Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 124

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 124

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुर्विंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२४) पाठः ।

When looking into Apte’s dictionary for the detailing there of धातुः वस्, at http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/contextualize.pl?p.5.apte.771718 one would find two quotes –

  1. यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति |
  2. भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे ||

(1) When searching on the internet for यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति at http://m.bhaskar.com/article/referer/521/JYO-HAS-jyts-women-with-auspicious-symptoms-4711413-NOR.html?pg=7 I came across a सुभाषितम् –

या तूत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन |

रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा ।

प्रायो विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः

यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति ।।

(1-1) This quote has 11 letters with their weightages being 2-2-1-2-2-1 1-2 1-2-1(2), hence त-त-ज-ग-ग गणाः and conforms to the meter इन्द्रवज्रा

(2) An internet search on भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे presents link to http://sarit.indology.info/exist/apps/sarit/works/%C5%9B%C4%81ntiparva__adhy%C4%81ya_026.html The quotation is second line in the verse –

सुखं दुःखान्तमालस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् ।

भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर्दक्षे वसति नालसे ॥

In the dictionary the reference of the verse is mentioned as in 26th अध्याय of राजधर्मपर्व under शान्तिपर्व in श्रीमन्महाभारतम्. It is saild by महर्षी व्यास to युधिष्ठिर. In श्रीमन्महाभारतम् book with me, published by गीताप्रेस, गोरखपुर I located this verse in 27th अध्याय of राजधर्मानुशासनपर्व under शान्तिपर्व.

  • (2-1) This second quote can be split into four lines

सुखं दुःखान्तमालस्यं

दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम्

भूतिः श्रीर्ह्रीर्धृतिः कीर्तिर् –  

दक्षे वसति नालसे ||

Thus split, each line has 8 letters and the meter is अनुष्टुभ्- or श्लोकछन्दः

(3) The second quote, though it is a part of a श्लोक in श्रीमन्महाभारतम् its import is very much as of a सुभाषितम्.

(4) Although these quotes are from different sources, there is some curious interrelation between them, in the sense that if the first quote makes a statement यत्राकृतिस्तत्र गुणा वसन्ति and would prompt a question के गुणाः ? the second quote seems to provide the answer –  भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः

(5) पदच्छेदैः –

  1. या तु उत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा । प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति |
  2. सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् । भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः दक्षे वसति न आलसे ||

(6) As संस्कृताध्ययनम् both श्लोक-s merit independent studies. But the conclusion प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः in the first श्लोक prompts some deliberation.

  • (6-1) प्रायः (generally speaking) विरूपासु (विचित्रं रूपं यस्याः सा विरूपा → तासु, विरूपासु = ladies with strange looks) भवन्ति दोषाः = Generally speaking ladies with strange looks show defective character.
  • (6-2) This is so concluded based on an observation that या तु उत्तरोष्ठेन समुन्नतेन रूक्षाग्रकेशी कलहप्रिया सा. Interpretation of this would need अन्वय as या तु समुन्नतेन उत्तरोष्ठेन (युक्ता भवति) रूक्षाग्रकेशी (च भवति) सा कलहप्रिया (भवति) |
    • (6-2-1) या तु समुन्नतेन उत्तरोष्ठेन (युक्ता भवति) = (A lady) who has upper lip uppish
    • (6-2-2) रूक्षाग्रकेशी (च भवति) = Actually रूक्षाग्रकेशी can be split in two different ways
      • (6-2-2-1) As two separate words रूक्षा and अग्रकेशी. Hence रूक्षाग्रकेशी = रूक्षा च अग्रकेशी च. Here रूक्षा means rough, dry, harsh and अग्रकेशी (अग्रे केशाः यस्याः सा) One who prefers to have her hair, rather her braided hair वेणी in the front.
Lady with braided hair normally in the back Lady with braided hair brought forward अग्रकेशी
 veNI agrakeshee
      • (6-2-2-2) रूक्षाग्रकेशी can be taken as a single compound word, comprised of रूक्ष, अग्र, केश as component words and the विग्रह as
        • अग्रे केशाः इति अग्रकेशाः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
        • रूक्षाः अग्रकेशाः यस्याः सा रूक्षाग्रकेशी
        • रूक्षाग्रकेशी = (A lady) who has dry (or erect) hair in the front or brought in the front
  • (6-3) I have some doubt about formation of feminine adjective such as रूक्षाग्रकेशी. If the masculine प्रातिपदिक of this adjective is to be taken as रूक्षाग्रकेशिन् then maybe the feminine would be रूक्षाग्रकेशिनी. If a masculine प्रातिपदिक of the adjective would be रूक्षाग्रकेश (see गुडाकेशः in गीता) then the feminine could be रूक्षाग्रकेशा  
  • (6-4) सा कलहप्रिया (भवति) = (Such lady) is quarrelsome.
  • (6-5) The poet considers ladies with uppish upper lip and रूक्षाग्रकेशी as विरूपा.
  • (6-6) That such ladies are also कलहप्रिया quarrelsome, is some curious observation, indeed !
  • (6-7) If one were to look at the statement प्रायः विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः by itself, it can be taken as a simple statement of facts that any विरूपम् (विचित्रं रूपम्) is सदोषम्. But विरूपम् only of looks or only physiological handicap विरूपम् (विकलाङ्गत्वम्) has nothing to do with sharpness of intellect, as is known of अष्टावक्र Ms. Hellen Keller, also of Prof. Stephen Hawking.

