Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 5

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach
Lesson 5

Glossary 5

 

No. English Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 good person, gentleman sujanaH सुजनः
2 not na
3 gets into, goes to yAti याति
4 enmity vairam वैरम्
5 other paraH परः
6 good hitam हितम्
7 others’ good para-hitam परहितम्
8 involved, engrossed nirataH निरतः
9* engrossed in good of others para-hita-nirataH परहितनिरतः
10 total loss vinAshaH विनाशः
11 time kAlaH काल:
12* in time of total loss vinAsha-kAle विनाशकाले
13 also api अपि
14 when cut chhede छेदे
15 sandalwood chandana चन्दनम्
16 tree taruH तरुः
17* sandalwood tree chandana-taruH चन्दनतरुः
18 lends fragrance surabhayati सुरभयति
19 mouth mukham मुखम्
20 of axe kuThArasya कुठारस्य

Words सुजनः, न and अपि have been there in previous glossaries.

There are three compound words here – परहितनिरतः विनाशकाले and चन्दनतरुः

(6) and (7) and (8) = (9) पर: and हितम् and निरतः = परहितनिरतः

Let us first look at “पर: and हितम्” The meaning is explained in the glossary that परहितम् = others’ good. So the relationship between the two words “other” and “good” is through the apostrophe. Or if we write it as “good of others”, the relationship is through the preposition “of”. In Sanskrit, the function of this preposition is served by the sixth, genitive case षष्ठी विभक्तिः. Hence we have to connect the two words by sixth case of पर: which is परस्य.

So the explanation of परहितम् = परस्य हितम् A compound word having this type of explanation or deciphering is called as a compound समास of षष्ठी तत्पुरुष समास type.

Then we can look into deciphering परहितनिरतः  considering परहितम् and निरतः as the two parts. Since परहितनिरतः means “engrossed in good of others” the relationship between the two parts “good of others” and “engrossed” is through the preposition “in”.  Function of this preposition is served by seventh locative case. Hence we have to connect the two parts by a declension of परहितम् into seventh case, सप्तमी विभक्तिः which is परहिते. So the explanation of परहितनिरतः becomes परहिते  निरतः A compound word having this type of explanation or deciphering is called as a compound समास of सप्तमी-तत्पुरुष समास type.

(10) + (11) = (12) विनाशः and कालः = विनाशकालः –> विनाशकाले Since means “in time of total loss” means “time of total loss”. Here the two parts “total loss” and “time” have the relationship through the preposition “of”. The function of this preposition is served by the sixth, genitive case षष्ठी विभक्तिः. Hence we have to connect the two words by sixth case of विनाशः which is विनाशस्य. So, the explanation of विनाशकालः is विनाशस्य कालः So, विनाशकालः is again a compound word समास of षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष समास type. विनाशकाले is सप्तमी विभक्तिः of विनाशकालः after its compounding.

Compound words become new words and would have declensions in different cases. This is important. Before deciphering a compound word, we should get to its simplest form, decipher the simplest form, which often is of first case singular प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्.

परहितनिरतः was already in प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्. So, there was no problem to start off with deciphering straightaway.

(15) + (16) = (17) चन्दनम् and तरुः = चन्दनतरुः This is again in प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्. The two parts are चन्दनम् and तरुः Since the meaning of चन्दनतरुः is tree of sandalwood, relationship between the two words चन्दनम् and तरुः is through the preposition “of”. Again we have to connect the two words चन्दनम् and तरुः by sixth, genitive case of चन्दनम् which is चन्दनस्य Hence चन्दनतरुः is again a compound word समास of षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष समास type.

Actually the first word in the glossary सुजनः is also a compound word.  It has two parts सु and जनः The first part सु is a prefix उपपद, which stands for सुष्ठु meaning “good” So सुजनः compounded from सुष्ठु जनः becomes a compound word समासः of उपपद-तत्पुरुषः समासः type.

In the above discussion, we have studied समासाः of three types – षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः, सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः and उपपद-तत्पुरुषः Obviously there are all sub-types of the broader category of तत्पुरुष-समासाः.


You will also appreciate from this discussion how deciphering the समासाः helps to get thorough understanding of the meaning.

Now we can proceed to our usual exercise of composing the phrases.


Exercises 4
From the words 1 to 20 in the glossary, compose the following phrases –


No. Phrase Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 good person, not, gets into, enmity __________  __________ ___________ __________  __________  _________
2 engrossed in good of others
__________  ___________  ________ __________  __________  ________
3 in times of total loss, also __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________
4 when cut, also, tree of sandalwood __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________
5 lends fragrance ________  __________  _________ ________  __________  _________
6 in the mouth, of axe ________  __________  _________ ________  __________  _________


The words सुजनः and न can be conjugated as सुजनो न.

