Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 123

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 123

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रिविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२३) पाठः ।

There are many powerful words in Sanskrit. One such word is नीतिः. It is powerful, because there would be many compositions, which have नीतिः as the main import. Three such compositions come to mind –

(1) नीतिशतकम् by राजा भर्तृहरिः, It is a treasure-trove of good sayings सुभाषितानि. Many lessons in this blog dwelt on these सुभाषितानि.

(2) नीतिसूत्राणि by आचार्य चाणक्य, who distinguished himself In the annals of diplomacy, strategy and/or political wisdom as also administration and governance at large, He also composed aphorisms सूत्राणि which stand out as diktats on behaviour.

(3) विदुरनीतिः in प्रजागरपर्वम् under उद्योगपर्वम् in महाभारतम्.

In Apte’s dictionary नीतिः f. 1 Guidance, direction, management. -2 Conduct, manner of conducting oneself, behaviour, course of action. -3 propriety, decorum. -4 Policy, prudence, wisdom, right course; आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः N.5.13; R.13.69; Ku.1.22. -5 A plan, contrivance, scheme; भूयः स्नेहविचेष्टितैर्मृगदृशो नीतस्य कोटिं पराम् Māl.6.3. -6 Politics, political science, statesmanship, political wisdom; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3; दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् Bg.1.38. -7 Righteousness, moral conduct, morality. -8 The science of morality, morals, ethics, moral philosophy; निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदि वा स्तुवन्तु Bh.2.83. -9 Acquirement, acquisition. -10 Giving, offering, presenting. -11 Relation, support.

  • (3-1) By etymology नीतिः is abstract feminine noun from धातुः नी So the meanings of नीतिः are from those of धातुः नी
  • नी 1 U. (नयति-ते, निनाय-निन्ये, अनैषीत्-अनेष्ट, नेष्यति-ते, नेतुम्, नीत) One of the roots that govern two accusatives, see examples below) 1 To carry, lead, bring, convey, take, conduct; अजां ग्रामं नयति Sk; नय मां नवेन वसतिं पयोमुचा V.4.43. -2 To guide, direct, govern; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः M.1.2. -3 To lead away to, carry or bring away; सीता लङ्कां नीता सुरारिणा Bk.6.49; R.12.13; Ms.6.88. -4 To carry off; Śānti.3.5. -5 To carry off for oneself (Ātm.). -6 To spend, or pass (as time); येनामन्दमरन्दे दलदरविन्दे दिनान्यनायिषत Bv.1.1; नीत्वा मासान् कतिचित् Me.2; संविष्टः कुशशयने निशां निनाय R.1.95. -7 To bring or reduce any person to any state or condition; तमपि तरलतामनयदनङ्गः K.143; नीतस्त्वया पञ्चताम् Ratn.3. 3; R.8.19. (In this sense the root is used with substantives much in the same way as कृ q. v.; e. g. दुःखं नी to reduce to misery; वशं नी to reduce to subjection, win over; अस्तं नी to cause to set; विनाशं नी to destroy; परितोषं नी to gratify, please; शूद्रतां-दासत्वं &c. नी to reduce to the state of a Śūdra, slave &c.; साक्ष्यं नी to admit as a witness; दण्डं नी to inflict punishment upon, to punish; पुनरुक्ततां नी to render superfluous; विक्रयं नी to sell; भस्मतां-भस्मसात् नी to reduce to ashes &c. -8 To ascertain, investigate, inquire into, settle, decide; छलं निरस्य भूतेन व्यवहारान्नयेन्नृपः Y.2.19; एवं शास्त्रेषु भिन्नेषु बहुधा नीयते क्रिया Mb. -9 To trace, track, find out; एतैर्लिङ्गैर्नयेत् सीमाम् Ms.8.252,256; यथा नयत्यसृक्पातैर्मृगस्य मृगयुः पदम् 8.44; Y.2.151. -10 To marry. -11 To exclude from. -12 (Ātm.) To instruct, give instruction in; शास्त्रे नयते Sk.

