर्ये वैरिणि वज्रमाशु निपतत्वर्थो$स्तु नः केवलम् Bh. 2.39; महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् Bg.3.37; R. 12.14. -2 A hero, brave person.
      • वैरम् [वीरस्य भावः अण्] 1 Hostility, enmity, animosity, spite, grudge, opposition, quarrel; दानेन वैराण्यपि यान्ति नाशम् Subhāṣ.; अज्ञातहृदयेष्वेवं वैरीभवति सौहृदम् Ś.5. 24 ‘turns into enmity’; विधाय वैरं सामर्षे नरो$रौ य उदासते । प्रक्षिप्योदर्चिषं कक्षे शेरते ते$भिमारुतम् Śi.2.42. -2 Hatred, revenge. -3 Heroism, prowess. -4 A hostile host; यदा हि पूर्वं निकृतो निकृन्तेद्वैरं सपुष्पं सफलं विदित्वा Mb.3.34.2


  • (6-4) निष्कारणवैरिणः = enemies without plausible reason.


(7) जगति – “जगत्” इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(8) Putting together meanings of different phrases as derived in (3-5), (4-6), (5-4), (6-4) and (7), the overall meaning is

  • जगति = In the world
  • मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen
  • तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness
  • लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)
  • निष्कारणवैरिणः = (are) enemies without plausible reason.

(9) To check the meter,


1-1-2-1-2-1-2-2 = 12 मात्राः

तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

1-1-1-1-2-2-1-1-1-1-2-2-2 = 18 मात्राः


2-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-2 = 12 मात्राः

निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥

2-2-1-1-2-1-2 1-1-(2) = 15 मात्राः

This conforms to यस्याः पादे प्रथमे | द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि | अष्टादश द्वितीये | चतुर्थके पञ्चदश  साऽर्या ||

(10) भर्तृहरि could have as well thought it good to make the observation as a question, say, “ Why in the world, are hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, enemies of deer, of fish and of gentlemen, (respectively), even though these are (themselves) content (merely) with grass, water and contentedness ?”

  • भर्तृहरि made it into a statement instead of a question, including therein his answer as निष्कारणम् (= without plausible reason)

(11) Do we accept भर्तृहरि’s answer or can we think of a different answer ?

(12) Thinking of deer and hunters brings to mind a story in महाभारतम्. During their 12-years long exile into forests, one night when in द्वैतवन, a flock of deer appeared in Yudhishthira’s dream and begged, “Sir, only a few of us are left. Can you oblige us by thinking of us ?” The next day, Yudhishthira narrated his dream. All agreed and the Pandavas moved on to काम्युकवन. (अध्याय 258 of वनपर्व). There is a moral, right ?

शुभमस्तु !



Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 124

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 124

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुर्विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२४) पाठः ।

When looking into Apte’s dictionary for the detailing there of धातुः वस्, at http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/contextualize.pl?p.5.apte.771718 one would find two quotes –

  1. यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति |
  2. भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे ||

(1) When searching on the internet for यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति at http://m.bhaskar.com/article/referer/521/JYO-HAS-jyts-women-with-auspicious-symptoms-4711413-NOR.html?pg=7 I came across a सुभाषितम् –

या तूत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन |

रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा ।

प्रायो विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः

यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति ।।

(1-1) This quote has 11 letters with their weightages being 2-2-1-2-2-1 1-2 1-2-1(2), hence त-त-ज-ग-ग गणाः and conforms to the meter इन्द्रवज्रा

(2) An internet search on भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे presents link to http://sarit.indology.info/exist/apps/sarit/works/%C5%9B%C4%81ntiparva__adhy%C4%81ya_026.html The quotation is second line in the verse –

सुखं दुःखान्तमालस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् ।

भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे ॥

In the dictionary the reference of the verse is mentioned as in 26th अध्याय of राजधर्मपर्व under शान्तिपर्व in श्रीमन्महाभारतम्. It is saild by महर्षी व्यास to युधिष्ठिर. In श्रीमन्महाभारतम् book with me, published by गीताप्रेस, गोरखपुर I located this verse in 27th अध्याय of राजधर्मानुशासनपर्व under शान्तिपर्व.

  • (2-1) This second quote can be split into four lines

सुखं दुःखान्तमालस्यं

दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम्

भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर् –  

दक्षे वसति नालसे ||

Thus split, each line has 8 letters and the meter is अनुष्टुभ्- or श्लोकछन्दः

(3) The second quote, though it is a part of a श्लोक in श्रीमन्महाभारतम् its import is very much as of a सुभाषितम्.

(4) Although these quotes are from different sources, there is some curious interrelation between them, in the sense that if the first quote makes a statement यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति and would prompt a question के गुणाः ? the second quote seems to provide the answer –  भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः

(5) पदच्छेदैः –

  1. या तु उत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा । प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति |
  2. सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् । भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः दक्षे वसति न आलसे ||

(6) As संस्कृताध्ययनम् both श्लोक-s merit independent studies. But the conclusion प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः in the first श्लोक prompts some deliberation.

  • (6-1) प्रायः (generally speaking) विरूपासु (विचित्रं रूपं यस्याः सा विरूपा → तासु, विरूपासु = ladies with strange looks) भवन्ति दोषाः = Generally speaking ladies with strange looks show defective character.
  • (6-2) This is so concluded based on an observation that या तु उत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा. Interpretation of this would need अन्वय as या तु समुन्नतेन उत्तरोष्ठेन (युक्ता भवति) रूक्षाग्रकेशी (च भवति) सा कलहप्रिया (भवति) |
    • (6-2-1) या तु समुन्नतेन उत्तरोष्ठेन (युक्ता भवति) = (A lady) who has upper lip uppish
    • (6-2-2) रूक्षाग्रकेशी (च भवति) = Actually रूक्षाग्रकेशी can be split in two different ways
      • (6-2-2-1) As two separate words रूक्षा and अग्रकेशी. Hence रूक्षाग्रकेशी = रूक्षा च अग्रकेशी च. Here रूक्षा means rough, dry, harsh and अग्रकेशी (अग्रे केशाः यस्याः सा) One who prefers to have her hair, rather her braided hair वेणी in the front.
Lady with braided hair normally in the back Lady with braided hair brought forward अग्रकेशी
 veNI agrakeshee
      • (6-2-2-2) रूक्षाग्रकेशी can be taken as a single compound word, comprised of रूक्ष, अग्र, केश as component words and the विग्रह as
        • अग्रे केशाः इति अग्रकेशाः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
        • रूक्षाः अग्रकेशाः यस्याः सा रूक्षाग्रकेशी
        • रूक्षाग्रकेशी = (A lady) who has dry (or erect) hair in the front or brought in the front
  • (6-3) I have some doubt about formation of feminine adjective such as रूक्षाग्रकेशी. If the masculine प्रातिपदिक of this adjective is to be taken as रूक्षाग्रकेशिन् then maybe the feminine would be रूक्षाग्रकेशिनी. If a masculine प्रातिपदिक of the adjective would be रूक्षाग्रकेश (see गुडाकेशः in गीता) then the feminine could be रूक्षाग्रकेशा  
  • (6-4) सा कलहप्रिया (भवति) = (Such lady) is quarrelsome.
  • (6-5) The poet considers ladies with uppish upper lip and रूक्षाग्रकेशी as विरूपा.
  • (6-6) That such ladies are also कलहप्रिया quarrelsome, is some curious observation, indeed !
  • (6-7) If one were to look at the statement प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः by itself, it can be taken as a simple statement of facts that any विरूपम् (विचित्रं रूपम्) is सदोषम्. But विरूपम् only of looks or only physiological handicap विरूपम् (विकलाङ्गत्वम्) has nothing to do with sharpness of intellect, as is known of अष्टावक्र Ms. Hellen Keller, also of Prof. Stephen Hawking.

(7) यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति can be also seen as a simple statement of facts. यत्र (where there is) आकृतिः (form) तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति (there are properties, attributes, characteristics). A form like amoeba, which is not even visible to naked eye also has properties.