(7) यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति can be also seen as a simple statement of facts. यत्र (where there is) आकृतिः (form) तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति (there are properties, attributes, characteristics). A form like amoeba, which is not even visible to naked eye also has properties.

  • (7-1) In this श्लोक the word गुणाः contrasts with दोषाः in विरूपासु भवन्ति दोषाः. Hence meaning of word गुणाः has to be opposite of दोषाः.
  • (7-2) Meaning of आकृतिः also has to be opposite of विरूपम्.
  • (7-3) यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति brings to mind a beautiful quote in ज्ञानेश्वरी. When a beautiful maid would wear glistening ornaments, it becomes difficult to say who adorns whom. अळंकरिले कवणा कवणे.
    • There is another beautiful श्लोक in मालविकाग्निमित्रम् by कविकुलगुरु कालिदास – पात्रविशेषे न्यस्तं गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः | जलमिव समुद्रशुक्तौ मुक्ताफलतां पयोदस्य || Art of a creator acquires yet different quality when placed in a special frame, just as a raindrop in a seashell would become a pearl.
    • There is a good सुभाषितम् in नीतिशतकम् by भर्तृहरिः – संतप्तायसि संस्थितस्य पयसो नामापि न श्रूयते | मुक्ताकारतया तदेव नलिनीपत्रस्थितं दृश्यते । स्वात्यां सागरशुक्तिमध्यपतितं तन्मौक्तिकं जायते । प्रायेणाधममध्यमोत्तमगुणस्संसर्गतो जायते । A drop of water will be lost into oblivion on a hot plate. But a drop on the leaf of a lotus will shine like a pearl. It becomes pearl if it falls into a seashell, when the constellation is shining in the sky. In general, quality, whether low, medium or excellent, is much influenced by the associations.
    • A man is known by the company he keeps.
    • When the container and the contents match, यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति Actually the import of यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति is different. It seems to state that if the container is good, the contents will also be good.
    • The logic in marketing management is that even if the contents are good, they need to be packaged attractively, need to be presented attractively. How you speak about it is also a part of packaging and presentation. There has been adage in Marathi, one who speaks well can sell brass. One who cannot speak well would not be able to sell even gold.
    • यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति is certainly debatable.

(8) Moving on to सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् । भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः दक्षे वसति न आलसे || it comes to mind that if a lazy person आलस and an industrious person दक्ष are two different containers, all good things as भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः will be with the दक्ष an industrious person, not with a lazy person आलस. This is another perception, how this second quote connects well with यत्र आकृतिः तत्र गुणाः वसन्ति.

