संस्कृताध्ययनम् ।

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 117

Posted in Lesson 117, Lessons 111-120 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on June 5, 2014

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 117

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्तदशाधिकशततमः (११७) पाठः ।

 

When I went to our study circle, a couple of days back, Mr. Takale had put up following सुभाषितम् on the black board.

 

यस्य षष्ठी चतुर्थी च विहस्य च विहाय च ।

अहं कथं द्वितीया स्यात् द्वितीया स्यामहं कथम् ।।

 

There is only one संधि – स्यामहम् = स्याम् अहम्

 

So on splitting the conjugation the verse would read -

यस्य षष्ठी चतुर्थी च विहस्य च विहाय च ।

अहं कथं द्वितीया स्यात् द्वितीया स्याम् अहम् कथम् ।।

 

There are no compound words. There are no very complex or difficult words either. To go by word-by-word meaning -

 

यस्य = of whom

षष्ठी = the sixth one (feminine)

चतुर्थी = the fourth one (feminine)

च = and

विहस्य = after laughing

विहाय = after forsaking

च = and

अहं = I, myself

कथं = how, how come

द्वितीया = the second one (feminine)

स्यात् = (she) may become

द्वितीया = the second one (feminine)

स्याम् = (I) may become

अहम् = I, myself

कथम् = how, how come

 

There is very obvious grammatical difficulty to identify subject words for the two verbs स्यात् and स्याम्.

  • The pronoun अहम् in प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् comes twice but has a good match only with स्याम्, not at all with स्यात्.
  • The word द्वितीया is also twice, is in प्रथमा विभक्ति, एकवचनम् but has a good match only with स्यात्, not at all with स्याम्.
  • If one अहम् (out of two) is matched with स्याम्, and one द्वितीया out of two is matched with स्यात्, the intrigue remains about what to do with the extra अहम् and extra द्वितीया.

 

So the सुभाषितम् started sounding challenging and intriguing to set it in proper syntax अन्वय. Understanding the meaning can be attempted only after getting the syntax proper. I hence requested Mr. Takale to please explain.

 

He said, one needs to know the background, sort of a story or incident. It is something like this -

 

There were two friends.

  • द्वे मित्रे आस्ताम् |

 

One was wise but poor.

  • एकः विद्वान् परन्तु दरिद्रः |

 

He had a daughter, who was also smart, intelligent and was also beautiful

  • विदुषः पुत्री अपि विदुषी आसीत् सौन्दर्यवती च ।

 

The other person, was rich but had no intellectual acclaim.

  • अन्यः धनिकः | तथापि न कापि तस्य विद्वत्ता |

 

He had a son, who also had no wisdom of letters.

  • आसीद्धनिकस्य पुत्रः | सः तु अक्षरशत्रुः ।

 

The rich person caught the fancy to have his wise but poor friend’s daughter as his daughter-in-law.

  • धनिकस्य मनस्यागच्छत् यत् दरिद्रस्य विदुषः मित्रस्य विदुषी सौन्दर्यवती पुत्री तस्य स्नुषा भवेदिति ।

 

He did make the proposal to the poor wise man.

  • धनिकेन विद्वांसं प्रति तद्विधः प्रस्तावोऽपि प्रस्तुतः ।

 

Poor wise man knew that his daughter will not be happy by marrying the dim-witted son of his rich but uneducated friend.

  • विदुषा तु ज्ञातं यत् तस्य विदुषी पुत्री सुखिनी न भवेत् तेन धनिकस्य विद्याविहीनेन पुत्रेण सह विवाहेन |

 

But he was also worried of saying no to his rich friend’s proposal.

  • तथापि सः चिन्तितोऽपि कथं तस्य धनिकमित्रस्य प्रस्तावः नकारणीयः इति |

 

On knowing her father’s anxiety, she said there was a simple way out.

  • पितुः चिन्तां ज्ञात्वा पुत्र्या पिता समाहितः यदस्ति एकः सरलः उपायः |

 

Can you tell uncle, that I have a simple condition for accepting the proposal ?

  • किं न श्रेष्ठी ज्ञाप्यते यत् अस्ति मम किञ्चित् सरलं गतिकम् प्रस्तावं स्वीकर्तुमिति ?

 

I am stuck up at deciphering the meaning of a simple verse.

  • अहं एकस्य श्लोकस्य अर्थस्य विवरणे अवगुण्ठितास्मि |

 

If the son can help me, I can consider the proposal.

  • यदि सः धनिकपुत्रः श्लोकस्य अर्थस्य विवरणे मम सहाय्यं करोति तर्हि विचारणीयः खलु प्रस्तावः मया |

 

Actually she composed a verse herself. This was the verse.

  • सत्येन तु तया स्वयमेव रचितः श्लोकः | अयमेव सः श्लोकः |

 

To decipher the meaning, one needs to understand and make explicit some implicit words.

 

यस्य विहस्य(शब्दे) षष्ठी च विहाय(शब्दे) चतुर्थी च (भवति) ।

  • One for whom word विहस्य is of sixth case and word विहाय is of fourth case

कथं अहं(शब्दे) द्वितीया च स्यात् ?