  • (7-1) In this श्लोक the word गुणाः contrasts with दोषाः in विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः. Hence meaning of word गुणाः has to be opposite of दोषाः.
  • (7-2) Meaning of आकृतिः also has to be opposite of विरूपम्.
  • (7-3) यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति brings to mind a beautiful quote in ज्ञानेश्वरी. When a beautiful maid would wear glistening ornaments, it becomes difficult to say who adorns whom. अळंकरिले कवणा कवणे.
    • There is another beautiful श्लोक in मालविकाग्निमित्रम् by कविकुलगुरु कालिदास – पात्रविशेषे न्यस्तं गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः | जलमिव समुद्रशुक्तौ मुक्ताफलतां पयोदस्य || Art of a creator acquires yet different quality when placed in a special frame, just as a raindrop in a seashell would become a pearl.
    • There is a good सुभाषितम् in नीतिशतकम् by भर्तृहरिः – संतप्तायसि संस्थितस्य पयसो नामापि न श्रूयते | मुक्ताकारतया तदेव नलिनीपत्रस्थितं दृश्यते । स्वात्यां सागरशुक्तिमध्यपतितं तन्मौक्तिकं जायते । प्रायेणाधममध्यमोत्तमगुणस्संसर्गतो जायते । A drop of water will be lost into oblivion on a hot plate. But a drop on the leaf of a lotus will shine like a pearl. It becomes pearl if it falls into a seashell, when the constellation is shining in the sky. In general, quality, whether low, medium or excellent, is much influenced by the associations.
    • A man is known by the company he keeps.
    • When the container and the contents match, यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति Actually the import of यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति is different. It seems to state that if the container is good, the contents will also be good.
    • The logic in marketing management is that even if the contents are good, they need to be packaged attractively, need to be presented attractively. How you speak about it is also a part of packaging and presentation. There has been adage in Marathi, one who speaks well can sell brass. One who cannot speak well would not be able to sell even gold.
    • यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति is certainly debatable.

(8) Moving on to सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् । भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः दक्षे वसति न आलसे || it comes to mind that if a lazy person आलस and an industrious person दक्ष are two different containers, all good things as भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः will be with the दक्ष an industrious person, not with a lazy person आलस. This is another perception, how this second quote connects well with यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति.