(9) One can decipher four sentences in this second quote –

  • (9-1) सुखं दुःखान्तम् आलस्यं (जनयति)
    • One needs to assume the verb. I have opted it to be जनयति
    • Happiness subsequent to sorrow may cause laziness
    • I have interpreted दुःखान्तम् as subsequent to sorrow, though this word दुःखान्तम् can be deciphered variously.
      • दुःखस्य अन्तः येन तत् दुःखान्तम्
      • In दुःखान्तम् as subsequent to sorrow, दुःखस्य अन्ते यत् तत् दुःखान्तम्
    • Etymology of आलस्यम् seems interesting.
      • अलस a. [न लसति व्याप्रियते, लस्-अच्] 1 Inactive, without energy, lazy, idle, indolent. शठो नैष्कृतिको$लसः Bg.18.28. -2 Tired, fatigued, languid; मार्गश्रमादल- सशरीरे दारिके M.5; Amaru.4,88; खेदालसेव K.143,197, 211,62,98; Śi.8.7; V.3.2; Dk.2. Śi.13.48;9.39; U.1.24; Ki.1.6, V.5; गमनमलसम् Māl.1.17. -3 Soft, gentle. -4 Slow, dull (as in gait or motion); श्रोणीभारादलसगमना Me.84; तस्याः परिस्फुरितगर्भभरालसायाः U. 3.28.
      • धातुः लस् 1 P. (लसति, लसित) 1 To shine, glitter, flash; मुक्ताहारेण लसता हसतीव स्तनद्वयम् K. P.1; करवाणि चरणद्वयं सरसलसदलक्तकरागम् Gīt.1; Amaru.19; बालेन नक्तंसमयेन मुक्तं रौप्यं लसड्डिम्बमिवेन्दुबिम्बम् N.22.53 (v. l.). -2 To appear, arise, come to light. -3 To embrace. -4 To play, frolic about, skip about, dance. -4 To sound, resound.
      • लस् (to shine) → लसः (the shine, lustre) → अलसः (disgrace, disgraceful, lazy)→ आलस्यम् (laziness). So, laziness is disgraceful ! What an etymology !
        • Two forms of शिव’s dance are called as लास्य and ताण्डव, where लास्य is certainly more pleasant than ताण्डव
        • आलस्यम् may appeal to be pleasant, especially when subsequent to sorrow. But it is never graceful and hence never truly pleasant.
        • Retirement after busy life needs to be planned. It should not be आलस्यम्.
  • (9-2) दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् (भवति) ।
    • (9-2-1) The word दाक्ष्यम् can be deciphered in different ways
      • (9-2-1-1) धातुः दक्ष् – 1 Ā. (दक्षते) 1 To grow, increase. -2 To do, go or act quickly. -3 To hurt, kill. -4 To act conformably to another (P.). -5 To be competent or able; सुशंसो यश्च दक्षते Rv.7.16.6. -6 To go, move. -Caus. 1 To gladden; किंनु चित्रमधिवेदि भूपतिर्दक्षयन्द्विजगणान- पूयत Śi.14.35. -2 To make able or strong.
      • (9-2-1-2) दक्ष् → दक्षः → दाक्ष्यम् [दक्षस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Cleverness, skill, fitness, dexterity, ability; Bg.18.43. -2 Probity, integrity, honesty. -3 Industry, activity; दाक्ष्येण हीनो धर्मयुक्तो न दान्तः Mb.12.292.23.
        • दक्ष a. [दक्ष्-कर्तरि अच्] 1 Able, competent, expert, clever, skilful; नाट्ये च दक्षा वयम् Ratn.1.6; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; R.12.11. -2 Fit, suitable; दक्षेण सूत्रेण ससर्जिथाध्वरम् Bhāg.4.6.44. -3 Ready, careful, attentive, prompt; Y.1.76; रन्ध्रान्वेषणदक्षाणां द्विषामामिषतां ययौ R.12.11. -4 Honest, upright.
        • दक्षता is also दक्षस्य भावः and is often used in the sense of alertness, attentiveness
          • In military parades the leader orders “Attention !”. In शाखा-s of RSS the leader orders “संघ दक्ष”
        • दाक्षिण्यम् is also [दक्षिणस्य भावः ष्यञ्]
          • दक्षिण a. [दक्ष्-इनन् Uṇ 2.5.] 1 Able, skilful, dexterous, competent, clever; इत्यम्बरीषं नाभागिमन्वमोदन्त दक्षिणाः Mb.12.29.12. -2 Right (opp. वाम). -3 Situated on the right side. दक्षिणं परि, दक्षिणं कृ to place anyone on the right side as a mark of respect; ग्रहर्क्षताराः परियन्ति दक्षिणम् Bhāg.4.12.25. -4 South, southern; as in दक्षिणवायु, दक्षिणदिक्; आददे नातिशीतोष्णो नभस्वानिव दक्षिणः R. 4.8. -5 Situated to the south. -6 Sincere, straightforward, honest, impartial. -7 Pleasing, amiable. -8 Courteous, civil. -9 Compliant, submissive. -1 Dependent. -11Favourable; ‘दक्षिणः सरलावामपरच्छन्दानुवर्तिषु’ इति विश्वः; Ki.18.27.