With these introductory remarks, I would like to take up for study following श्लोकः from विदुरनीतिः –

जरा हरति रूपं हि धैर्यमाशा

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया |

कामो ह्रियं वृत्तमनार्यसेवा

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः ||

In the books of महाभारतम्, which I have with me, I find this श्लोकः quoted at two places –

  • (1) as श्लोकः 50 in उद्योगपर्वणि प्रजागरपर्वणि अध्याय 35
  • (2) as श्लोकः ८ in उद्योगपर्वणि प्रजागरपर्वणि अध्याय 37. There is a small पाठभेद. In (1) in line 3, the wording is शीलमनार्यसेवा, in place of वृत्तमनार्यसेवा in (2).

पदच्छेदैः –

जरा हरति रूपं हि धैर्यम् आशा

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्याम् असूया |

कामः ह्रियं वृत्तम् (शीलम्) अनार्यसेवा

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वम् एव अभिमानः ||

अन्वयार्थाश्च –

  1. जरा रूपं हरति | = Age affects (or takes away) beauty
  2. आशा धैर्यम् हि (हरति) | = Greed affects (or takes away) forbearance
  3. मृत्युः प्राणान् (हरति) | = Death affects (or takes away) life
  4. असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) | = Envy affects (or takes away) balance
  5. कामः ह्रियं (हरति) | = Passion affects (or takes away) propriety
  6. अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) (हरति) | = Bad company affects (or takes away) personality
  7. क्रोधः श्रियं (हरति) | = Anger affects (or takes away) grace
  8. अभिमानः सर्वम् एव हरति | = Ego affects (or takes away) everything.

अध्ययनम् –

(1) I thought it good to follow a common SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) pattern for the अन्वय-s and a common SVO (Subject-Verb-Object) pattern for the English translations.

(2) The verb हरति is mentioned only once in the first line in the श्लोकः. But that is the verb which applies common in all sentences. I indulged in some deliberation to think of a single verb in English, which will fit all the sentences. I have concluded upon “हरति = affects (or takes away)”. One should appreciate the need for deliberation. हरति is लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् of धातुः हृ which is detailed with 14 meanings in Apte’s dictionary –

हृ – 1 U. (हरति-ते, जहार, जहे, अहार्षीत्, अहृत, हरिष्यति-ते, हर्तुम्, हृत; pass. ह्रियते) 1 To take, carry, convey, lead, (often used with two accusatives in this sense); अजां ग्रामं हरति ŚK.; संदेशं मे हर धनपतिक्रोधवश्लेषितस्य Me.7; Ms.4.74. -2 To carry off or away, take or draw to a distance; हरामि रामसौमित्री मृगो भूत्वा मृगद्युवौ Bk.5.47. -3 To take away, rob, plunder, steal; दुर्वृत्ता जारजन्मानो हरिष्यन्तीति शङ्कया Bv.4.45; R.3.39; Ku.2.47; Bk.2.39; Ms. 7.43. -4 To strip off, deprive of, despoil, take away; वृन्ताद्श्लथं हरति पुष्पमनोकहानाम् R.5.69; Bk.15.116; Ms.8. 334. -5 To take away, cure, destroy; उत्कण्ठां तां हरिष्यामि मेघलेखामिबानिलः Rām.7.4.19; तथापि हरते तापं लोकानामुन्नतो घनः Bv.1.39; R.15.24; Me.31. -6 To attract, captivate, win over, influence, subdue, enchant; चेतो न कस्य हरते गतिरङ्गनायाः Bv.2.157; ये भावा हृदयं हरन्ति 1.13; तवास्मि गीतरागेण हारिणा प्रसभं हृतः Ś.1.5; हरति मे हरिवाहनदिङ्मुखम् V.3.6; मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी R.9.69;1.83; Ṛs. 6.21; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः Bg.2.6;6.44; Ms.6.59. -7 To gain, acquire, obtain; ततो विंशं नृपो हरेत् Ms.8.391,153; Y.2.123; स हरतु सुभगपताकाम् Dk. -8To have, possess; अङ्गैः सुकुमारतरैः सा कुसुमानां श्रियं हरति Bv.2.163. -9 To surpass, eclipse; त्वां हरन्तीं श्रियं हरति Bk.5.71. -10 To marry; पित्रे न दद्याच्छुल्कं तु कन्यामृतुमतीं हरन् Ms.9.93. -11 To divide. -12 To cast, throw (as an arrow). -13 To accept, receive, inherit. -14 To offer.