(9) One can decipher four sentences in this second quote –

  • (9-1) सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं (जनयति)
    • One needs to assume the verb. I have opted it to be जनयति
    • Happiness subsequent to sorrow may cause laziness
    • I have interpreted दुःखान्तम् as subsequent to sorrow, though this word दुःखान्तम् can be deciphered variously.
      • दुःखस्य अन्तः येन तत् दुःखान्तम्
      • In दुःखान्तम् as subsequent to sorrow, दुःखस्य अन्ते यत् तत् दुःखान्तम्
    • Etymology of आलस्यम् seems interesting.
      • अलस a. [न लसति व्याप्रियते, लस्-अच्] 1 Inactive, without energy, lazy, idle, indolent. शठो नैष्कृतिको$लसः Bg.18.28. -2 Tired, fatigued, languid; मार्गश्रमादल- सशरीरे दारिके M.5; Amaru.4,88; खेदालसेव K.143,197, 211,62,98; Śi.8.7; V.3.2; Dk.2. Śi.13.48;9.39; U.1.24; Ki.1.6, V.5; गमनमलसम् Māl.1.17. -3 Soft, gentle. -4 Slow, dull (as in gait or motion); श्रोणीभारादलसगमना Me.84; तस्याः परिस्फुरितगर्भभरालसायाः U. 3.28.
      • धातुः लस् 1 P. (लसति, लसित) 1 To shine, glitter, flash; मुक्ताहारेण लसता हसतीव स्तनद्वयम् K. P.1; करवाणि चरणद्वयं सरसलसदलक्तकरागम् Gīt.1; Amaru.19; बालेन नक्तंसमयेन मुक्तं रौप्यं लसड्डिम्बमिवेन्दुबिम्बम् N.22.53 (v. l.). -2 To appear, arise, come to light. -3 To embrace. -4 To play, frolic about, skip about, dance. -4 To sound, resound.
      • लस् (to shine) → लसः (the shine, lustre) → अलसः (disgrace, disgraceful, lazy)→ आलस्यम् (laziness). So, laziness is disgraceful ! What an etymology !
        • Two forms of शिव’s dance are called as लास्य and ताण्डव, where लास्य is certainly more pleasant than ताण्डव
        • आलस्यम् may appeal to be pleasant, especially when subsequent to sorrow. But it is never graceful and hence never truly pleasant.
        • Retirement after busy life needs to be planned. It should not be आलस्यम्.
  • (9-2) दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् (भवति) ।
    • (9-2-1) The word दाक्ष्यम् can be deciphered in different ways
      • (9-2-1-1) धातुः दक्ष् – 1 Ā. (दक्षते) 1 To grow, increase. -2 To do, go or act quickly. -3 To hurt, kill. -4 To act conformably to another (P.). -5 To be competent or able; सुशंसो यश्च दक्षते Rv.7.16.6. -6 To go, move. -Caus. 1 To gladden; किंनु चित्रमधिवेदि भूपतिर्दक्षयन्द्विजगणान- पूयत Śi.14.35. -2 To make able or strong.
      • (9-2-1-2) दक्ष् → दक्षः → दाक्ष्यम् [दक्षस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Cleverness, skill, fitness, dexterity, ability; Bg.18.43. -2 Probity, integrity, honesty. -3 Industry, activity; दाक्ष्येण हीनो धर्मयुक्तो न दान्तः Mb.12.292.23.
        • दक्ष a. [दक्ष्-कर्तरि अच्] 1 Able, competent, expert, clever, skilful; नाट्ये च दक्षा वयम् Ratn.1.6; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; R.12.11. -2 Fit, suitable; दक्षेण सूत्रेण ससर्जिथाध्वरम् Bhāg.4.6.44. -3 Ready, careful, attentive, prompt; Y.1.76; रन्ध्रान्वेषणदक्षाणां द्विषामामिषतां ययौ R.12.11. -4 Honest, upright.
        • दक्षता is also दक्षस्य भावः and is often used in the sense of alertness, attentiveness
          • In military parades the leader orders “Attention !”. In शाखा-s of RSS the leader orders “संघ दक्ष”
        • दाक्षिण्यम् is also [दक्षिणस्य भावः ष्यञ्]
          • दक्षिण a. [दक्ष्-इनन् Uṇ 2.5.] 1 Able, skilful, dexterous, competent, clever; इत्यम्बरीषं नाभागिमन्वमोदन्त दक्षिणाः Mb.12.29.12. -2 Right (opp. वाम). -3 Situated on the right side. दक्षिणं परि, दक्षिणं कृ to place anyone on the right side as a mark of respect; ग्रहर्क्षताराः परियन्ति दक्षिणम् Bhāg.4.12.25. -4 South, southern; as in दक्षिणवायु, दक्षिणदिक्; आददे नातिशीतोष्णो नभस्वानिव दक्षिणः R. 4.8. -5 Situated to the south. -6 Sincere, straightforward, honest, impartial. -7 Pleasing, amiable. -8 Courteous, civil. -9 Compliant, submissive. -1 Dependent. -11Favourable; ‘दक्षिणः सरलावामपरच्छन्दानुवर्तिषु’ इति विश्वः; Ki.18.27.
      • (9-2-1-3) दक्ष् → दाक्षय् (दक्ष्-णिच् causative) → दाक्ष्य (ण्यत् adjective) → (पुं. दाक्ष्यः → तम्) Etymology (9-2-2) is given in Apte’s dictionary. This etymology (9-2-3) is mine. Etymology (9-2-2) presents दाक्ष्यम् as an abstract noun. Etymology (9-2-3) presents दाक्ष्यम् as an adjective.
    • (9-2-2) दुःखम् is both a noun and an adjective, often used adverbially
      • (9-2-2-1) दुःख a. [दुष्टानि खानि यस्मिन्, दुष्टं खनति खन्-ड, दुःख्-अच् वा Tv.] 1 Painful, disagreeable, unpleasant; सिंहानां निनदा दुःखाः श्रोतुं दुःखमतो वनम् Rām. -2 Difficult, uneasy.
      • (9-2-2-2) दुःखम् 1 Sorrow, grief, unhappiness, distress, pain, agony; सुखं हि दुःखान्यनुभूय शोभते Mk.1.1; यदेवोपनतं दुः- खात्सुखं तद्रसवत्तरम् V.3.21; so दुःखसुख, समदुःखसुख &c. -2 Trouble, difficulty; Ś. Til.12; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखमर्जितानां च रक्षणे । आये दुःखं व्यये दुःखं धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः ॥ Pt.1.163. (दुःखम् and दुःखेन are used as adverbs in the sense of ‘hardly’ ‘with difficulty’ ‘or trouble’ Ś.7.13. अव्यक्ता हि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते Bg.12.5; Ku.4.13; Pt.1.; R.19.49; H.1.158).
      • (9-2-2-3) In (9-2-2-1) one etymology is mentioned as दुःख्-अच् suggesting a धातुः दुःख् – 10 U. (दुःखयति-ते) To pain, afflict, distress.
      • (9-2-2-4) Thinking of the words सुख and दुःख, it comes to mind that सु and दुः are eminently prefixes and common factor is the letter ख. May be the letter ख is meaningful by itself, say ख = to experience. Hence दुःख = unpleasant experience and सुख = pleasant experience
        • ख also connotes आकाशतत्त्व among पञ्चमहाभूत-s
    • (9-2-3) सुखोदयम् = सुखस्य उदयः येन तत् = that which gives rise to happiness
    • (9-2-4) We should interpret दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् by putting together what all is detailed thru’ (9-2-1) .. (9-2-3). Two interpretations that come to mind are –
      • (9-2-4-1) For a दाक्ष्य sorrows or troubles are harbingers of happiness
      • (9-2-4-2) Sorrows or troubles borne with alertness will turn into happiness
  • (9-3) भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः (वा) दक्षे वसति
    • (9-3-1) Because the verb वसति is in singular, the subject words भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः relate with the verb optionally to each other. Hence I have put in वा the indeclinable for optionality.
    • (9-3-2) We should sort भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः into two sets –
      • (9-3-2-1) ह्रीः (modesty) धृतिः (forbearance) as virtues, which need to be cultivated by being दक्ष, alert, attentive, industrious
      • (9-3-2-2) भूतिः श्रीः कीर्तिः as results which will accrue from being दक्ष.
        • (9-3-2-2-1) भूति f. [भू-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Birth, production. -3 Well-being, welfare, happiness, prosperity; प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत् R.1.18; नरपतिकुलभूत्यै 2.75; स वो$स्तु भूत्यै भगवान् मुकुन्दः Vikr.1.2. -4 Success, good fortune. -5 Wealth, riches, fortune; विपत्प्रतीकारपरेण मङ्गलं निषेव्यते भूतिसमुत्सुकेन वा Ku.5.76. -6 Grandeur, dignity, majesty. -7 Ashes; भृतभूतिरहीनभोगभाक् Śi.16.71 (where भूति means ‘riches’ also); स्फुटोपमं भूतिसितेन शंभुना 1.4. -3 Decoration of elephants with coloured stripes; भक्तिच्छेदैरिव विरचितां भूतिमङ्गे गजस्य Me.19. -9 The superhuman power attainable by the practice of penance or magical rites; सूक्ष्मात् सूक्ष्मतमो$णीयान् शीघ्रत्वं लघिमागुणः । महिमाशेषपूज्यत्वात् प्राप्तिर्नाप्राप्यमस्य यत् ॥ प्राकाम्यस्य व्यापित्वादीशित्वं चेश्वरो यतः । वशित्वाद्वशिमा नाम योगिनः सप्तमो गुणः ॥ यत्रेच्छा स्थानमप्युक्तं यत्र कामावसायिता ॥ Mārk. P.4.31-33. -1 Fried meat. -11 The rutting of elephants.
        • (9-3-2-2-2) श्री f. [श्रि-क्विप् नि˚ Uṇ.2.57] 1 Wealth, riches, affluence, prosperity, plenty; अनिर्वेदः श्रियो मूलम् Rām.; साहसे श्रीः प्रतिवसति Mk.4 ‘fortune favours the brave’; कर्माव्यारभमाणं हि पुरुषं श्रीर्निषेवते Ms.9.3; Ki.7.28. -2 Royalty, majesty, royal wealth; श्रियः कुरूणामधिपस्य पालनीम् Ki.1.1. -3 Dignity, high position, state; श्री- लक्षण Ku.7.45 ‘the marks or insignia of greatness or dignity’; दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Pt.1.67; विद्युल्लेखाकनकरुचिरं श्रीवितानं ममाभ्रम् V.4.13. -4 Beauty, grace, splendour, lustre; (मुखं) कमलश्रियं दधौ Ku.5.21; 7.32; R.3.8. -5 Colour, aspect; तेषामाविरभूद् ब्रह्मा परि- म्लानमुखश्रियाम् Ku.2.2. -6 The goddess of wealth, Lak- ṣmī, the wife of Viṣṇu; आसीदियं दशरथस्य गृहे यथा श्रीः U.4.6; Ś.3.14; Śi.1.1. -7 Any virtue or excellence. -8 Decoration. -9 Intellect, understanding. -1 Super- human power. -11 The three objects of human exis- tence taken collectively (धर्म, अर्थ and काम). -12 The Sarala tree. -13 The Bilva tree.-14 Cloves. -15 A lotus. -16 The twelfth digit of the moon. -17 N. of Sarasvatī, (the goddess of speech). -18 Speech. -19 Fame, glory. -2 The three Vedas (वेदत्रयी); श्रिया विहीनैरधनैर्नास्तिकैः संप्रवर्तितम् Mb.12.1.2. (‘ऋचः सामानि यजूंषि । सा हि श्रीरमृता सताम्’ इति श्रुतेः । com.). -m. N. of one of the six Rāgas or musical modes. -a. Splendid, radiant, adorning. (The word श्री is often used as an honorific prefix to the names of deities and eminent persons; श्रीकृष्णः, श्रीरामः, श्रिवाल्मीकिः, श्रीजयदेवः; also celebrated works, generally of a sacred character; श्रीभागवत, श्रीरामायण &c.; it is also used as an auspicious sign at the commencement of letters, manuscripts &c; Māgha has used this word in the last stanza of each canto of his Śiśupālavadha, as Bhāravi has used लक्ष्मी).
        • कीर्तिः f. [कॄत्-क्तिन्] 1 Fame, renown, glory; इह कीर्तिमवाप्नोति Ms.2.9; वंशस्य कर्तारमनन्तकीर्तिम् R.2.64; स्रोतोमूर्त्या भुवि परिणतां रन्तिदेवस्य कीर्तिम् Me.47. For an interesting distinction between कीर्तिः and यशस् cf. खङ्गादिप्रभवा कीर्तिर्विद्यादिप्रभवं यशः -2 Favour, approbation. -3 Dirt, mud. -4 Extension, expansion. -5 Light, lustre, splendour. -6 Sound. -7 Mention, speech, report.
      • (9-3-2-3) भूतिः श्रीः कीर्तिः all connote prosperity and glory. To such extent they sound to be synonymous.
  • (9-4) (भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः (वा)) आलसे न वसति
  • (9-5) By comparison between (9-3) and (9-4) it is obvious that दक्ष is antonymous to  आलस. That is why I have put in (9-3-2-1) being दक्ष as being alert, attentive, industrious.
    • There is a सुभाषितम् which puts these two exactly as antonyms – आलस्यं हि मनुष्याणां शरीरस्थो महारिपुः | नास्त्युद्यमसमो बन्धुः कृत्वा यं नावसीदति ॥

(10) Actually I had started upon this compilation much before the previous lesson #123 on रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा | मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया | कामो ह्रियं शीलमनार्यसेवा | क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम् || The words श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः (धैर्यम्) are common between both these lessons.

  • (10-1) In the previous lesson, there was mention of which vice affects which virtue. So virtues were also mentioned there, viz. रूपम्, धैर्यम्, प्राणाः, धर्मचर्या, ह्रीः, शीलम्, श्रीः.
  • (10-2) The second श्लोक here gives a single key दाक्ष्यम् to overcome all vices, rather, to insure oneself against all vices.
  • (10-3) संत रामदास (17th century) precept of श्रीशिवछत्रपती puts this beautifully in दासबोध – अखंड सावधान असावे | दुश्चित्त कदापि नसावे | अंतरी असो द्यावे | समाधान || – One should be alert all the time. Never have vicious thoughts. May there be peace internalized.

शुभमस्तु !


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 123

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 123

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रिविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२३) पाठः ।

There are many powerful words in Sanskrit. One such word is नीतिः. It is powerful, because there would be many compositions, which have नीतिः as the main import. Three such compositions come to mind –

(1) नीतिशतकम् by राजा भर्तृहरिः, It is a treasure-trove of good sayings सुभाषितानि. Many lessons in this blog dwelt on these सुभाषितानि.