      • (9-2-1-3) दक्ष् → दाक्षय् (दक्ष्-णिच् causative) → दाक्ष्य (ण्यत् adjective) → (पुं. दाक्ष्यः → तम्) Etymology (9-2-2) is given in Apte’s dictionary. This etymology (9-2-3) is mine. Etymology (9-2-2) presents दाक्ष्यम् as an abstract noun. Etymology (9-2-3) presents दाक्ष्यम् as an adjective.
    • (9-2-2) दुःखम् is both a noun and an adjective, often used adverbially
      • (9-2-2-1) दुःख a. [दुष्टानि खानि यस्मिन्, दुष्टं खनति खन्-ड, दुःख्-अच् वा Tv.] 1 Painful, disagreeable, unpleasant; सिंहानां निनदा दुःखाः श्रोतुं दुःखमतो वनम् Rām. -2 Difficult, uneasy.
      • (9-2-2-2) दुःखम् 1 Sorrow, grief, unhappiness, distress, pain, agony; सुखं हि दुःखान्यनुभूय शोभते Mk.1.1; यदेवोपनतं दुः- खात्सुखं तद्रसवत्तरम् V.3.21; so दुःखसुख, समदुःखसुख &c. -2 Trouble, difficulty; Ś. Til.12; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखमर्जितानां च रक्षणे । आये दुःखं व्यये दुःखं धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः ॥ Pt.1.163. (दुःखम् and दुःखेन are used as adverbs in the sense of ‘hardly’ ‘with difficulty’ ‘or trouble’ Ś.7.13. अव्यक्ता हि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते Bg.12.5; Ku.4.13; Pt.1.; R.19.49; H.1.158).
      • (9-2-2-3) In (9-2-2-1) one etymology is mentioned as दुःख्-अच् suggesting a धातुः दुःख् – 10 U. (दुःखयति-ते) To pain, afflict, distress.
      • (9-2-2-4) Thinking of the words सुख and दुःख, it comes to mind that सु and दुः are eminently prefixes and common factor is the letter ख. May be the letter ख is meaningful by itself, say ख = to experience. Hence दुःख = unpleasant experience and सुख = pleasant experience
        • ख also connotes आकाशतत्त्व among पञ्चमहाभूत-s
    • (9-2-3) सुखोदयम् = सुखस्य उदयः येन तत् = that which gives rise to happiness
    • (9-2-4) We should interpret दाक्ष्यं दुःखं सुखोदयम् by putting together what all is detailed thru’ (9-2-1) .. (9-2-3). Two interpretations that come to mind are –
      • (9-2-4-1) For a दाक्ष्य sorrows or troubles are harbingers of happiness
      • (9-2-4-2) Sorrows or troubles borne with alertness will turn into happiness
  • (9-3) भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः (वा) दक्षे वसति
    • (9-3-1) Because the verb वसति is in singular, the subject words भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः relate with the verb optionally to each other. Hence I have put in वा the indeclinable for optionality.
    • (9-3-2) We should sort भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः into two sets –
      • (9-3-2-1) ह्रीः (modesty) धृतिः (forbearance) as virtues, which need to be cultivated by being दक्ष, alert, attentive, industrious
      • (9-3-2-2) भूतिः श्रीः कीर्तिः as results which will accrue from being दक्ष.
        • (9-3-2-2-1) भूति f. [भू-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Birth, production. -3 Well-being, welfare, happiness, prosperity; प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत् R.1.18; नरपतिकुलभूत्यै 2.75; स वो$स्तु भूत्यै भगवान् मुकुन्दः Vikr.1.2. -4 Success, good fortune. -5 Wealth, riches, fortune; विपत्प्रतीकारपरेण मङ्गलं निषेव्यते भूतिसमुत्सुकेन वा Ku.5.76. -6 Grandeur, dignity, majesty. -7 Ashes; भृतभूतिरहीनभोगभाक् Śi.16.71 (where भूति means ‘riches’ also); स्फुटोपमं भूतिसितेन शंभुना 1.4. -3 Decoration of elephants with coloured stripes; भक्तिच्छेदैरिव विरचितां भूतिमङ्गे गजस्य Me.19. -9 The superhuman power attainable by the practice of penance or magical rites; सूक्ष्मात् सूक्ष्मतमो$णीयान् शीघ्रत्वं लघिमागुणः । महिमाशेषपूज्यत्वात् प्राप्तिर्नाप्राप्यमस्य यत् ॥ प्राकाम्यस्य व्यापित्वादीशित्वं चेश्वरो यतः । वशित्वाद्वशिमा नाम योगिनः सप्तमो गुणः ॥ यत्रेच्छा स्थानमप्युक्तं यत्र कामावसायिता ॥ Mārk. P.4.31-33. -1 Fried meat. -11 The rutting of elephants.