(3) When deliberation was needed to conclude upon हरति = affects”, deliberation was necessary for choosing the English words for every other Sanskrit word, since every Sanskrit word seems to have a number of shades of meaning. I have made my choices. Readers may think of theirs. The श्लोक is interesting primarily for the challenge it offers to make the choices of English words. That would be the challenge in translating the verse not only into English, but maybe, into any other language.

(4) I sensed some difficulty in smooth recitation of the श्लोक. The reason, I notice, is because the first line has 12 letters, whereas all the other three lines have 11 letters. I wonder, the first line can be fitted into the pattern of 11 letters by putting it as रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा. By that the prosodic analysis will be

रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा

(2-2 1)-(1-1 1)-(2 2-1)-2-2

त-न-त-ग-ग (

The prosodic analysis of other lines is –

मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया |

(2-2 2)-(2 2-1)-(2-2-1)-2-2

म-त-त-ग-ग (शालिनी)

कामो ह्रियं वृत्तमनार्यसेवा

(2-2 1)-(2 2-1)-(1-2-1)-2-2

त-त-ज-ग-ग (इन्द्रवज्रा)

क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः

(2-2 1)-(2 2-1)-(2-2-1)-2-2

त-त-त-ग-ग

  • With different lines having different meters, it becomes an उपजातिछन्दस्. This is not uncommon for verses with 11 letters in each line.
  • There again it seems that verses with 11 letters become smoother for recitation, if the first letter is with weightage 2.

(5) There are 16 nouns in the eight sentences – 8 subjects and 8 objects. All of them can be said to be abstract nouns, since the definition of abstract noun is “.. a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object…”  Parallel Sanskrit terminology for ‘abstract noun’ should be भाववाचकं नाम We can hence say that this one is a भावमयं सुभाषितम्, appealing to the sensibilities.

(6) Since the abstract nouns are idea, quality or state, it should be interesting to check which noun is what. जरा is state, रूपम् is quality, आशा is idea, धैर्यम् is quality, मृत्युः state, प्राणाः state/quality धर्मचर्या quality, असूया is quality, कामः is quality, ह्रीः is idea, वृत्तम् is state अनार्यसेवा is quality, क्रोधः is state श्रीः is state सर्वम् is pronoun अभिमानः is quality. I was wanting to check, whether there is any pattern.

(7) The eight sentences are eight statements. Some of them fairly straightforward and do not need elaboration. But others do.

