Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 4

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach
Lesson 4

Glossary 4
No. English Sanskrit in
Sanskrit in
1 by diligence, by industriousness udyamena उद्यमेन
2 of course, only, thus only hi हि
3 are accomplished siddhyanti सिद्ध्यन्ति
4 tasks, missions kAryANi कार्याणि
5 not na
6 mind manaH मनः
7 by chariots rathaiH रथैः
8* by chariots of mind, by dreams mano-rathaiH मनोरथैः
9 (of) sleeping suptasya सुप्तस्य
10 lion’s sinhasya सिंहस्य
11 enter pravishanti प्रविशन्ति
12 into the mouth mukhe मुखे
13 deer (plural) mRugAH मृगाः

We had the word उद्यम: in Lesson 2. Here it is उद्यमेन. Earlier the meaning was “diligence, industriousness”. Here the meaning is “by indulgence, by industriousness”. So the meaning of the preposition “by” is included in the meaning of this word “उद्यमेन” here. Both the words “उद्यम:” and “उद्यमेन” are declined forms of the root word “उद्यम”. All nouns, pronouns and adjectives have declensions in different cases. Earlier in the glossaries in Lessons 1 and 2 had declensions of root word “देव” as “देव” and “देव:” in Address case and Nominative case respectively. Here we have declensions in Nominative (called as “first case”) and instrumental (called as “third case”). Cases are eight, from first to seventh and the address case. Cases second to seventh do the job of different propositions. The third case does the job of prepositions “by”and “with”.

Words (7) and (8) are also in third (instrumental) case. There also we have the preposition “by”.

Words (9) and (10) are in sixth (genitive, showing ownership) case which do the job of the preposition “of” or of the apostrophe in word (10).

Word (12) is in seventh (locative) case, which does the function of prepositions “in”, “into”, “on”, “upon”, “above”, “below”, “under”. All these prepositions show a location. So, the seventh case is the locative case.

Nouns, pronouns and adjectives decline also by number – singular, dual, plural. We had “cloud rains” (singular), “cloud thunders” (singular), “gentleman does” (singular). We had “six exist”(plural). Here we have “tasks are accomplished” (plural) “deer enter” (plural).

Verbs also have declensions, influenced by number. This is so in grammar of all languages, e.g. in English, “I am”, “We are”.

Verbs also decline due to tense. So far we have all sentences in present tense.  Verbs also decline by “person” e.g. “I am” (first person), “He is” (third person). So far we have all sentences in third person.

We shall get to know various declensions of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and also of verbs, as we proceed. I have been thoughtfully selective in taking up the verses, so that, we shall have graded progress. That also merits appreciation, right ?

And all this grammar does not, may not stop us from our learning the verses. It is being mentioned just for information. Let us get on with usual exercises of composing phrases, which help us to understand the meaning.
There is only one conjugations in this whole verse. The conjugated phrases are marked by *

(6) + (7) = (8) मनः + रथैः = मनोरथैः

But here the two words have together become one word, a compound word.

14 together (as prefix) sam सम्
15 to be, to sit, to put AsaH आसः
16 put together samAsaH समासः
17 compound word samAsaH समासः
Even a word like समासः a compound word, which is a grammatical term has a derivation. Everything in Sanskrit has a logic and a structure. There is that finesse, the refinement, hence, Sanskrit !
Well, सम् is a prefix. Every prefix has a meaning too ! सम् means together. There is another here प्र in प्रविशन्ति. It is all interesting. But it will become digressing from our composing the verse and understanding its meaning.

Exercises 4
From the words 1 to 13 in the glossary, prepare the following phrases –

No. Phrase Sanskrit in
Sanskrit in
1 by diligence, only, are accomplished, tasks, __________  __________ ___________ __________  __________  _________
2 not, by dreams,
__________  ___________  ________ __________  __________  ________
3 not, of course, of sleeping, lion’s __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________
4 enter, into mouth, deer __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________

In the glossary, you have the word “not” only once. Actually we had this word earlier also. It is repeated here just for convenience. Word (2) has two different meanings and are judiciously put in phrases (1) and (3).

As usual, now you can write down two-two phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good two-line verse, a good saying a सुभाषितम् !!

Here is, how it would read –

udyamena hi siddhyanti kAryANi na mano-rathaiH

na hi suptasya sinhasya pravishanti mukhe mRugAH

उद्यमेन हि सिद्ध्यन्ति कार्याणि न मनोरथैः ।

न हि सुप्तस्य सिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मृगाः ॥

In many a सुभाषितम् we shall find this style of

  • a hypothesis and its proof by a commonplace example or
  • an example and a moral therefrom.

Isn’t it all charming how the poets have thought of a right, appropriate example, derived a moral or a proof and put it all in a short, sweet verse !

I am sure you will like this good saying सुभाषितम् as well. Learn it by heart.

शुभमस्तु |


2 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 4

  1. It will be more nicer, if during lession you put “Dhatu forms also in different Lakars and also way Noun declines as Vibhaktees.

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