  • How can the word अहं (ever) be of second case ?

कथम् अहम् (तस्य) द्वितीया स्याम्

  • How can I be a wife of such person ?
  • Note, alternate meaning of द्वितीया is wife.

 

Is it not interesting that a dim-witted may think word विहस्य is of sixth case and word विहाय is of fourth case, simply because they have suffix-like endings of स्य and अय as in देवस्य and देवाय ?

 

A dim-witted may as well think the word अहम् to be of second case, simply because the word has suffix-like ending of म् as in देवम् ! He may even think the word कथम् to be of second case !!

 

It is also interesting to think how and why alternate meaning of द्वितीया is wife. Meaning of द्वितीया is not just “second” as in द्वितीयोऽध्यायः. The word also means “next (to)”. A lady “next to” a person would be his wife. That is how the word द्वितीया has this alternate meaning of द्वितीया = wife.

 

There seems to be some smartness even in selecting for the verse the words विहस्य and विहाय maybe, to suggest that a smart lady will give a wry smile when succeeding in  forsaking a dim-witted.

 

  • विदुषी विद्याविहीनं विहस्य विहाय च तिष्ठेत् !
  • Wow ! Some onomatopoeia of letter वि 5 times !
    • पञ्चवारस्य वि-वर्णस्य कश्चिदनुप्रासः खलु !

 

Learning Sanskrit and Sanskrit-verses can sharpen wit and help overcome piquant situations !!

 

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116

Posted in Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach, Lesson 116, Lessons 111-120 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on January 8, 2014

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 116

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य षोडशाधिकशततमः (११६) पाठः ।

Everyone gets to know the गायत्रीमन्त्र. I too have known it. But its meaning is not always very clear, especially by the grammar of every word and the meaning based on the grammar. So, this is an attempt rather an indulgence to learn the Sanskrit of the गायत्रीमन्त्र.

ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् |

पदच्छेदैः – ॐ भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः वरेण्यं भर्गः देवस्य धीमहि धियः यः नः प्रचोदयात् |

अन्वयेन – ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् |

शब्दशः विश्लेषणम् -

  1. ॐ = invocation

  2. धीमहि =

    1. धी 4 Ā (धीयते) 1 To disregard, disrespect. -2 To propitiate. -3 To hold, contain. -4 To accomplish, fulfil.

    2. प्रायः धी-धातोः विधिलिङ्-लकारे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचने आर्षरूपम् |

    3. Let us meditate

  3. यः = यत्-सर्वनाम | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  4. भूः =

    1. भूः f. [भू-क्विप्] 1 The earth (opp. अन्तरीक्ष or स्वर्ग); दिवं मरुत्वानिव भोक्ष्यते भुवम् R.3.4;18.4; Me.18; मत्तेभ- कुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः । -2 Earth as one of the nine substances. -3 The universe, globe. -4 Ground, floor; मणिभयभुवः (प्रासादाः) Me.66. -5 Land, landed property. -6 A place, site, region, plot of ground; काननभुवि, उपवनभुवि &c. -7 Matter, subject-matter. -8 A symbo- lical expression for the number ‘one’. -9 The base of a geometrical figure. -1 A sacrificial fire. -11 The act of becoming, arising. -12 The first of the three Vyāhṛitis or mystic syllables (भूः, भुवः, स्वः) –representing the earth–repeated by every Brāhmaṇa at the commencement of his daily Sandhyā.

  5. भुवः =

    1. भुवः Ved. 1 Fire. -2 The earth (भुवोलोक). -3 The air, atmosphere (भुवस्).

  6. स्वः =

    1. सुवरिति वा एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः T. Up.1.5.1; वेदत्रयान्निरदुहद्भूर्भुवःस्वरितीति च Ms.2.76; according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम्.

  7. तत्-सवितुः =

    1. तत्सवितुः = तस्य सवितुः

    2. तत्सवितृ-इति सामासिकं नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. सः सविता इति “तत्सवितृ” (कर्मधारयः) |

  8. देवस्य = “देव”-इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  9. वरेण्यम् =