(2) नीतिसूत्राणि by आचार्य चाणक्य, who distinguished himself In the annals of diplomacy, strategy and/or political wisdom as also administration and governance at large, He also composed aphorisms सूत्राणि which stand out as diktats on behaviour.

(3) विदुरनीतिः in प्रजागरपर्वम् under उद्योगपर्वम् in महाभारतम्.

In Apte’s dictionary नीतिः f. 1 Guidance, direction, management. -2 Conduct, manner of conducting oneself, behaviour, course of action. -3 propriety, decorum. -4 Policy, prudence, wisdom, right course; आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः N.5.13; R.13.69; Ku.1.22. -5 A plan, contrivance, scheme; भूयः स्नेहविचेष्टितैर्मृगदृशो नीतस्य कोटिं पराम् Māl.6.3. -6 Politics, political science, statesmanship, political wisdom; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3; दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् Bg.1.38. -7 Righteousness, moral conduct, morality. -8 The science of morality, morals, ethics, moral philosophy; निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु Bh.2.83. -9 Acquirement, acquisition. -10 Giving, offering, presenting. -11 Relation, support.

  • (3-1) By etymology नीतिः is abstract feminine noun from धातुः नी So the meanings of नीतिः are from those of धातुः नी
  • नी 1 U. (नयति-ते, निनाय-निन्ये, अनैषीत्-अनेष्ट, नेष्यति-ते, नेतुम्, नीत) One of the roots that govern two accusatives, see examples below) 1 To carry, lead, bring, convey, take, conduct; अजां ग्रामं नयति Sk; नय मां नवेन वसतिं पयोमुचा V.4.43. -2 To guide, direct, govern; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः M.1.2. -3 To lead away to, carry or bring away; सीता लङ्कां नीता सुरारिणा Bk.6.49; R.12.13; Ms.6.88. -4 To carry off; Śānti.3.5. -5 To carry off for oneself (Ātm.). -6 To spend, or pass (as time); येनामन्दमरन्दे दलदरविन्दे दिनान्यनायिषत Bv.1.1; नीत्वा मासान् कतिचित् Me.2; संविष्टः कुशशयने निशां निनाय R.1.95. -7 To bring or reduce any person to any state or condition; तमपि तरलतामनयदनङ्गः K.143; नीतस्त्वया पञ्चताम् Ratn.3. 3; R.8.19. (In this sense the root is used with substantives much in the same way as कृ q. v.; e. g. दुःखं नी to reduce to misery; वशं नी to reduce to subjection, win over; अस्तं नी to cause to set; विनाशं नी to destroy; परितोषं नी to gratify, please; शूद्रतां-दासत्वं &c. नी to reduce to the state of a Śūdra, slave &c.; साक्ष्यं नी to admit as a witness; दण्डं नी to inflict punishment upon, to punish; पुनरुक्ततां नी to render superfluous; विक्रयं नी to sell; भस्मतां-भस्मसात् नी to reduce to ashes &c. -8 To ascertain, investigate, inquire into, settle, decide; छलं निरस्य भूतेन व्यवहारान्नयेन्नृपः Y.2.19; एवं शास्त्रेषु भिन्नेषु बहुधा नीयते क्रिया Mb. -9 To trace, track, find out; एतैर्लिङ्गैर्नयेत् सीमाम् Ms.8.252,256; यथा नयत्यसृक्पातैर्मृगस्य मृगयुः पदम् 8.44; Y.2.151. -10 To marry. -11 To exclude from. -12 (Ātm.) To instruct, give instruction in; शास्त्रे नयते Sk.

With these introductory remarks, I would like to take up for study following श्लोकः from विदुरनीतिः –

जरा हरति रूपं हि धैर्यमाशा

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया |

कामो ह्रियं वृत्तमनार्यसेवा

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः ||

In the books of महाभारतम्, which I have with me, I find this श्लोकः quoted at two places –

  • (1) as श्लोकः 50 in उद्योगपर्वणि प्रजागरपर्वणि अध्याय 35
  • (2) as श्लोकः ८ in उद्योगपर्वणि प्रजागरपर्वणि अध्याय 37. There is a small पाठभेद. In (1) in line 3, the wording is शीलमनार्यसेवा, in place of वृत्तमनार्यसेवा in (2).

पदच्छेदैः –

जरा हरति रूपं हि धैर्यम् आशा

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्याम् असूया |

कामः ह्रियं वृत्तम् (शीलम्) अनार्यसेवा

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वम् एव अभिमानः ||

अन्वयार्थाश्च –

  1. जरा रूपं हरति | = Age affects (or takes away) beauty
  2. आशा धैर्यम् हि (हरति) | = Greed affects (or takes away) forbearance
  3. मृत्युः प्राणान् (हरति) | = Death affects (or takes away) life
  4. असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) | = Envy affects (or takes away) balance
  5. कामः ह्रियं (हरति) | = Passion affects (or takes away) propriety
  6. अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) (हरति) | = Bad company affects (or takes away) personality
  7. क्रोधः श्रियं (हरति) | = Anger affects (or takes away) grace
  8. अभिमानः सर्वम् एव हरति | = Ego affects (or takes away) everything.

अध्ययनम् –

(1) I thought it good to follow a common SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) pattern for the अन्वय-s and a common SVO (Subject-Verb-Object) pattern for the English translations.

(2) The verb हरति is mentioned only once in the first line in the श्लोकः. But that is the verb which applies common in all sentences. I indulged in some deliberation to think of a single verb in English, which will fit all the sentences. I have concluded upon “हरति = affects (or takes away)”. One should appreciate the need for deliberation. हरति is लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् of धातुः हृ which is detailed with 14 meanings in Apte’s dictionary –

हृ – 1 U. (हरति-ते, जहार, जहे, अहार्षीत्, अहृत, हरिष्यति-ते, हर्तुम्, हृत; pass. ह्रियते) 1 To take, carry, convey, lead, (often used with two accusatives in this sense); अजां ग्रामं हरति ŚK.; संदेशं मे हर धनपतिक्रोधवश्लेषितस्य Me.7; Ms.4.74. -2 To carry off or away, take or draw to a distance; हरामि रामसौमित्री मृगो भूत्वा मृगद्युवौ Bk.5.47. -3 To take away, rob, plunder, steal; दुर्वृत्ता जारजन्मानो हरिष्यन्तीति शङ्कया Bv.4.45; R.3.39; Ku.2.47; Bk.2.39; Ms. 7.43. -4 To strip off, deprive of, despoil, take away; वृन्ताद्श्लथं हरति पुष्पमनोकहानाम् R.5.69; Bk.15.116; Ms.8. 334. -5 To take away, cure, destroy; उत्कण्ठां तां हरिष्यामि मेघलेखामिबानिलः Rām.7.4.19; तथापि हरते तापं लोकानामुन्नतो घनः Bv.1.39; R.15.24; Me.31. -6 To attract, captivate, win over, influence, subdue, enchant; चेतो न कस्य हरते गतिरङ्गनायाः Bv.2.157; ये भावा हृदयं हरन्ति 1.13; तवास्मि गीतरागेण हारिणा प्रसभं हृतः Ś.1.5; हरति मे हरिवाहनदिङ्मुखम् V.3.6; मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी R.9.69;1.83; Ṛs. 6.21; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः Bg.2.6;6.44; Ms.6.59. -7 To gain, acquire, obtain; ततो विंशं नृपो हरेत् Ms.8.391,153; Y.2.123; स हरतु सुभगपताकाम् Dk. -8To have, possess; अङ्गैः सुकुमारतरैः सा कुसुमानां श्रियं हरति Bv.2.163. -9 To surpass, eclipse; त्वां हरन्तीं श्रियं हरति Bk.5.71. -10 To marry; पित्रे न दद्याच्छुल्कं तु कन्यामृतुमतीं हरन् Ms.9.93. -11 To divide. -12 To cast, throw (as an arrow). -13 To accept, receive, inherit. -14 To offer.

(3) When deliberation was needed to conclude upon हरति = affects”, deliberation was necessary for choosing the English words for every other Sanskrit word, since every Sanskrit word seems to have a number of shades of meaning. I have made my choices. Readers may think of theirs. The श्लोक is interesting primarily for the challenge it offers to make the choices of English words. That would be the challenge in translating the verse not only into English, but maybe, into any other language.

