|1||good person, gentleman||sujanaH||सुजनः|
|3||gets into, goes to||yAti||याति|
|9*||engrossed in good of others||para-hita-nirataH||परहितनिरतः|
|12*||in time of total loss||vinAsha-kAle||विनाशकाले|
Words सुजनः, न and अपि have been there in previous glossaries.
There are three compound words here – परहितनिरतः विनाशकाले and चन्दनतरुः
(6) and (7) and (8) = (9) पर: and हितम् and निरतः = परहितनिरतः
Let us first look at “पर: and हितम्” The meaning is explained in the glossary that परहितम् = others’ good. So the relationship between the two words “other” and “good” is through the apostrophe. Or if we write it as “good of others”, the relationship is through the preposition “of”. In Sanskrit, the function of this preposition is served by the sixth, genitive case षष्ठी विभक्तिः. Hence we have to connect the two words by sixth case of पर: which is परस्य.
So the explanation of परहितम् = परस्य हितम् A compound word having this type of explanation or deciphering is called as a compound समास of षष्ठी तत्पुरुष समास type.
Then we can look into deciphering परहितनिरतः considering परहितम् and निरतः as the two parts. Since परहितनिरतः means “engrossed in good of others” the relationship between the two parts “good of others” and “engrossed” is through the preposition “in”. Function of this preposition is served by seventh locative case. Hence we have to connect the two parts by a declension of परहितम् into seventh case, सप्तमी विभक्तिः which is परहिते. So the explanation of परहितनिरतः becomes परहिते निरतः A compound word having this type of explanation or deciphering is called as a compound समास of सप्तमी-तत्पुरुष समास type.
(10) + (11) = (12) विनाशः and कालः = विनाशकालः –> विनाशकाले Since means “in time of total loss” means “time of total loss”. Here the two parts “total loss” and “time” have the relationship through the preposition “of”. The function of this preposition is served by the sixth, genitive case षष्ठी विभक्तिः. Hence we have to connect the two words by sixth case of विनाशः which is विनाशस्य. So, the explanation of विनाशकालः is विनाशस्य कालः So, विनाशकालः is again a compound word समास of षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष समास type. विनाशकाले is सप्तमी विभक्तिः of विनाशकालः after its compounding.
Compound words become new words and would have declensions in different cases. This is important. Before deciphering a compound word, we should get to its simplest form, decipher the simplest form, which often is of first case singular प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्.
परहितनिरतः was already in प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्. So, there was no problem to start off with deciphering straightaway.
(15) + (16) = (17) चन्दनम् and तरुः = चन्दनतरुः This is again in प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम्. The two parts are चन्दनम् and तरुः Since the meaning of चन्दनतरुः is tree of sandalwood, relationship between the two words चन्दनम् and तरुः is through the preposition “of”. Again we have to connect the two words चन्दनम् and तरुः by sixth, genitive case of चन्दनम् which is चन्दनस्य Hence चन्दनतरुः is again a compound word समास of षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष समास type.
Actually the first word in the glossary सुजनः is also a compound word. It has two parts सु and जनः The first part सु is a prefix उपपद, which stands for सुष्ठु meaning “good” So सुजनः compounded from सुष्ठु जनः becomes a compound word समासः of उपपद-तत्पुरुषः समासः type.
In the above discussion, we have studied समासाः of three types – षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः, सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः and उपपद-तत्पुरुषः Obviously there are all sub-types of the broader category of तत्पुरुष-समासाः.
You will also appreciate from this discussion how deciphering the समासाः helps to get thorough understanding of the meaning.
Now we can proceed to our usual exercise of composing the phrases.
From the words 1 to 20 in the glossary, compose the following phrases –
No. Phrase Sanskrit in
1 good person, not, gets into, enmity __________ __________ ___________ __________ __________ _________ 2 engrossed in good of others
__________ ___________ ________ __________ __________ ________ 3 in times of total loss, also __________ __________ _________ __________ __________ ________ 4 when cut, also, tree of sandalwood __________ __________ _________ __________ __________ ________ 5 lends fragrance ________ __________ _________ ________ __________ _________ 6 in the mouth, of axe ________ __________ _________ ________ __________ _________
The words सुजनः and न can be conjugated as सुजनो न.
Likewise परहितनिरतः and विनाशकाले can be conjugated as परहितनिरतो विनाशकाले. This pattern of conjugations has been explained earlier.
In phrase (3), you will get the words विनाशकाले and अपि. These can be conjugated to make one word विनाशकालेऽपि The symbol “ऽ” is called as avagrahaH, अवग्रहः standing for अ in अपि.
When you try to utter a word ending in vowel sound ए followed by the next word starting with अ, you will realise that अ tends to become silent.
That is how the rule of conjugation is made – when ए is followed by अ, the latter vowel अ would become silent. But its presence must be denoted by an avagrahaH अवग्रहः the symbol “ऽ”.
Similarly in phrase (4), छेदे and अपि can be conjugated to make one word छेदेऽपि.
As usual, now you can write down three-three phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good two-line verse, a good saying a सुभाषितम् !!
Here is, how it would read –
सुजनो न याति वैरम् परहितनिरतो विनाशकालेऽपि ।
छेदेऽपि चन्दनतरुः सुरभयति मुखं कुठारस्य ॥
Although we have been having good enough meaning by the phrases in the above tabulation, it would be a good idea to paraphrase the complete meaning in chaste English.
I am sure you will like this good saying सुभाषितम् as well. Learn it by heart.