  • (7-1) जरा रूपं हरति is straightforward
  • (7-2) आशा धैर्यं हरति needs elaboration. Here one should interpret आशा as intense urge and धैर्यम् as forbearance or patience. Sai Baba of Shirdi advised his devotees to cultivate श्रद्धा (= faith) and सबूरी i.e. forbearance or patience.
  • (7-3) मृत्युः प्राणान् (हरति) is straightforward
  • (7-4) I have interpreted असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) as Envy affects (or takes away) balance. It would be good to devote some study of the words असूया and धर्मचर्या.
    • असूया 1 Envy, intolerance, jealousy (of the happiness of others); क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यासूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः P.I.4.37;III.4.28;VIII.1.8. सासूयम् enviously. -2 Calumny, detraction (of the merits of others); असूया परगुणेषु दोषाविष्करणम् Sk. (= दोषारोपो गुणेष्वपि Ak.); Ms.7.48; R.4.23. -3 Anger, indignation; वधूरसूया- कुटिलं ददर्श R.6.82; सासूयमुक्ता सखी Ś.2.2.
    • Actually since न सूया इति असूया (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः) we should understand what सूया means.
      • Just as माया is from धातुः मा, सूया should be from धातुः सू
      • सू I. 2, 4 Ā. (सूते, सूयते, सूत) To bring forth, produce, beget, yield (fig. also); मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् Bg.9.1; असूत सा नागवधूपभोग्यम् Ku.1.2; कीर्तिं सूते दुष्कृतं या हिनस्ति U.5.31. -With प्र to bring forth, beget, produce. -II. 6 P. (सुवति) 1 To excite, incite, impel. -2 To remit (as debt).
    • Alternatively the derivation can be धातुः सू → ण्यत्-प्रत्ययेन सूय → तस्य स्त्रीलिङ्गम् सूया Since सू (= to beget), then सूय = may be brought forth. If what is सूय to other person, remains असूय to me, I become envious, I get overwhelmed by असूया.
    • In interpreting असूया धर्मचर्याम् (हरति) as Envy affects (or takes away) balance, I have interpreted धर्मचर्या as balance. I think it is a good interpretation.
  • (7-5) कामः ह्रियं (हरति) | = Passion affects (or takes away) propriety.
    • I have interpreted ह्रीः as propriety. In Apte’s dictionary ह्री f. 1 Shame; रतेरपि ह्रीपदमादधाना Ku.3.57; दारिद्र्याद् ह्रियमेति ह्रीपरिगतः प्रभ्रश्यते तेजसः Mk.1.14; R.4.8. -2 Bashfulness, modesty; ह्रीसन्नकण्ठी कथमप्युवाच Ku.7.85.
    • This brings to mind a line in मेघदूतम् – कामार्ता हि प्रकृतिकृपणाश्चेतनाचेतनेषु meaning कामार्त one, overwhelmed by passion becomes प्रकृतिकृपण weak in character and in turn becomes incapable of judging between चेतनाचेतनेषु who is capable and who is not capable.
    • There is another perception of being प्रकृतिकृपण weak in character in the midst of चेतनाचेतनेषु. In India, also in Muslim societies, kissing in public is considered as a matter of impropriety. I think that it should be so anywhere. Kissing involves intimacy. Intimacy between two persons ought to be a private matter. Those who kiss in public and get intimate with each other in public, become oblivious to how their intimacy will affect people around. Being unconcerned of how the public will get affected is not logical, social behaviour. It is improper. It is devoid of  ह्री i.e. Bashfulness, modesty.
  • (7-6) अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) (हरति) | = Bad company affects (or takes away) personality. This sentence certainly merits analysis and deliberation.
    • अनार्यसेवा =
      • न आर्यः इति अनार्यः (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
      • अनार्यस्य सेवा अनार्यसेवा (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