(4) I sensed some difficulty in smooth recitation of the श्लोक. The reason, I notice, is because the first line has 12 letters, whereas all the other three lines have 11 letters. I wonder, the first line can be fitted into the pattern of 11 letters by putting it as रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा. By that the prosodic analysis will be

रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा

(2-2 1)-(1-1 1)-(2 2-1)-2-2

त-न-त-ग-ग (

The prosodic analysis of other lines is –

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया |

(2-2 2)-(2 2-1)-(2-2-1)-2-2

म-त-त-ग-ग (शालिनी)

कामो ह्रियं वृत्तमनार्यसेवा

(2-2 1)-(2 2-1)-(1-2-1)-2-2

त-त-ज-ग-ग (इन्द्रवज्रा)

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः

(2-2 1)-(2 2-1)-(2-2-1)-2-2


  • With different lines having different meters, it becomes an उपजातिछन्दस्. This is not uncommon for verses with 11 letters in each line.
  • There again it seems that verses with 11 letters become smoother for recitation, if the first letter is with weightage 2.

(5) There are 16 nouns in the eight sentences – 8 subjects and 8 objects. All of them can be said to be abstract nouns, since the definition of abstract noun is “.. a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object…”  Parallel Sanskrit terminology for ‘abstract noun’ should be भाववाचकं नाम We can hence say that this one is a भावमयं सुभाषितम्, appealing to the sensibilities.

(6) Since the abstract nouns are idea, quality or state, it should be interesting to check which noun is what. जरा is state, रूपम् is quality, आशा is idea, धैर्यम् is quality, मृत्युः state, प्राणाः state/quality धर्मचर्या quality, असूया is quality, कामः is quality, ह्रीः is idea, वृत्तम् is state अनार्यसेवा is quality, क्रोधः is state श्रीः is state सर्वम् is pronoun अभिमानः is quality. I was wanting to check, whether there is any pattern.

(7) The eight sentences are eight statements. Some of them fairly straightforward and do not need elaboration. But others do.

  • (7-1) जरा रूपं हरति is straightforward
  • (7-2) आशा धैर्यं हरति needs elaboration. Here one should interpret आशा as intense urge and धैर्यम् as forbearance or patience. Sai Baba of Shirdi advised his devotees to cultivate श्रद्धा (= faith) and सबूरी i.e. forbearance or patience.
  • (7-3) मृत्युः प्राणान् (हरति) is straightforward
  • (7-4) I have interpreted असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) as Envy affects (or takes away) balance. It would be good to devote some study of the words असूया and धर्मचर्या.
    • असूया 1 Envy, intolerance, jealousy (of the happiness of others); क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यासूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः P.I.4.37;III.4.28;VIII.1.8. सासूयम् enviously. -2 Calumny, detraction (of the merits of others); असूया परगुणेषु दोषाविष्करणम् Sk. (= दोषारोपो गुणेष्वपि Ak.); Ms.7.48; R.4.23. -3 Anger, indignation; वधूरसूया- कुटिलं ददर्श R.6.82; सासूयमुक्ता सखी Ś.2.2.
    • Actually since न सूया इति असूया (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः) we should understand what सूया means.
      • Just as माया is from धातुः मा, सूया should be from धातुः सू
      • सू I. 2, 4 Ā. (सूते, सूयते, सूत) To bring forth, produce, beget, yield (fig. also); मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् Bg.9.1; असूत सा नागवधूपभोग्यम् Ku.1.2; कीर्तिं सूते दुष्कृतं या हिनस्ति U.5.31. -With प्र to bring forth, beget, produce. -II. 6 P. (सुवति) 1 To excite, incite, impel. -2 To remit (as debt).
    • Alternatively the derivation can be धातुः सू → ण्यत्-प्रत्ययेन सूय → तस्य स्त्रीलिङ्गम् सूया Since सू (= to beget), then सूय = may be brought forth. If what is सूय to other person, remains असूय to me, I become envious, I get overwhelmed by असूया.
    • In interpreting असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) as Envy affects (or takes away) balance, I have interpreted धर्मचर्या as balance. I think it is a good interpretation.
  • (7-5) कामः ह्रियं (हरति) | = Passion affects (or takes away) propriety.
    • I have interpreted ह्रीः as propriety. In Apte’s dictionary ह्री f. 1 Shame; रतेरपि ह्रीपदमादधाना Ku.3.57; दारिद्र्याद् ह्रियमेति ह्रीपरिगतः प्रभ्रश्यते तेजसः Mk.1.14; R.4.8. -2 Bashfulness, modesty; ह्रीसन्नकण्ठी कथमप्युवाच Ku.7.85.
    • This brings to mind a line in मेघदूतम् – कामार्ता हि प्रकृतिकृपणाश्चेतनाचेतनेषु meaning कामार्त one, overwhelmed by passion becomes प्रकृतिकृपण weak in character and in turn becomes incapable of judging between चेतनाचेतनेषु who is capable and who is not capable.
    • There is another perception of being प्रकृतिकृपण weak in character in the midst of चेतनाचेतनेषु. In India, also in Muslim societies, kissing in public is considered as a matter of impropriety. I think that it should be so anywhere. Kissing involves intimacy. Intimacy between two persons ought to be a private matter. Those who kiss in public and get intimate with each other in public, become oblivious to how their intimacy will affect people around. Being unconcerned of how the public will get affected is not logical, social behaviour. It is improper. It is devoid of  ह्री i.e. Bashfulness, modesty.
  • (7-6) अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) (हरति) | = Bad company affects (or takes away) personality. This sentence certainly merits analysis and deliberation.
    • अनार्यसेवा =
      • न आर्यः इति अनार्यः (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
      • अनार्यस्य सेवा अनार्यसेवा (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
      • आर्यः a. [ऋ-ण्यत्] 1 Āryan, an inhabitant of आर्यावर्त, N. of the race migrated into India in Vedic times. -2 Worthy of an Ārya. -3 Worthy, venerable, respectable, honourable, noble, high; यदार्यमस्यामभिलाषि मे मनः Ś.1.22; R.2.33; so आर्यवेषः respectable dress; oft. used in theatrical language as an honorific adjective and a respectful mode of address; आर्यचाणक्यः, आर्या अरुन्धती &c.; आर्य revered or honoured Sir; आर्ये revered or honoured lady. The following rules are laid down for the use of आर्य in addressing persons:– (1) वाच्यौ नटीसूत्रधारावार्यनाम्ना परस्परम् । (2) वयस्येत्युत्तमैर्वाच्यो मध्यैरार्येति चाग्रजः । (3) (वक्तव्यो) अमात्य आर्येति चेतरैः । (4) स्वेच्छया नामभिर्विप्रैर्विप्र आर्येति चेतरैः । S. D.431. -4 Noble, fine, excellent. -र्यः 1 N. of the Hindu and Iranian people, as distinguished from अनार्य, दस्यु and दास; विजानीह्यार्यान्ये च दस्यवः Rv.1.51.8. -2 A man who is faithful to the religion and laws of his country; कर्तव्यमाचरन् कार्यमकर्तव्यमनाचरन् । तिष्ठति प्रकृताचारे स वा आर्य इति स्मृतः ॥ -3 N. of the first three castes (as opp. to शूद्र). -4 respectable or honourable man, esteemed person; वृत्तेन हि भवत्यार्यो न धनेन न विद्यया Mb.; परमार्यः परमां कृपां बभार Bu. Ch.5.6. -5 A man of noble birth. -6 A man of noble character. -7 A master, owner. -8 A preceptor; वैमानि- कार्यसमभूमा Viś. Guṇā.124; Mu.3.33.-9 A friend. -10 A Vaiśya. -11 A father-in-law (as in आर्यपुत्र). -12 A Buddha. -13 (With the Buddhists) A man who has thought on the four chief principles of Buddhism and lives according to them. -14 A son of Manu Sāvarṇa.
    • सेवा [सेव्-अ] 1 Service, servitude, dependence; attendance; सेवां लाघवकारिणीं कृतधियः स्थाने श्ववृत्तिं विदुः Mu. 3.14; हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या H.3.11. -2 Worship, homage, honouring. -3 Addiction or devotion to, fondness for. -4 Use, practice, employment, exercise. -5 Frequenting, resorting to. -6 Flattery, coaxing or flattering words; अलं सेवया मध्यस्थतां गृहीत्वा भण M.3.
    • The word सेवा is from धातुः सेव् 1 Ā. (सेवते, सेवित; caus. सेवयति-ते; desid. सिसेविषते; the स् of सेव् is generally changed to ष् after prepositions ending in इ such as नि, परि, वि) 1 To serve, wait or attend upon, honour, worship, obey; प्रायो भृत्यास्त्यजन्ति प्रचलितविभवं स्वामिनं सेवमानाः Mu.4.21; आचारपूतं पवनः सिषेवे R.2.13. ‘served or refreshed’; ऐश्वर्यादनपेतमीश्वरमयं लोको$र्थतः सेवते Mu.1.14. -2 To go after, pursue, follow. -3 To use, enjoy; किं सेव्यते सुमनसां मनसापि गन्धः कस्तूरिकाजननशक्तिभृता मृगेण R. G. -4 To enjoy carnally; केतकीं सेवसे हन्त कथं रोलम्ब निस्त्रपः Bv.1.118. -5 To attach or devote oneself to, attend to, cultivate, practice, perform; विद्वद्भिः सेवितः (धर्मः) Ms.2.1; त्वया मनोनिर्विषयार्थ- कामया यदेक एव प्रतिगृह्य सेव्यते Ku.5.38; R.17.49. -6 To resort to, betake oneself to, dwell in, frequent, inhabit; तप्तं वारि विहाय तीरनलिनीं कारण्डवः सेवते V.2.23; Pt.1.9. -7 To watch over, guard, protect.
    • The quotation हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या H.3.11 is similar to the phrase here अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) हरति. Internet search on हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या brings forth two examples/references
      • हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या कर्तव्यो महदाश्रयः । पयोऽपि शौण्डिकीहस्ते वारुणीत्यभिधीयते ॥
      • हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या कर्तव्यो महदाश्रयः । राममासाद्य लङ्कायार्लेभे राज्यं बिभीषणः ||
      • The same moral is quoted in मेघदूतम् – याञ्चा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा
    • It is important to note that in the phrase  here अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) हरति meaning of अनार्य is not a racial reference.
    • In Apte’s dictionary, अनार्य a. Not respectable (not deserving to be styled आर्य), not polite or decent; vulgar; unworthy, vile, base, mean, wretched; शकुन्तलायामनार्यमाचरितं तेन राज्ञा Ś.4 the king has behaved basely or unworthily towards Śakuntalā; कदाचिदस्मिन्नप्यनार्यो$नार्यमाचरिष्यति Ve.4. न मां कामेष्वनार्येषु प्रचारयितुमर्हसि । Bu. ch.4.96. An ignoble person.
    • There is a good proverb in English “Man is known by the company he keeps”. If the company is bad, person’s image वृत्तम् (शीलम्) will certainly get tarnished.
    • I think, the word शीलम् is clearer in meaning than the word वृत्तम्.
      • वृत्त p. p. [वृत्-कर्तरि-क्त] 1 Lived, existed. -2 Occurred, happened. -3 Completed, finished. -4 Performed, done, acted. -5 Past, gone. -6 Round, circular; निवृत्त- वृत्तोरुपयोधरक्लमः Ki.8.3; विशालवक्षास्तनुवृत्तमध्यः R.6.32. -7 Dead, deceased; पत्यौ जीवति वृत्तायाः प्रजायास्तद्धनं भवेत् Ms.9.195; वृत्तं युद्धे शूरमाश्लिष्य काचित् Śi.18.6. -8 Firm, fixed. -9 Read through, studied; P.VII.2.26. -10 Derived from. -11 Famous. -12 Covered; स्वभावस्रोतसा वृत्तमुह्यते सततं जगत् Mb.12.235.13. -13 Turned. -14 Unim-paired (अप्रतिहत); महाभूतादि (व्यञ्जयन्) वृत्तौजाः प्रादुरासीत्तमोनुदः Ms.1.6. (See वृत्). -त्तः 1 A tortoise. -2 A kind of grass. -3 A round temple. -त्तम् 1 An event, occurrence. -2 History, account; वृत्तं रामस्य वाल्मीकेः कृतिस्तौ किन्नरस्वनौ R. 15.64. -3 News, tidings; समरवृत्तविबोधसमीया कुरुवरेण मुदा कृतयाचनः Veda-Vyāsāṣṭaka 6. -4 Practice, profession, mode of life, occupation; सतां वृत्तमनुष्ठिताः Ms.1.127; 7.122; Y.3.44. -5 Conduct, behaviour, manner, act, action; as in सद्वृत्त, दुर्वृत्त. -6 Good or virtuous conduct; एवं चलितवृत्तस्तु वृत्तशेषं न रक्षति Pt.4.28. -7 An established rule or usage, law, custom; observance of such rule or usage, duty; किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूर्वृत्ते स्थितस्याधिपतेः प्रजानाम् R.5.33. -8 A circle, circumference of a circle. -9 A metre in general, especially a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. जाति); पद्यं चतुष्पदी तच्च वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा । वृत्तमक्षर- संख्यातं जातिर्मात्राकृता भवेत् । सममर्धसमं वृत्तं विषमं चेति तत् त्रिधा । Chand. M.; see App. -10 The epicycle. -11 Transformation, change into. -12 Appearance.
      • I could not get in Apte’s dictionary the word शीलम् or शील. But I got many examples of its usage, especially at the end of a compound such as
        • दुश्शील a. ill-mannered or ill behaved
        • also पुण्यशील a. of a virtuous disposition, inclined to pious acts, virtuous, pious, righteous.-श्लोक a. ‘well-spoken of’, or ‘auspicious to repeat or utter the name of’, of good fame; Dk.2.8.
  • (7-7) क्रोधः श्रियं (हरति) | = Anger affects (or takes away) grace. It has always been challenging for me to translate the word श्रियम् (द्वितीया, एकवचनम् of श्रीः). But I think in the given context श्रीः = grace is a good translation.
  • (7-8) अभिमानः सर्वम् एव हरति | = Ego affects (or takes away) everything. I think अहंकारः would have conveyed the meaning more accurately than अभिमानः I say this because अभिमानः is not always bad. Rather one should cultivate self-respect स्वाभिमान. If  अहंकारः would be a better word, would it fit into smooth recitation ? Presently the last line is क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः Instead क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारो हि सर्वम् or क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम्
    • अहंकार is quoted as the premium among vices in गीता.
      • अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः (16-18)
      • अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहः (18-53)