    1. वृ-इति धातुः | तस्मात् अनीयर्-प्रत्ययेन “वरणीय”-इति विशेषणम् | वरेण्यम् इति प्रायः आर्षरूपम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    2. वृ I. 1, 5, 9 U. (वरति-ते, वृणोति-वृणुते, वृणाति-वृणीते, वृत; pass. व्रीयते) 1 To choose, select as a boon; वृतं तेनेदमेव प्राक् Ku.2.56; ववार रामस्य वनप्रयाणम् Bk.3.6. -2 To choose for oneself (Ātm.); वृणते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव संपदः Ki.2.3; यदेव वब्रे तदपश्यदाहृतम् R.3.6. -3 To choose in marriage, woo, court; अयोनिजां राजसुतां वरीतुम् Mv.3.28; A. R.3.42. -4 To beg, solicit, ask for. -5 To cover, conceal, hide, screen, envelop; मेघैर्वृतश्चन्द्रमाः Mk.5.14. -5 To surround, encompass; वृतस्त्वं पात्रेसमितैः खट्वा$$रूढः प्रमादवान् Bk.5.1; U.4.18; R.12.61. -7 To ward off, keep away, restrain, check. -8 To hinder, oppose, obstruct. -9 To love, adore. -Caus. (वारयति-ते) 1 To cover, conceal. -2 To avert from (with abl.). -3 To prevent, ward off, restrain, sup- press, check, hinder; शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् Bh.2. 11. -Desid. (वुवूर्षति-ते, विवरिषति-ते; विवरीषति-ते) To wish to choose. -II. 1 U. (वरयति-ते) 1 To choose, select; वरं वरयते कन्या माता वित्तं पिता श्रुतम् Pt.4.68. -2 To choose in marriage. -3 To ask for, beg, solicit, (with two acc.); तां त्वां संवरणस्यार्थे वरयामि विभावसो Mb.; शैलेन्द्रं वरयामासुर्गङ्गां त्रिपथगां नदीम् Rām.

    3. वरेण्य a. [वृ-एन्य Uṇ.3.98] 1 To be wished for, desirable, eligible; अनेन चेदिच्छसि गृह्यमाणं पाणिं वरेण्येन R.6.24. -2 (Hence) Best, most excellent, pre-eminent, most worthy or distingushed, chief; वेधा विधाय पुनरुक्तमिवन्दुबिम्बं दूरीकरोति न कथं विदुषां वरेण्यः Bv.2.158; तत् सवितुर्वरेण्य भर्गो देवस्य धीमही Rv.3.62.1; R.6.24,84. Bk.1.4; Ku.7.9; A. Rām.2.6.62. -ण्यः A particular class of deceased ancestors. -ण्यम् Saffron.

  10. भर्गः -

    1. भर्गस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    2. भर्गस् n. Radiance, Iustre; देवस्य भर्गो मनसेदं जजान Bhāg.5.7.14; ऊँ तत् सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि Gāyatrīmantra, Rv.3.62.1.

  11. नः – अस्मद्-इति उत्तमपुरुषवाचकं सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

  12. धियः

    1. धीः [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.

    2. धी-इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

    1. प्रचोदयात् –
      1. प्रचुद्-इति धातुः (प्र-इति उपसर्गेण सहितः) | तस्य आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

        1. Dr. H. N. Bhat has noted in his comment that प्रचोदयात् is not आशीर्लिङ्-लकार.

        2. I had checked up at http://tdil-dc.in/san/skt_gen/generators.html# and found that the रूपम् of चुद् in आशीर्लिङ्-लकारे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् is given as चोदयिषीष्ट/चोद्यात्. I had hence thought that प्रचोदयात् is an आर्षरूपम्.

        3. Dr. Bhat considers it to be लेट्-लकार. This लकार is anyway to be found only in Vedas (लेट् वेदे). By that consideration also it becomes an आर्षरूपम्. But I do not know whether in Vedas, as a लकार, लेट्-लकार has the sense of आशीर्लिङ्.

        4. The रूपम् प्रचोदयात् sounds similar to many आशीर्लिङ्-रूपाणि such as ब्रूयात्, भूयात्, कुर्यात् etc.

अन्वयार्थः Overall meaning as per the syntax -

ॐ धीमहि, यः भूः भुवः स्वः तत्-सवितुः देवस्य वरेण्यं भर्गः नः धियः प्रचोदयात् =

ॐ = In all serenity

धीमहि = Let us meditate or pray (that)

तत्-सवितुः देवस्य of that God Sun

  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is (and pervades) this earth, the environment above it and the heavens OR

  • यः भूः भुवः स्वः = who is consummation of all the three mystic syllables

वरेण्यं भर्गः = (His) most benevolent radiance (lustre)

प्रचोदयात् = may (प्र = ever and vigorous and energetic) motivate, may enlighten

नः धियः = our intellects

टिप्पण्यः Notes -

  1. When exploring the words भूः भुवः स्वः, I have noted from Apte’s on-line dictionary, the mention, “.. एतास्तिस्रो व्याहृतयः (from तैत्तिरीय उपनिषत्) ..”, but further on, “.. according to some they are seven in number as भूः, भुवः, स्वः, महः, जनः, तपः, and सत्यम् ..”. This brings to mind a possibility that the seven व्याहृति-s may actually be referring to seven levels of atmosphere above earth. In modern sciences, different names such as troposhere, stratosphere, etc. are given to layers of atmosphere above earth as can be seen in the picture below. Interestingly, these are also seven in number !