      • आर्यः a. [ऋ-ण्यत्] 1 Āryan, an inhabitant of आर्यावर्त, N. of the race migrated into India in Vedic times. -2 Worthy of an Ārya. -3 Worthy, venerable, respectable, honourable, noble, high; यदार्यमस्यामभिलाषि मे मनः Ś.1.22; R.2.33; so आर्यवेषः respectable dress; oft. used in theatrical language as an honorific adjective and a respectful mode of address; आर्यचाणक्यः, आर्या अरुन्धती &c.; आर्य revered or honoured Sir; आर्ये revered or honoured lady. The following rules are laid down for the use of आर्य in addressing persons:– (1) वाच्यौ नटीसूत्रधारावार्यनाम्ना परस्परम् । (2) वयस्येत्युत्तमैर्वाच्यो मध्यैरार्येति चाग्रजः । (3) (वक्तव्यो) अमात्य आर्येति चेतरैः । (4) स्वेच्छया नामभिर्विप्रैर्विप्र आर्येति चेतरैः । S. D.431. -4 Noble, fine, excellent. -र्यः 1 N. of the Hindu and Iranian people, as distinguished from अनार्य, दस्यु and दास; विजानीह्यार्यान्ये च दस्यवः Rv.1.51.8. -2 A man who is faithful to the religion and laws of his country; कर्तव्यमाचरन् कार्यमकर्तव्यमनाचरन् । तिष्ठति प्रकृताचारे स वा आर्य इति स्मृतः ॥ -3 N. of the first three castes (as opp. to शूद्र). -4 respectable or honourable man, esteemed person; वृत्तेन हि भवत्यार्यो न धनेन न विद्यया Mb.; परमार्यः परमां कृपां बभार Bu. Ch.5.6. -5 A man of noble birth. -6 A man of noble character. -7 A master, owner. -8 A preceptor; वैमानि- कार्यसमभूमा Viś. Guṇā.124; Mu.3.33.-9 A friend. -10 A Vaiśya. -11 A father-in-law (as in आर्यपुत्र). -12 A Buddha. -13 (With the Buddhists) A man who has thought on the four chief principles of Buddhism and lives according to them. -14 A son of Manu Sāvarṇa.
    • सेवा [सेव्-अ] 1 Service, servitude, dependence; attendance; सेवां लाघवकारिणीं कृतधियः स्थाने श्ववृत्तिं विदुः Mu. 3.14; हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या H.3.11. -2 Worship, homage, honouring. -3 Addiction or devotion to, fondness for. -4 Use, practice, employment, exercise. -5 Frequenting, resorting to. -6 Flattery, coaxing or flattering words; अलं सेवया मध्यस्थतां गृहीत्वा भण M.3.
    • The word सेवा is from धातुः सेव् 1 Ā. (सेवते, सेवित; caus. सेवयति-ते; desid. सिसेविषते; the स् of सेव् is generally changed to ष् after prepositions ending in इ such as नि, परि, वि) 1 To serve, wait or attend upon, honour, worship, obey; प्रायो भृत्यास्त्यजन्ति प्रचलितविभवं स्वामिनं सेवमानाः Mu.4.21; आचारपूतं पवनः सिषेवे R.2.13. ‘served or refreshed’; ऐश्वर्यादनपेतमीश्वरमयं लोको$र्थतः सेवते Mu.1.14. -2 To go after, pursue, follow. -3 To use, enjoy; किं सेव्यते सुमनसां मनसापि गन्धः कस्तूरिकाजननशक्तिभृता मृगेण R. G. -4 To enjoy carnally; केतकीं सेवसे हन्त कथं रोलम्ब निस्त्रपः Bv.1.118. -5 To attach or devote oneself to, attend to, cultivate, practice, perform; विद्वद्भिः सेवितः (धर्मः) Ms.2.1; त्वया मनोनिर्विषयार्थ- कामया यदेक एव प्रतिगृह्य सेव्यते Ku.5.38; R.17.49. -6 To resort to, betake oneself to, dwell in, frequent, inhabit; तप्तं वारि विहाय तीरनलिनीं कारण्डवः सेवते V.2.23; Pt.1.9. -7 To watch over, guard, protect.
    • The quotation हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या H.3.11 is similar to the phrase here अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) हरति. Internet search on हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या brings forth two examples/references
      • हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या कर्तव्यो महदाश्रयः । पयोऽपि शौण्डिकीहस्ते वारुणीत्यभिधीयते ॥
      • हीनसेवा न कर्तव्या कर्तव्यो महदाश्रयः । राममासाद्य लङ्कायार्लेभे राज्यं बिभीषणः ||
      • The same moral is quoted in मेघदूतम् – याञ्चा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा
    • It is important to note that in the phrase  here अनार्यसेवा वृत्तम् (शीलम्) हरति meaning of अनार्य is not a racial reference.