(8) Although there are eight sentences, रूपं हरति जरा and मृत्युः प्राणान् are such facts of life, that one can hardly do anything about them. The other six are related to six vices आशा, असूया, कामः, अनार्यसेवा, क्रोधः, अहंकारः The six vices are called as षड्रिपवः six enemies and are variously quoted such as काम-क्रोध-लोभ-दम्भ-मद-मत्सर or काम-क्रोध-दम्भ-मोह-मद-मत्सर For a comparative study, I may tabulate these as –

आशा असूया कामः अनार्यसेवा क्रोधः अहंकारः
लोभः मत्सरः कामः दम्भः क्रोधः मदः
मोहः मत्सरः कामः दम्भः क्रोधः मदः
  • One can agree that आशा, लोभः, मोहः are synonymous. असूया and मत्सरः are also synonymous. कामः and क्रोधः are same in all three styles.
  • There should not be much argument about considering अहंकारः and मदः to be considered synonymous.
  • By elimination, we are left with अनार्यसेवा and दम्भः to be taken as synonymous. Rather taking अनार्यसेवा and दम्भः as synonymous, adds an interesting shade to the meaning of the word अनार्यसेवा !
    • In the dictionary दम्भः [दम्भ्-घञ्] 1 Deceit, fraud, trickery; Ms.4.163. -2 Religious hypocrisy; Bg.16.4. -3 Arrogance. pride, ostentation. -4 Sin, wickedness.
    • In place of the second meaning given above as ‘religious hypocrisy’, I think a more general meaning as ‘hypocrisy’ is also appropriate.
    • Considering that the word अनार्यसेवा would include offensive behaviour, deceit, fraud, trickery, hypocrisy are certainly so.
    • दाम्भिक is derived from दम्भ In the dictionary दाम्भिक a. (-की f.) [दम्भेन चरति धर्मम्-ठक्] 1 Deceitful, hypocritical. -2 Proud, imperious. -3 Ostentatious, sanctimonious. -कः 1 A cheat. -2 A hypocrite.
    • दम्भ is also posing or pretending oneself to be one, what one is not. All actors do that. But they do not do so with any intention of cheating. When Ravana posed himself at सीताकुटी as a mendicant, it was दम्भ, it was अनार्यसेवा.