  2. This मन्त्र is known as गायत्रीमन्त्रः There are many such मन्त्र-s or prayers which have some common features and words. Some गायत्रीमन्त्र-s illustrated at http://www.speakingtree.in/spiritual-slideshow/seekers/faith-and-rituals/content-233849/47042 are -

    1. गणेशगायत्री – एकदंताय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। महाकर्णाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।। गजाननाय विद्महे, वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि, तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात्।।

    2. ब्रह्म-गायत्री – ॐ वेदात्मने विद्महे, हिरण्यगर्भाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ओं चतुर्मुखाय विद्महे, कमण्डलु धाराय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ परमेश्वराय विद्महे, परतत्वाय धीमहि, तन्नो ब्रह्म प्रचोदयात् ।।

    3. शिव-गायत्री – ॐ तत्पुरुषाय विद्महे, महादेवाय धीमहि, तन्नो रुद्र: प्रचोदयात् ।।

    4. विष्णु-गायत्री ॐ त्रैलोक्य-मोहनाय विद्महे काम-देवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात् ।।

    5. नारायण-गायत्री – ॐ नारायणाय विद्महे वासुदेवाय धीमहि तन्नो विष्णुः प्रचोदयात्। ।।

    6. कृष्ण-गायत्री – ॐ देवकीनन्दनाय विद्महे, वासुदेवाय धीमहि, तन्न: कृष्ण: प्रचोदयात् ।।

    7. सूर्य-गायत्री – ॐ आदित्याय विद्महे मार्तण्डाय धीमहि तन्नः सूर्यः प्रचोदयात् ।।

    8. देवी-गायत्री – महादेव्यै विद्महे दुर्गायै धीमहि तन्नो देवी प्रचोदयात् ।।

    9. अन्नपूर्णा-गायत्री – ॐ भगवत्यै च विद्महे, महेश्वर्यै च धीमहि, तन्नो पूर्णा प्रचोदयात् ।।

    10. हनुमान्-गायत्री – ॐ आञ्जनेयाय विद्महे, वायुपुत्राय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।। ॐ वायुपुत्राय विद्महे, रामदूताय धीमहि, तन्नो हनुमान् प्रचोदयात् ।।

    11. Even there is साई-गायत्री – ॐ शिरडीवासाय विद्महे सच्चिदानन्दाय धीमहि तन्नो साई प्रचोदयात् ।।

  3. Some meter can be seen to be applicable to all गायत्रीमन्त्र-s. Possibly the name of the meter itself is गायत्रीच्छन्दस्. The meter typically has three lines, each of eight letters as in एकदंताय विद्महे | वक्रतुण्डाय धीमहि | तन्नो दंती प्रचोदयात् ।। First line ends in विद्महे, second in धीमहि, and the third one in प्रचोदयात् ।।

    1. This गणेश-गायत्री is a part of श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् where there is a mention of the name of the meter as निचृद्-गायत्रीच्छन्दः

    2. It may also be noted that for the deity to whom the prayer is offered by the verbs विद्महे and धीमहि the case used is the fourth case संप्रदानकारकविभक्ति (चतुर्थी विभक्ति). Basic understanding of the use of this विभक्ति seems to be that the prayer is “offered”. It is for the deity to accept the prayer or not.

  4. The गायत्रीमन्त्र – ॐ भूर्भुवः स्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् | is of course the most famous. It is hence known as गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः It can also be noted that its deity is God Sun. Any person of any faith should be able to derive strength and inspiration from this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः, because the deity Sun ought to be respectable, regardless of faith and hence for all.

  5. Motivation or enlightenment obtained from the deity Sun can never be untoward or unwarranted motivation. It will be the most appropriate and the most energetic motivation. This prayer seeks only such energetic motivation.

  6. The verb धीमहि is First person plural. “Let us meditate”. That pronoun “us” is very inviting, all-encompassing, universal, at all times, eternal.

  7. The reference of this गायत्रीमहामन्त्रः is quoted as Rv 3-62-1. So it is from ऋग्वेद. Certainly such great, universal and eternally valid thought of Vedic philosophy will sustain and will enlighten the world anytime, anywhere. It has sustained over thousands of years and would sustain for many more thousands of years !

  8. Humanity will always need such solemn and sublime, blissful and energetic, thoughts and prayers at all times.

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

Posted in Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach, Lesson 115, Lessons 111-120 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on November 1, 2013

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य पञ्चदशाधिकशततमः (११५) पाठः ।

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्

Commenting on my previous Lesson No. 113, on आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Shri. Shrinivas Tilak suggested that this quote कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् also merits a study.

It does. One common aspect in both these quotes is the word विश्व. This word in these and many other quotes in वेद-s more than establish that वेद-s always focused on Universal good. To think of वेद-s as scriptures of Hindus will hence be a narrow-minded view and will prevent universal benefit that can certainly happen from the wisdom advocated in the वेद-s .

In his extended comment Shri. Shrinivas Tilak also clarified …

कृण्वन्तो विश्वं आर्यम् occurs in Rigveda

  1. at 3:30.6 in a sukta composed by Vishvamitra. It is one of the six of his Sampat suktas. Here an appeal is made to Indra to render the entire cosmos ‘arya.’

  2. It also occurs at 9:63.5 in the Somasukta where an appeal is made to Soma to render the entire cosmos ‘Arya.’

As has been mentioned by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak the point to be dealt with is the interpretation of the word आर्य.