    • In Apte’s dictionary, अनार्य a. Not respectable (not deserving to be styled आर्य), not polite or decent; vulgar; unworthy, vile, base, mean, wretched; शकुन्तलायामनार्यमाचरितं तेन राज्ञा Ś.4 the king has behaved basely or unworthily towards Śakuntalā; कदाचिदस्मिन्नप्यनार्यो$नार्यमाचरिष्यति Ve.4. न मां कामेष्वनार्येषु प्रचारयितुमर्हसि । Bu. ch.4.96. An ignoble person.
    • There is a good proverb in English “Man is known by the company he keeps”. If the company is bad, person’s image वृत्तम् (शीलम्) will certainly get tarnished.
    • I think, the word शीलम् is clearer in meaning than the word वृत्तम्.
      • वृत्त p. p. [वृत्-कर्तरि-क्त] 1 Lived, existed. -2 Occurred, happened. -3 Completed, finished. -4 Performed, done, acted. -5 Past, gone. -6 Round, circular; निवृत्त- वृत्तोरुपयोधरक्लमः Ki.8.3; विशालवक्षास्तनुवृत्तमध्यः R.6.32. -7 Dead, deceased; पत्यौ जीवति वृत्तायाः प्रजायास्तद्धनं भवेत् Ms.9.195; वृत्तं युद्धे शूरमाश्लिष्य काचित् Śi.18.6. -8 Firm, fixed. -9 Read through, studied; P.VII.2.26. -10 Derived from. -11 Famous. -12 Covered; स्वभावस्रोतसा वृत्तमुह्यते सततं जगत् Mb.12.235.13. -13 Turned. -14 Unim-paired (अप्रतिहत); महाभूतादि (व्यञ्जयन्) वृत्तौजाः प्रादुरासीत्तमोनुदः Ms.1.6. (See वृत्). -त्तः 1 A tortoise. -2 A kind of grass. -3 A round temple. -त्तम् 1 An event, occurrence. -2 History, account; वृत्तं रामस्य वाल्मीकेः कृतिस्तौ किन्नरस्वनौ R. 15.64. -3 News, tidings; समरवृत्तविबोधसमीया कुरुवरेण मुदा कृतयाचनः Veda-Vyāsāṣṭaka 6. -4 Practice, profession, mode of life, occupation; सतां वृत्तमनुष्ठिताः Ms.1.127; 7.122; Y.3.44. -5 Conduct, behaviour, manner, act, action; as in सद्वृत्त, दुर्वृत्त. -6 Good or virtuous conduct; एवं चलितवृत्तस्तु वृत्तशेषं न रक्षति Pt.4.28. -7 An established rule or usage, law, custom; observance of such rule or usage, duty; किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूर्वृत्ते स्थितस्याधिपतेः प्रजानाम् R.5.33. -8 A circle, circumference of a circle. -9 A metre in general, especially a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. जाति); पद्यं चतुष्पदी तच्च वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा । वृत्तमक्षर- संख्यातं जातिर्मात्राकृता भवेत् । सममर्धसमं वृत्तं विषमं चेति तत् त्रिधा । Chand. M.; see App. -10 The epicycle. -11 Transformation, change into. -12 Appearance.
      • I could not get in Apte’s dictionary the word शीलम् or शील. But I got many examples of its usage, especially at the end of a compound such as
        • दुश्शील a. ill-mannered or ill behaved
        • also पुण्यशील a. of a virtuous disposition, inclined to pious acts, virtuous, pious, righteous.-श्लोक a. ‘well-spoken of’, or ‘auspicious to repeat or utter the name of’, of good fame; Dk.2.8.
  • (7-7) क्रोधः श्रियं (हरति) | = Anger affects (or takes away) grace. It has always been challenging for me to translate the word श्रियम् (द्वितीया, एकवचनम् of श्रीः). But I think in the given context श्रीः = grace is a good translation.
  • (7-8) अभिमानः सर्वम् एव हरति | = Ego affects (or takes away) everything. I think अहंकारः would have conveyed the meaning more accurately than अभिमानः I say this because अभिमानः is not always bad. Rather one should cultivate self-respect स्वाभिमान. If  अहंकारः would be a better word, would it fit into smooth recitation ? Presently the last line is क्रोधः श्रियं सर्वमेवाभिमानः Instead क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारो हि सर्वम् or क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम्
    • अहंकार is quoted as the premium among vices in गीता.
      • अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः (16-18)
      • अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहः (18-53)

