|1||by diligence, by industriousness||udyamena||उद्यमेन|
|2||of course, only, thus only||hi||हि|
|8*||by chariots of mind, by dreams||mano-rathaiH||मनोरथैः|
|12||into the mouth||mukhe||मुखे|
We had the word उद्यम: in Lesson 2. Here it is उद्यमेन. Earlier the meaning of the word उद्यम: was “diligence, industriousness”. Here the meaning for the word उद्यमेन is “by diligence, by industriousness”. So the meaning of the preposition “by” is included in the meaning of this word “उद्यमेन” here. Both the words “उद्यम:” and “उद्यमेन” are declined forms of the root word “उद्यम”. All nouns, pronouns and adjectives have declensions in different cases. Earlier in the glossaries in Lessons 1 and 2 had declensions of root word “देव” as “देव” and “देव:” in Address case संबोधन विभक्तिः and Nominative case प्रथमा विभक्तिः respectively. Here we have declensions in Nominative (called as “first case”प्रथमा विभक्तिः) and instrumental (called as “third case”तृतीया विभक्तिः). Cases are eight, from first प्रथमा to seventh सप्तमी and the address case संबोधन विभक्तिः . Cases second to seventh do the job of different prepositions. The third case does the job of prepositions “by”and “with”.
Words (7) and (8) are also in third (instrumental) case तृतीया विभक्तिः. There also we have the preposition “by”.
Words (9) and (10) are in sixth (genitive, showing ownership) case षष्ठी विभक्तिः which do the job of the preposition “of” or of the apostrophe in word (10).
Word (12) is in seventh (locative) case सप्तमी विभक्तिः, which does the function of prepositions “at”, “in”, “into”, “on”, “upon”, “above”, “below”, “under”. All these prepositions show a location. So, the seventh case सप्तमी विभक्तिः is the locative case.
Nouns, pronouns and adjectives decline also by number – singular एकवचन, dual द्विवचन, plural बहुवचन. We had “cloud rains” (singular एकवचन), “cloud thunders” (singular एकवचन), “gentleman does” (singular एकवचन). In “six exist” there is plural बहुवचन. In “tasks are accomplished” there is plural बहुवचन. Also in “deer enter” there is plural बहुवचन.
Verbs also have declensions, influenced by number. This is so in grammar of all languages, e.g. in English, “I am”, “We are”.
Verbs also decline due to tense. So far we have all sentences in present tense. Verbs also decline by “person” e.g. “I am” (first person), “He is” (third person). So far we have all sentences in third person.
We shall get to know various declensions of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and also of verbs, as we proceed. I have been thoughtfully selective in taking up the verses, so that, we shall have graded progress. That also merits appreciation, right ?
And all this grammar does not, may not stop us from our learning the verses. It is being mentioned just for information. Let us get on with usual exercises of composing phrases, which help us to understand the meaning.
There is only one conjugation संधि or संहिता in this whole verse. The conjugated phrases are marked by *(6) + (7) = (8) मनः + रथैः = मनोरथैः
But here the two words have together become one word, a compound word.
14 together (as prefix) sam सम् 15 to be, to sit, to put AsaH आसः 16 put together samAsaH समासः 17 compound word samAsaH समासःEven a word like समासः a compound word, which is a grammatical term has a derivation. Everything in Sanskrit has a logic and a structure. There is that finesse, the refinement, hence, Sanskrit !Well, सम् is a prefix. Every prefix has a meaning too ! सम् means together. There is another prefix प्र in प्रविशन्ति. It is all interesting. But it will become digressing from our composing the verse and understanding its meaning.
From the words 1 to 13 in the glossary, prepare the following phrases –
No. Phrase Sanskrit in
1 by diligence, only, are accomplished, tasks, __________ __________ ___________ __________ __________ _________ 2 not, by dreams,
__________ ___________ ________ __________ __________ ________ 3 not, of course, of sleeping, lion’s __________ __________ _________ __________ __________ ________ 4 enter, into mouth, deer __________ __________ _________ __________ __________ ________
In the glossary, you have the word “not” only once. Actually we had this word earlier also. It is repeated here just for convenience. Word (2) has two different meanings and are judiciously put in phrases (1) and (3).
As usual, now you can write down two-two phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good two-line verse, a good saying a सुभाषितम् !!
Here is, how it would read –
udyamena hi siddhyanti kAryANi na mano-rathaiH
na hi suptasya sinhasya pravishanti mukhe mRugAH
उद्यमेन हि सिद्ध्यन्ति कार्याणि न मनोरथैः ।
न हि सुप्तस्य सिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मृगाः ॥
In many a सुभाषितम् we shall find this style of
- a hypothesis and its proof by a commonplace example or
- an example and a moral therefrom.
Isn’t it all charming how the poets have thought of a right, appropriate example, derived a moral or a proof and put it all in a short, sweet verse !
I am sure you will like this good saying सुभाषितम् as well. Learn it by heart.