Since I have set the style of word-by-word analysis for posts at this blog, I should of course do that.

This quote is even shorter than the previous one. Just two words.

By पदच्छेद

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् = कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्

So, now it becomes three words कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्.

Going into word-by-word analysis

(1) कृण्वन्तः =

it is noted – (अ) धातुपाठसूच्याम् -

  1. कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ ||

  2. कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७ ||

  3. कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० ||

    • Study there was limited to कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० because it was only this, which was relevant there.

    • However here, study of

      • कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ and/or of

      • कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७

      • becomes necessary, because the word here is कृण्वन्तः

    • Grammar of कृण्वन्तः is -कृञ् (कृ) धातुः | तस्मात् शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् कृण्वन् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

      • The धातुः  for कृण्वन् is कृञ्, not the धातुः डुकृञ्. because शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् from धातुः डुकृञ् is कुर्वन्, not कृण्वन्.

  • It is smartness of पाणिनि to give different name to the same धातु, when it is in another गण. By that we can clearly say कृण्वन् is from कृञ् and कुर्वन् is from डुकृञ्

  • Although धातुपाठसूची enlists the धातु as भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८, this is not so detailed in बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः

  • In Apte’s dictionary also only 5 U. and 8 U. are mentioned and meaning of 5U. conforms to कृञ् हिंसायाम् as can be seen from this image –

  • The dilemma is

    • The meaning कृञ् हिंसायाम् does not at all fit the context of the quote under study.

    • कृञ् करणे is mentioned only in धातुपाठसूची obtained from http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/dhatupathaindex_sa.html.

    • Simple way to resolve the matter is to consider that कृण्वन्तः is Vedic usage in place of कुर्वन्तः with meaning identical to classical usage कुर्वन्तः

(2) विश्वं – विश्व is a pronoun in Sanskrit ! See in गणपाठ -

  • सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि १.१.२७

    • सर्वादि। सर्व। विश्व। उभ। उभय। डतर। डतम। अन्य। अन्यतर। इतर। त्वत्। त्व। नेम। सम। सिम।

  • विश्व being a सर्वनाम really prompts a question what is a सर्वनाम ?

    • As a compound word it can have a derivation विग्रहवाक्य – सर्वस्य नाम इति सर्वनाम (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

  • Here विश्वं = “विश्व” (= ) इति सर्वनाम | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे -

    • विश्व (विश्-व उणादि 1-151)

      • उणादि 1-151 अशूप्रुषिलटिकणिखटिविशिभ्यः क्वन्

    • धातुः विश् धातुपाठसूच्याम् – विश् | तु० अनिट् प० | विश प्रवेशने ६. १६०

(3) आर्यम् -

  • Etymology given in Apte’s dictionary is ऋ-ण्यत्

    • So, it is from धातुः ऋ.

    • ण्यत् (य) = a termination प्रत्यय of potential passive participle as in कार्य, हास्य

  • धातुः ऋ, धातुपाठसूच्याम् -

    • ऋ | भ्वा० अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६ ||

    • ऋ | जु० अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ]३. १७ ||

    • ऋ | स्वा० सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके]५. ३८ |

  • बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् – (१) तत्र धातुकोशे -

      • Interesting to note – अर्यः स्वामिवैश्ययोः | आर्यो ब्राह्मणः |

    • (२) धातुरूपावल्याम् -

*
*
    • Here also see  -

      • footnote for अर्यः १० स्वामी वैश्यो वा

      • footnote for आर्यः ११ स्वामिवैश्याभ्यामन्यत्र

  • Basically अर्य / आर्य is from धातुः ऋ and is similar to कार्य from कृ.

  • धातुः ऋ and आर्य are detailed in Apte’s dictionary as follows -

*
*

With all above details simple word by word meaning of कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् becomes -

कृण्वन्तः = those, making

विश्वं = the whole world

आर्यम् = noble

कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् = those, making the whole world noble

The phrase does not have an explicit subject and predicate.

Considering the context explained by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak, as a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively, subject and predicate become explicit by adding भवन्तु

Note -

भवन्तु = भू इति धातुः | तस्य आज्ञार्थे (लोटि) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

भवन्तु is प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्.

For this verb, there are options for कर्तृपदं as – ते, ताः, तानि and भवन्तः.

  • ते, ताः, तानि = They

  • भवन्तः = You (plural of respectful second person masculine pronoun भवान्)

Being a prayer, the कर्तृपदं should be भवन्तः = You

भवन्तु = May you be

भवन्तः i.e. इन्द्र or सोम connote the Supreme Powers. By कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् we pray to them “… May you be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

When reading the quote independently, there can be another option to make the subject and predicate explicit by adding भवेम (= Let us all be)

Note -

भवेम = भू इति धातुः | तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

अन्वयः – विश्वं आर्यम् कृण्वन्तः भवेम

भवेम is already उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्. Hence कर्तृपदं is वयम् only.