Likewise परहितनिरतः and विनाशकाले can be conjugated as परहितनिरतो विनाशकाले. This pattern of conjugations has been explained earlier.

In phrase (3), you will get the words विनाशकाले and अपि. These can be conjugated to make one word विनाशकालेऽपि The symbol “ऽ” is called as avagrahaH, अवग्रहः standing for अ in अपि.

When you try to utter a word ending in vowel sound ए followed by the next word starting with अ, you will realise that अ tends to become silent.

That is how the rule of conjugation is made – when ए  is followed by अ, the latter vowel अ would become silent. But its presence must be denoted by an avagrahaH अवग्रहः the symbol “ऽ”.

Similarly in phrase (4), छेदे and अपि can be conjugated to make one word छेदेऽपि.


As usual, now you can write down three-three phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good two-line verse, a good saying a सुभाषितम् !!


Here is, how it would read –

सुजनो न याति वैरम् परहितनिरतो विनाशकालेऽपि ।

छेदेऽपि चन्दनतरुः सुरभयति मुखं कुठारस्य ॥

Although we have been having good enough meaning by the phrases in the above tabulation, it would be a good idea to paraphrase the complete meaning in chaste English.


I am sure you will like this good saying सुभाषितम् as well. Learn it by heart.


शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-


4 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 5

  1. I begun a revision of all this your lessons. For many years I did study the Sanskrit but in a more than second plan in my studies life: I had no hope to learn it. Now, with your so pedagogic natural way of to teach I gained again the hope. Neither all is lost, eventually I yet have time. I hope.
    _()_Naman

    • श्रीमन् “Yonathan Rey A. Da Fonseca”-महोदय !

      नमो नमः ! Your message reminds me of the सुभाषितम् which I had taken up for study in Lesson # 19.

      अजरामरवत्प्राज्ञः विद्यामर्थं च साधयेत् ।

      गृहीत इव केशेषु मृत्युना धर्ममाचरेत् ॥

      As said by the poet and also so very well-said by you, it is never too late to learn and re-learn, especially re-learning Sanskrit. The language has such charm, that if you have learnt it once, it will linger in your mind all your life and you would not like to miss an opportunity to delve in its charm again and again. Honestly, I am doing these lessons as a “re-learning” exercise for myself. I thought it good to share that with all. It is such a great feeling that so many people seem to like it. All the appreciations give me the motivation to carry it on and on “अजरामरवत्”

      It is God’s grace and blessings of all well-wishers like you, to whom I am humbly thankful. धन्यवादाः ! सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।” https://slabhyankar.wordpress.com http://slezall.blogspot.com

  2. My wife remembered me that I am studying Devanagari for almost forty years and Sanskrit around thirty five but practically, all this time, alone. Has we say, between my people, ‘tastes we never discuss’ but if there is a language with more beautiful sound is the Sanskrit and this has the total unanimity among my house. I have a seven years young daughter that the first words she pronounced, among papa or mama, has been ‘Om’ and fast she learn by heart ‘assato ma sat gamamya, tamso ma gyotir gamamya…’ etc. But some words she brings with her since she born: shanti, Krishna, Vajra, deva and some more.
    Our culture is Jewish but under the circumstances we are apart of our community for almost four generations. We study all that belongs to it in the proper time but in matters of country, land, etc, we remain as Bedouins hahahaha. This to say that my child did not born inner or even approximately to the Hindu culture. But all this words, above come with her. We have moved country to country in functions of our needs – needs of all kinds -, so she lived the first five years in Portugal where she could catch that great language, full of Indian expressions – fruit of the colonialism… Now we are in Sweden and she speaks and reads with deep understanding in Portuguese, Spanish, French, English and Swedish, being the Swedish her mother language.
    But the Sanskrit grows in her and the love and care for this language is our matter of contemplation. So, I am “teaching” her; and is beautiful to see how her capacity of drawing and painting grows along with the practice of the Devanagari.
    You see sir, I have two strong reasons for my full practice until the end of my retirement hahahahaha Also I use to learn teaching and since I was a boy.
    _()_Naman

    • श्रीमन् “योनाथन् रे”-महोदय ! नमो नमः ! I am astounded by Sanskrit instincts of your daughter and also by her fluency with so many languages ! I must say, she is a wonder-child !

      I am more curious to know how you “have been studying देवनागरी for forty years and Sanskrit around thirty-five years”. For Indians it should not be too great a struggle to be writing using देवनागरी and to study संस्कृत, because Indian languages have so much of cultural heritage derived from संस्कृत

      But in spite of you being a person who has traveled across so many countries across Europe and who just does not have the environment to pursue interest in Sanskrit, it is astounding how you have cultivated your interest !! I heartily and very humbly salute you for all that !!!

      सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।” https://slabhyankar.wordpress.com http://slezall.blogspot.com

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