        • (9-3-2-2-2) श्री f. [श्रि-क्विप् नि˚ Uṇ.2.57] 1 Wealth, riches, affluence, prosperity, plenty; अनिर्वेदः श्रियो मूलम् Rām.; साहसे श्रीः प्रतिवसति Mk.4 ‘fortune favours the brave’; कर्माव्यारभमाणं हि पुरुषं श्रीर्निषेवते Ms.9.3; Ki.7.28. -2 Royalty, majesty, royal wealth; श्रियः कुरूणामधिपस्य पालनीम् Ki.1.1. -3 Dignity, high position, state; श्री- लक्षण Ku.7.45 ‘the marks or insignia of greatness or dignity’; दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Pt.1.67; विद्युल्लेखाकनकरुचिरं श्रीवितानं ममाभ्रम् V.4.13. -4 Beauty, grace, splendour, lustre; (मुखं) कमलश्रियं दधौ Ku.5.21; 7.32; R.3.8. -5 Colour, aspect; तेषामाविरभूद् ब्रह्मा परि- म्लानमुखश्रियाम् Ku.2.2. -6 The goddess of wealth, Lak- ṣmī, the wife of Viṣṇu; आसीदियं दशरथस्य गृहे यथा श्रीः U.4.6; Ś.3.14; Śi.1.1. -7 Any virtue or excellence. -8 Decoration. -9 Intellect, understanding. -1 Super- human power. -11 The three objects of human exis- tence taken collectively (धर्म, अर्थ and काम). -12 The Sarala tree. -13 The Bilva tree.-14 Cloves. -15 A lotus. -16 The twelfth digit of the moon. -17 N. of Sarasvatī, (the goddess of speech). -18 Speech. -19 Fame, glory. -2 The three Vedas (वेदत्रयी); श्रिया विहीनैरधनैर्नास्तिकैः संप्रवर्तितम् Mb.12.1.2. (‘ऋचः सामानि यजूंषि । सा हि श्रीरमृता सताम्’ इति श्रुतेः । com.). -m. N. of one of the six Rāgas or musical modes. -a. Splendid, radiant, adorning. (The word श्री is often used as an honorific prefix to the names of deities and eminent persons; श्रीकृष्णः, श्रीरामः, श्रिवाल्मीकिः, श्रीजयदेवः; also celebrated works, generally of a sacred character; श्रीभागवत, श्रीरामायण &c.; it is also used as an auspicious sign at the commencement of letters, manuscripts &c; Māgha has used this word in the last stanza of each canto of his Śiśupālavadha, as Bhāravi has used लक्ष्मी).
        • कीर्तिः f. [कॄत्-क्तिन्] 1 Fame, renown, glory; इह कीर्तिमवाप्नोति Ms.2.9; वंशस्य कर्तारमनन्तकीर्तिम् R.2.64; स्रोतोमूर्त्या भुवि परिणतां रन्तिदेवस्य कीर्तिम् Me.47. For an interesting distinction between कीर्तिः and यशस् cf. खङ्गादिप्रभवा कीर्तिर्विद्यादिप्रभवं यशः -2 Favour, approbation. -3 Dirt, mud. -4 Extension, expansion. -5 Light, lustre, splendour. -6 Sound. -7 Mention, speech, report.
      • (9-3-2-3) भूतिः श्रीः कीर्तिः all connote prosperity and glory. To such extent they sound to be synonymous.
  • (9-4) (भूतिः श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः कीर्तिः (वा)) आलसे न वसति
  • (9-5) By comparison between (9-3) and (9-4) it is obvious that दक्ष is antonymous to  आलस. That is why I have put in (9-3-2-1) being दक्ष as being alert, attentive, industrious.
    • There is a सुभाषितम् which puts these two exactly as antonyms – आलस्यं हि मनुष्याणां शरीरस्थो महारिपुः | नास्त्युद्यमसमो बन्धुः कृत्वा यं नावसीदति ॥

(10) Actually I had started upon this compilation much before the previous lesson #123 on रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा | मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया | कामो ह्रियं शीलमनार्यसेवा | क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम् || The words श्रीः ह्रीः धृतिः (धैर्यम्) are common between both these lessons.

  • (10-1) In the previous lesson, there was mention of which vice affects which virtue. So virtues were also mentioned there, viz. रूपम्, धैर्यम्, प्राणाः, धर्मचर्या, ह्रीः, शीलम्, श्रीः.
  • (10-2) The second श्लोक here gives a single key दाक्ष्यम् to overcome all vices, rather, to insure oneself against all vices.
  • (10-3) संत रामदास (17th century) precept of श्रीशिवछत्रपती puts this beautifully in दासबोध – अखंड सावधान असावे | दुश्चित्त कदापि नसावे | अंतरी असो द्यावे | समाधान || – One should be alert all the time. Never have vicious thoughts. May there be peace internalized.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

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