With this, the meaning of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् becomes “… Lets us all be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

The basic concept is of whole world noble विश्वमार्यम् ! means nothing ignoble, no negativity of any type, any time, anywhere !

Whole world noble, has to of course include oneself and include everyone else, even every other being.

  • Hindu Gods and Goddesses have been caricatured to be congenial to all sorts of creatures, even venomous cobra, worn around the neck by शिव, The gigantic serpent शेष being the couch for विष्णु. Mouse a rodent being the carrier of गणेश, Maybe, this is all symbolism. If it is symbolism, all the more the reason to delve deeper and understand the meaningfulness of all this symbolism.

विश्वमार्यम् means no negativity. Negativity of human character has been delineated, with mention six enemies षड्रिपु-s, which make the character negative – काम, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, मद, मत्सर

काम = desire

क्रोध = anger

लोभ = greed

मोह = distraction, fallibility

मद = ego

मत्सर = jealousy

For विश्वमार्यम् to come true, cleansing of character has to begin with oneself !

The word आर्य has been associated also with the Aryan tribe or race, which is said to have descended from the Arctic region and spread around the world, one stream moving into Europe, another into Arabian Gulf and yet another into Indian subcontinent across the हिन्दुकुश ranges.

  • Lokmanya Tilak is said to have concluded it to be so, in his book Orion or Arctic Home in the Vedas

  • Based on similar hypothesis, Adolf Hitler is said to have adopted स्वस्तिक (unfortunately in anticlockwise direction) on the shoulders of his military uniform.

  • I think, Shah of Iran, who was made to flee Iran, had, in the long array of his regal titles, one title as आर्यमिहिर

But such meaning of आर्य, being the name of a tribe or race, does not fit to the context of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्, being a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively.

One must go by the nobler meaning, obtaining from grammar and etymology, that आर्य is ऋ-ण्यत् an adjective derived from ऋ and meaning noble.

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114

Posted in Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach, Lesson 114, Lessons 111-120 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on October 5, 2013

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 114

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुर्दशाधिकशततमः (११४) पाठः ।

There is a verse to be studied in this lesson also. But before coming to the verse, let me give a background. I was led to it by a statement in the “Introduction” paragraph in a book.

I came across a book by श्रीशङ्करशास्त्री मारुलकर basically a commentary on श्रीकौण्डभट्टविरचितः वैयाकरणभूषणसारः (published by आनन्दाश्रम, Pune, 1957)

In the “Introduction”, the author makes a statement प्रतिपाद्यविषयदृष्ट्या व्याकरणग्रन्थाः द्विधा विभज्यन्ते शब्दग्रन्थाः अर्थग्रन्थाश्च suggesting that works on grammar can be classified into two types according to the theme or focus of delineation -

  1. शब्दग्रन्थाः = those dealing in linguistics, phonetics, philology, etymology, formation of words, &c.

    1. पाणिनि’s अष्टाध्यायी is eminently of this type

  2. अर्थग्रन्थाः = those dealing in meanings and interpretations

    1. पाणिनि’s धातुपाठः, पाणिनिशिक्षा is better considered of this type, since it gives meanings of धातु-s also. However

      1. धातूनां गणशः प्रस्तुतीकरणम् Listing of धातु-s by their गण, includes the विकरण-aspect, which has, at its basis, the concept of formation of words

    2. All commentaries on अष्टाध्यायी are interpretative in their spirit. So, they are अर्थग्रन्थाः. These would include

      1. व्याकरणमहाभाष्य of पातञ्जलि

      2. सिद्धान्तकौमुदी of भट्टोजी दीक्षित

    3. Dictionaries शब्दकोशाः are basically interpretative, but do touch upon

      1. details of etymology,

        1. the word-formation aspect, giving typical forms in लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्, क्त-कृदन्तम्, णिचि &c

      2. meanings with different prefixes उपसर्गैः

      3. meanings of different compound words सामासिकाः

      4. निघण्टु, अमरकोशः are more thesaurus’ than dictionaries, are primarily interpretative but, with the declaration in अमरकोश, of the intent of the composition, as नामलिङ्गानुशासनम् “unto the discipline of nouns and their genders”. Obviously, there is very much, such शब्द concept also.

The “introduction” begins with a श्लोक, selected from कालिदास’s रघुवंशम् The श्लोक is basically an invocation, but fits well, being significant and relevant to the above statement regarding two – शब्द and अर्थ – approaches of works of grammar. The श्लोक is -

वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये |

जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||

By पदच्छेद-s

वाक्-अर्थौ इव संपृक्तौ वाक्-अर्थ-प्रतिपत्तये |

जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ||

विश्लेषणम् of grammar and meanings of words in this श्लोक.