(8) Although there are eight sentences, रूपं हरति जरा and मृत्युः प्राणान् are such facts of life, that one can hardly do anything about them. The other six are related to six vices आशा, असूया, कामः, अनार्यसेवा, क्रोधः, अहंकारः The six vices are called as षड्रिपवः six enemies and are variously quoted such as काम-क्रोध-लोभ-दम्भ-मद-मत्सर or काम-क्रोध-दम्भ-मोह-मद-मत्सर For a comparative study, I may tabulate these as –

आशा असूया कामः अनार्यसेवा क्रोधः अहंकारः
लोभः मत्सरः कामः दम्भः क्रोधः मदः
मोहः मत्सरः कामः दम्भः क्रोधः मदः
  • One can agree that आशा, लोभः, मोहः are synonymous. असूया and मत्सरः are also synonymous. कामः and क्रोधः are same in all three styles.
  • There should not be much argument about considering अहंकारः and मदः to be considered synonymous.
  • By elimination, we are left with अनार्यसेवा and दम्भः to be taken as synonymous. Rather taking अनार्यसेवा and दम्भः as synonymous, adds an interesting shade to the meaning of the word अनार्यसेवा !
    • In the dictionary दम्भः [दम्भ्-घञ्] 1 Deceit, fraud, trickery; Ms.4.163. -2 Religious hypocrisy; Bg.16.4. -3 Arrogance. pride, ostentation. -4 Sin, wickedness.
    • In place of the second meaning given above as ‘religious hypocrisy’, I think a more general meaning as ‘hypocrisy’ is also appropriate.
    • Considering that the word अनार्यसेवा would include offensive behaviour, deceit, fraud, trickery, hypocrisy are certainly so.
    • दाम्भिक is derived from दम्भ In the dictionary दाम्भिक a. (-की f.) [दम्भेन चरति धर्मम्-ठक्] 1 Deceitful, hypocritical. -2 Proud, imperious. -3 Ostentatious, sanctimonious. -कः 1 A cheat. -2 A hypocrite.
    • दम्भ is also posing or pretending oneself to be one, what one is not. All actors do that. But they do not do so with any intention of cheating. When Ravana posed himself at सीताकुटी as a mendicant, it was दम्भ, it was अनार्यसेवा.

(9) With preferable words and with few of my modifications the सुभाषितम् would become – रूपं हरति जरा धैर्यमाशा | मृत्युः प्राणान् धर्मचर्यामसूया | कामो ह्रियं शीलमनार्यसेवा | क्रोधः श्रियमहंकारस्तु सर्वम् || I am proposing my modifications with no sense of अहंकार. I am proposing these with humble recourse to  what is said in the श्लोक – पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् | न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् … (Everything is not good simply because it is old; nor a poem should be condemned simply because it is new; – Actually the श्लोक-s and hence the poetry is not mine. The two श्लोक-s are from विदुरनीति. My suggestions are just an attempt to see whether the recitation can be smoother.)

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

One thought on “Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 123

  1. The second sentence is differently translated in some blogs:

    वृद्धावस्था सुन्दरता का, धैर्य इच्छाओं का, मृत्यु प्राणों का, धर्मं का आचरण अपवित्रता का, क्रोध प्रतिष्ठा का, चरित्र बुरी संगति का, लज्जा काम का और अभिमान सबका नाश कर देता है।
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    धैर्यम् (कर्ता) आशाः (कर्म) हरति। ‍

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