(9) With preferable words and with few of my modifications the सुभाषितम् would become – रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा | मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया | कामो ह्रियं शीलमनार्यसेवा | क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम् || I am proposing my modifications with no sense of अहंकार. I am proposing these with humble recourse to  what is said in the श्लोक – पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् | न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् … (Everything is not good simply because it is old; nor a poem should be condemned simply because it is new; – Actually the श्लोक-s and hence the poetry is not mine. The two श्लोक-s are from विदुरनीति. My suggestions are just an attempt to see whether the recitation can be smoother.)

शुभमस्तु !


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वाविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२२) पाठः ।

Pun श्लेषः is a very interesting literary ornament अर्थालङ्कारः   of any language. This cannot be more true for a language as Sanskrit. I came across the following one in a post by Dr. Subramanian Swamy on his Facebook page.

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् |

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् ||

When doing search on the internet on this verse, I came across some interesting mention at https://www.facebook.com/INDClub/posts/995595803792674 There it is said that “… In 1982, Gurupad K. Hegde wrote an entire book titled “Pun in Sanskrit Literature”. (published by Mysore College and has more than 300 examples. …”

Since both lines are identical, the pun or difference in meaning would come from splitting the words differently, i.e. by different पदच्छेद-s.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम्

(2) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम्

With these two पदच्छेद-s, the syntax will also be different.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज |

(2) तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज |

For deciphering the meanings, we need to focus mainly on four words अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रम् मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रम्

(1) अज्ञानदायकम् –

  • (1-1) न ज्ञानम् इति अज्ञानम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-2) दायकम् – दा-धातुतः ण्वुल्-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् यद्ददाति तद्दायकम्
  • (1-3) अज्ञानस्य दायकम् इति अज्ञानदायकम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-4) अज्ञानदायकम् = That which causes unintelligence

(2) तमाखुपत्रम् –

  • (2-1) तमाखोः पत्रम् इति तमाखुपत्रम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (2-2) तमाखोः – “तमाखु” (= tobacco) इति नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-3) पत्रम् – “पत्र” (= leaf) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-4) तमाखुपत्रम् = tobacco-leaf

(3) मा-ज्ञानदायकम् – माज्ञानदायक-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (3-1) मायाः ज्ञानम् इति माज्ञानम् (पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुषः अथवा षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-2) माज्ञानस्य दायकः माज्ञानदायकः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-3) मायाः – मा (= Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (3-4) माज्ञानदायकः =
    • (3-4-1) One who provides knowledge of or about (षष्ठी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati
    • (3-4-2) One, who provides knowledge (as available from (पञ्चमी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati

(4) आखुपत्रम् – आखुपत्र-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (4-1) आखुः पत्रं यस्य सः आखुपत्रः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (4-2) आखुः = a mouse
  • (4-3) पत्रम् = vehicle
  • (4-4) आखुपत्रः = one, who has a mouse as his vehicle i.e. गणेशः

(5) The सुभाषितम् is said to have the context of an incident between a king and his well-wishing minister.

  • The king had become addicted to chewing tobacco-leaf. The minister knew that that is not good for the king. So, he said to the king राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज Do not chew the tobacco-leaf, which causes loss of intelligence or which brings to you a blemish of being unintelligent
  • The king agreed, but asked, “What can I do ?” The minister suggested राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज Engage yourself in singing the praise of Ganesh, who provides knowledge.

(6) It was possible for the minister to use the same words, but convey two different meanings, because Sanskrit affords great freedom from syntax.

(7) The two different meanings would get more appropriately conveyed by difference in intonation.

  • In the first instance तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् would have the word तमाखुपत्रं being said in one continuous utterance.
  • In the second instance the same word तमाखुपत्रं would rather be pronounced as तम् आखुपत्रं with clear split of the संधि.

(8) This brings forth some significance of Vedic mantras often written with diacritic marks, called as स्वरांकनम् In the present case,

  • for the first instance the तमाखुपत्रं may rather have a short vertical line, superscript between the letters मा and खु, rather, after the letter मा, indicating some extended pronunciation of मा. So the word would be written as तमा|खुपत्रं
  • for the second instance apart from clear split as तम् आखुपत्रं, there could be an underscore below the letter त suggesting a little stress on this letter, which will also help the split pronunciation. So it may rather be written as म् आखुपत्रं.

(9) Even when writing माज्ञानदायकम्

  • for the first instance, where it is to be interpreted as संधि of मा + अज्ञानदायकम् one may write it with an अवग्रह (ऽ) hence as माऽज्ञानदायकम्
  • for the second instance, where it is intended to be a compound word, one would write it as a single word माज्ञानदायकम्.
  • Note, संधि is compulsory when composing a compound word. In a sentence, it is optional. This is very succinctly clarified in a verse संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

(10) Using स्वरांकनम् would rob the verse of the intended pun. Using the अवग्रह would also rob the pun from the write-up, though the pronunciation would be the same.

(11) Use of स्वरांकनम् or of अवग्रह then is a matter of discretion विवक्षा. When pun is intended, the discretion विवक्षा should rather be not to use them.

(12) Statements of philosophical, eternal truths would have no pun, no double meaning, only one meaning. Hence स्वरांकनम् is very important for such statements as in Vedic literature. स्वरांकनम् is related to pronunciation, related to correct pronunciation, and that is how Vedic literature is said to have been passed on and preserved down thousands of years, we must acknowledge the significance of this oral tradition that we have the Vedic literature till date even though great libraries of Nalanda and Takshshila were burnt down, where, they say, the embers were burning for nearly four weeks (so huge was the store of knowledge !)

(13) Knowledge acquired should be retained in the mind and in the memory. That is the essence of the oral tradition. God has provided human mind with incalculable amount of memory storage, that too with great retrievability. ऋषि-s and मुनि-s had realized that and put a great faith in that and very thoughtfully devised the teacher-disciple scheme of education (गुरु-शिष्य-परंपरा), rather than the present day textbook scheme of education.

(14) Coming back to the verse, most charming part is that two statements, grammatically opposite of each other, one in the affirmative and the other its negative, तमाखुपत्रं मा भज and तमाखुपत्रं भज are both valid !

(15) The verb भज is also interesting. The धातु is, भज् having क्त-कृदन्त as भक्त. This धातु भज् has as many as 20+ shades of meaning as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • भज् I. 1 U. (भजति-ते but usually Atm. only; बभाज, भेजे, अभाक्षीत्, अभक्त, भक्ष्यति-ते, भक्त) 1 (a) To share, distribute, divide; भजेरन् पैतृकं रिक्थम् Ms.9.14; न तत्पुत्रै- र्भजेत् सार्धम् 29,119. (b) To assign, allot, apportion; गायत्रीमग्नये$भजत् Ait. Br. -2 To obtain for oneself, share in, partake of; पित्र्यं वा भजते शीलम् Ms.1.59. -3 To accept, receive; चामुण्डे भगवति मन्त्रसाधनादावुद्दिष्टामुपनिहितां भजस्व पूजाम् Māl.5.25. -4 (a) To resort to, betake oneself to, have recourse to; शिलातलं भेजे K.179; मातर्लक्ष्मि भजस्व कंचिदपरम् Bh.3.64; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमप- कृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5.1; Bv.1.83; R.17.28. (b) To practise, follow, cultivate, observe; तृष्णां छिन्धि भज क्षमाम् Bh.2.77; भेजे धर्ममनातुरः R.1.21; Mu.3.1. -5 To enjoy, possess, have, suffer, experience, entertain; विधुरपि भजतेतरां कलङ्कम् Bv.1.74; न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् Bh.2.8; व्यक्तिं भजन्त्यापगाः Ś.7.8; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43; Māl.3.9; U.1.35. -6 To wait or attend upon, serve; (दोग्ध्रीं) भेजे भुजोच्छिन्नरिपुर्निषण्णाम् R.2.23; Pt.1.181; Mk.1.32. -7 To adore, honour, worship (as a god). -8 To choose, select, prefer, accept; सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते M.1.2. -9 To enjoy carnally; वसोर्वीर्योत्पन्नामभजत मुनिर्मत्स्यतनयाम् Pt.4.5. -1 To be attached or devoted to; आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं विद्याविहीनमकुलीनमसंस्कृतं वा Pt.1.35. -11 To take possession of. -12 To fall to the lot of any one. -13 To grant, bestow. -14 To supply, furnish (Ved.). -15 To favour; ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् Bg.4.11. -16 To decide in favour of, declare for. -17 To love, court (affection). -18 To apply oneself to, be engaged in. -19 To cook, dress (food). -20 To employ, engage. (The meanings of this root are variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected:– e. g. निद्रां भज् to go to sleep; मूर्छां भज् to swoon; भावं भज् to show love for &c. &c.). -Caus. 1 To divide. -2 To put to flight, pursue. -3 To cook, dress. -II. 1.U. (भाजयति-ते, regarded by some as the caus. of भज् I) 1 To cook. -2 To give.
  • Almost each of the 20+ meanings can be applied in the interpretation of the verse. Does not that make the verse such a multifaceted pum ?
    • Especially I think in तमाखुपत्रं मा भज the meaning “Do not become subservient to it” Is not habit of eating तमाखुपत्रं compelling, that one becomes slave of that habit ?
    • The poet seems to have used the verb भज very pleadingly when saying तमाखुपत्रं मा भज. He is not just saying “do not chew the tobacco”. The minister does not want the king to become a slave of that bad habit, which is as good as losing one’s discretionary intelligence. That is what bad habits are अज्ञानदायक. They rob you of your discretionary intelligence.
    • The second line suggests, rather recommends a noble engagement, a perfect antidote to bad habits.