(1) वागर्थौ = वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |

वाक् = वाच् (speech, formation of words) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम |

  – तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

वाच् (वच्-क्विप् दीर्घोऽसंप्रसारणं च)

  वच्-क्विप् = a feminine noun derived from धातुः वच्

अर्थः = अर्थ (meaning, purpose, intent) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम |

(2) इव (= ) इति अव्ययम् |

(3) संपृक्तौ = सं + पृच् इति धातुः | तस्य रुधादेः (7 प) क्त-कृदन्तम् पृक्त |

    रु० सेट् प० | पृची सम्पर्के (पृच् = to unite) ७. २५ |

    संपृक्त (= intimately united) इति विशेषणम् |

 – अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |

(4) वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये =

वाक् च अर्थः च इति वागर्थौ | समाहारद्वंद्वः |

तयोः प्रतिपत्तिः वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

प्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge

वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः = right knowledge of words and their meanings

तस्य चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(5) जगतः – जगत् (= world, universe) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम |

तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(6) पितरौ – माता च पिता च इति पितरौ | एकशेषद्वंद्वः |

पितरौ = parents

अत्र द्वितीया विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च |

(7) वन्दे – वन्द् इति धातुः | भ्वा० (१) सेट् आ० |

वदि अभिवादनस्तुत्योः | वन्द् = to pay obeisance, to pray, to eulogize, to pay obeisance and pray

    तस्य वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(8) पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ – पार्वती च परमेश्वरः च इति पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ | इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः |

    पार्वती – पर्वतस्य इयं इति पार्वती |

      – पर्वतः अचलः, पार्वती = अचला, निश्चितार्था

 – निश्चितार्था – she had three incarnations. In all three incarnations   she preferred शिव to be her concert.

    परमेश्वरः – परमः ईश्वरः इति परमेश्वरः | कर्मधारयः |

       – परमः – परम-इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा वि, एकवचनं च |

         – परम (परं परत्वं माति क)

        परम = परतम ?

        परम = The best, nothing better than this,

          पर → परतर → परतम (परम)

मत्तः परतरं नान्यत् किञ्चिदस्ति धनञ्जय (गीता 7-7)

          पर = the other, different म = not

 परम = one, that is not different (from oneself)

       – ईश्वरः – ईशानां (ईषाणां) वरः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

        ईशानाम् (ईषाणां) -

          – ईश = ईश्-क | ईश्-धातुतः विशेषणम् | प्रायः पुंल्लिङ्गि नामापि |

 – तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

 – ईश् अ० (२) सेट् आ० | ईश ऐश्वर्ये ईश् = to be glorious, to command

 – ईशः = one who commands gloriously

वरः – वर इति विशेषणम् |

 – वर (वृ कर्मणि अप्) | वृ-धातुतः कर्मणिप्रयोगान्वितं विशेषणम् |

 – वर = preferable, outstanding, excellent

  – ईश्वरः = Excellent among ईश-s

  – परमेश्वरः = Supreme ईश्वर

Dr. Avinash Sathaye sent in a comment -

There is a well known alternate derivation of पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ
पार्वतीप-रमेश्वरौ and here पितरौ becomes पिता च पिता. … I think this was suggested by the famous मल्लीनाथ.

For पार्वतीप-रमेश्वरौ the विश्लेषणम् would be -

पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ = पार्वतीपः च रमेश्वरः च इति पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ | इतरेतर-द्वंद्वः |

पार्वतीपः = Here प is उपपदम् As in the word गोपः (= cowherd), उपपदम् प stands for पालकः (पालयति protects, takes care of)

    पार्वतीपः = पार्वत्याः पालकः इति पार्वतीपः | उपपद-तत्पुरुषः |

रमेश्वरः = रमायाः ईश्वरः इति रमेश्वरः | षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः |

    रमा = विष्णुपत्नी

Thus one can say that by पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वन्दे Kalidasa pays obeisance to both शिव and विष्णु. There is a concept of two bifurcations in Hinduism वैष्णव-s and शैव-s, (in South India अय्यर-s अय्यंगार-s). To my mind that is simple immaturity. There are any number of स्तोत्र-s, in which there is respectful mention of both शिव and विष्णु. In श्रीगणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् – त्वं ब्रह्मा त्वं विष्णुस्त्वं रुद्रस् … | At the pinnacle of spiritual attainment, it is all one, maybe, only self-realization !

By paraphrasing अन्वयेन -

(अहं) वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ जगतः पितरौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये वन्दे |

I pay obeisances to and pray

the duet of Supreme ईश्वर and पार्वती (who connotes epitome of steadfastness),

who are also parents of this world (and the universe),

who are as intimately united as words and intents are,

for right knowledge of words to convey only the right intents.

टिप्पण्यः Notes -

(1) Hinduism has number of Gods and Goddesses. It is poetic charm of Kalidasa to have chosen पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ for paying obeisance to, in this verse. He wants to plead for वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये. Between वाक् and अर्थ, वाक् is feminine, अर्थ is masculine. Between पार्वती and परमेश्वर, पार्वती is feminine, परमेश्वर is masculine.

(2) पार्वती and परमेश्वर are never two. अर्धनारीनटेश्वर form of शिव is the most charming, most enchanting form. In this form पार्वती and परमेश्वर are संपृक्तौ intimately united.