(16) The verse is not just a sage advice given by a minister to his king. It is a caution and advice to all of us to desist from such dangerous things as tobacco. That is why the verse is a सुभाषितम् !

शुभमस्तु !!


Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२१) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, we saw how verses in Sanskrit had mathematics encoded in them. Here is another style of encoding of numbers.

भास्कराचार्य well-known Indian mathematician and astronomer lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was also well-versed in Sanskrit prosody, so much so, that he recorded his year of birth and the year of his composing his book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी in a verse –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

Whereas in the verse in the previous lesson, numbers were encoded by letters, in this verse numbers are encoded by words.

रस = 6, Note, रस means ‘taste’. Tastes are six, Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, Pungent, and Astringent.

गुण = 3 Note, गुण means ‘characteristics’, which are three सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्

पूर्ण = 0 Note, पूर्ण means ‘complete’. पूर्ण is connoted to mean zero, because zero makes the set of numbers complete.

मही = 1 Note, मही means ‘earth’. Earth is only one.

To decipher the verse by the usual sequence –

(1) पदच्छेदैः

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये अभवत् मम उत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

(2) शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि

(2-1) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये This is a compound word having 8 component words viz. रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही, सम, शक, नृप and समय. There have to be विग्रह-s, the statements to detail interrelation among the component words.

  • (2-1-1) रसः च गुणः च पूर्णं च मही च एतेषां द्वन्द्वेन रसगुणपूर्णमह्यः (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
    • The words रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही connote numbers as noted above.
    • Since numbers have digits, values of which increase leftward by increasing power of 10, (starting from 0-th power of 10 at the unit’s place), numerical values of रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही have to be taken leftwards. So Sanskrit rule for placing numbers by their digital value is अङ्कानां वामतो गतिः
    • So the year connoted by रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही when read leftwards becomes 1036.
  • (2-1-2) रसगुणपूर्णमहीभिः समः रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) means ‘equal to रसगुणपूर्णमही’
  • (2-1-3) शकनृपसमयः =
    • शकः येन (कृतः) सः नृपः शकनृपः (बहुव्रीहिः) = King who started counting of time
    • शकनृपेण (प्रचालितः) समयः शकनृपसमयः (मध्यमपदलोपी) = time (actually the year), the counting was started by the king. This refers to King Shalivahan, who started the system of counting of time, wherein every year is called as a शक or as शालिवाहनशक. This was about 78 AD. So year of शालिवाहनशक is approximately 78 years less than the Christian. Presently in 2015, from 21st March to be precise, शालिवाहनशक is 1937
  • (2-1-4) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः शकनृपसमयः इति रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयः (कर्मधारयः)
  • (2-1-5) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये = In शालिवाहनशक 1036, i.e. in (1036 + 78 =) 1114 AD

(2-2) अभवत् – भू (1 प.) इति धातुः | भू सत्तायाम् (= to be, to become, to happen) तस्य लङ्-लकारे (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(2-3) मम – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-4) उत्पत्तिः – उत् + पत् (1 प.) इति धातुः | तस्मात् क्तिच्-प्रत्ययेन स्त्रीलिङ्गी संज्ञा | तस्याः प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-5) रसगुणवर्षेण – This again is a compound word, having 3 component words – रस, गुण and वर्ष.

  • (2-5-1) रसः च गुणः च रसगुणौ (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
  • (2-5-2) रसगुणाभ्यां वर्षम् यस्य सः रसगुणवर्षः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (2-5-3) From the encoding detailed at (2-1-1), रसगुणवर्षः = one, who is 36 years old

(2-6) मया – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-7) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – This compound word has 4 component words – सिद्ध्, अन्त, शिरस् and मणिः

  • (2-7-1) सिद्धः अन्तः यस्मिन् सः सिद्धान्तः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • सिद्धः – सिध् (4 प.) इति धातुः | षिधु संराद्धौ (= to be accomplished, to be attained, to be fulfilled) | तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “सिद्ध्” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • अन्तः = end, the ultimate, the truth, aim, goal, objective, what is unarguable
    • सिद्धान्तः = Statement in which unarguable truth is accomplished, a definitive statement
  • (2-7-2) शिरसि मणिः शिरोमणिः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • शिरसि – शिरस् (= head) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मणिः – a jewel
  • (2-7-3) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – सिद्धान्तैः शिरोमणिः इव (अयं ग्रन्थः) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी
    • Book, which has become like a jewel (in the crown) by virtue of definitive statements.
    • Probably भास्कराचार्य named his work as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, with the idea that सिद्धान्त-s should be worn on the head (in the head ?) as adorably as a jewel.
    • By this token the compound word सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी can as well be deciphered as
  • (2-7-4) सिद्धान्तानां (समुच्चयः) शिरोमणिः इव यस्य सः सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी (Note, here प्रातिपदिकम् to be taken as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिन् The suffix इन् connotes (सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिः) अस्य अस्ति इति one who owns it. So, everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी !

(2-8) रचितः – रच् (10 उ.) इति धातुः | रच प्रतियत्ने (= to compose, to arrange, to devise) तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “रचित” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(3) Overall Meaning – I was born in the शालिवाहनशक 1036 and I composed सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी when I was 36 years old.

(4) चतुष्पादात्मकं वृत्तविश्लेषणम् Meter of the verse by study of its four quarters –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसम –

१-१-१-१-२-१-१-२-१-१ = १२ मात्राः

शकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

१-१-१-१-१-१-२ १-२-१-२-२-२ = १८ मात्राः

रसगुणवर्षेण मया

१-१-१-१-२-२-१ १-२ = १२ मात्राः

सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

२-२-१-१-२-१-२ १-१-२ = १५ मात्राः

This is आर्यावृत्तम्. Note –

यस्याः पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

अष्टादश द्वितीये पञ्चदश चतुर्थके आर्या ||

(5) टिप्पण्यः Notes

(5-1) One is left to wonder what treasure of knowledge is left codified in which all Sanskrit literature.

  • We studied in the previous lesson how a single verse is as good a praise of both श्रीकृष्ण and शिव and also a value of pie to 32 digits.
  • There is a verse which is a solution to such moves of the rook on a chessboard, that one starts on a particular square and returns to the same square.
  • Dr. Sampadanand Mishra compiled a book “The Wonder that is Sanskrit” ISBN 81-7060-182-7 (Sri Aurobindo Society).

(5-2) The book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी itself has four parts – Part (1) लीलावती covers Arithmetic and Geometry. Part (2) बीजगणितम् covers Algebra. Parts (3) ग्रहगणिताध्यायः and (4) गोलाध्यायः cover calculations related to the astronomy, i.e. motions and relative motions of planets, etc.

  • (5-2-1) It is said that सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, say, until Indian education system was overhauled by British educationists like Macaulay. One can get some interesting reading about this at http://www.historydiscussion.net/articles/spreading-of-western-education-during-british-rule/2065
  • It comes to mind that if सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, there must be great value there. I wish I shall be able to deal with at least Parts (1) and (2) at https://ganitabhyas.wordpress.com/
  • If भास्कराचार्य intended that everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, may it so happen !

शुभमस्तु !!!