(3) वाक् and अर्थ also are possibly never two. One may think that वाक् is the manifestation of अर्थ. But Indian philosophy is very clear that वाक् has four stages or four options of manifestation – परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी. The अर्थ aspect, the aspect of intent or thought is implicit in all the four options of its manifestation as वाक्. So, between वाक् and अर्थ, there is no question of which comes occurs first. They are संपृक्तौ intimately united. It is only such deep perception, which can explain Kalidasa saying वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ.

(4) This brings to mind another famous quote, that of भवभूती in उत्तररामचरितम्

लौकिकानां हि साधूनामर्थं वागनुवर्तते ।

ऋषीणां पुनराद्यानां वाचमर्थोऽनुधावति ॥१-१०॥

It is said that रामायणम् as composed by वाल्मिकी had such compulsive force of idealism, that God thought it fit to incarnate and enact, lend अर्थः, bring meaningfulness, give manifestation to, not to leave it to be regarded as a fiction or fancy to  वाच् of वाल्मिकी, composed by him in his रामायणम्.

(5) Kalidasa’s invocation was to seek वागर्थप्रतिपत्तिः i.e. right knowledge of words and their meanings. Words can have different meanings. The meaning can become different even by change in accent. No poet would like meanings to become widely distorted from his own intent. But Kalidasa was well aware, पिण्डे पिण्डे मतिर्भिन्ना “Many people, many minds”. No poet or author has any control on different interpretations by different people. The best option was to pray to the Supreme, that may there be no distortions.

(6) संपृक्तौ वागर्थौ brings to mind a सुभाषितम् -

यथा चित्तं तथा वाचो यथा वाचस्तथा क्रियाः ।

चित्ते वाचि क्रियायाञ्च साधूनामेकरूपता ॥

Unity in thoughts, words and deeds is the hallmark of gentlemen. That can be so, only when वाक् and अर्थ are संपृक्त

(7) What deep philosophical thought and also practical wisdom are presented even in an invocation !

शुभं भवतु !

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113

Posted in Lesson 113, Lessons 111-120 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on September 10, 2013

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 113

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य त्रयोदशाधिकशततमः (११३) पाठः ।

आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः

Considering its length and number of words, this is the shortest quote I am putting forth. But some interesting background about the prompt to take this up.

I reached my daughter’s new place yesterday night. She told me, “internet will be installed tomorrow.”

I slept over digesting that ! And got this prompt to present this study of आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः

Readers may wonder what the connection is between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)

I hope this study will bring forth that.

Before going into the study, let me also appraise that I came to first read the quotation some 55+ years back, when in the public library at our hometown, I used to read Bhavan’s Journal. I read the quote on the cover page itself, since Bhavan’s Journal is published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan and this quote is adopted by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan as its guiding quote. Bhavan’s English translation of the quote is also given alongside आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.

Frankly, one reason, why this quote has stayed put in my mind for all these years, is also that I am intrigued by this translation. That is also another reason for this study.

पदच्छेदैः

आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः = आ नः भद्राः क्रतवः यन्तु विश्वतः |

I am intrigued because of a few questions -

First question -

the verb is यन्तु  – How come then translation mentions “may come” ?

Inquiring on this, I am told that the verb to be considered is आयन्तु. I am told that in Vedic texts one would often find the उपसर्ग (here आ) separated from the verb and put at the beginning of the sentence.

But I do not think that doing so is to be taken as a rule. It may be an option. Then we have two options to analyze for the verb – यन्तु and आयन्तु

Second question -

Does not interpretation of विश्वतः become different, depending upon the verb being यन्तु or आयन्तु and are not both interpretations valid ?

Third question -

Is grammar of नः to be taken as second case plural or sixth case plural and again are not both interpretations valid ?

As can be appreciated, all the three questions are not just questions of grammar but also of the syntax and then the interpretations. Two syntaxes seem possible.

  1. भद्राः क्रतवः नः विश्वतः आयन्तु = Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides.

  2. आ ! नः भद्राः क्रतवः विश्वतः यन्तु = Let our noble thoughts spread across the universe.

May I tabulate a comparative study of these two optional interpretations -

Sr. No.

Interpretation of

In Option 1

In Option 2

1

prefix of verb यन्तु hence verb is to be taken as आयन्तु

An invocation at the beginning

An indeclinable

2

नः

= to us,

second or fourth case plural of pronoun अस्मद्

= our,

sixth case plural of pronoun अस्मद्

3

यन्तु

The verb is आयन्तु, but the prefix आ is separated and taken to the beginning of the sentence

आयन्तु = may come

The verb is यन्तु = may go to, may  spread

4

विश्वतः

= from all sides

suffix तः = from (fifth case)

= across the universe

suffix तः = unto, at (seventh case)

Study of Grammar and meaning of आ and of suffix तः merit detailing.

From details obtaining in Apte’s dictionary as below, आ is both

  1. an independent word,

    1. an indeclinable स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् (पाणिनि १।१।३६) and

    2. From the different meanings given, meaning of ‘आ = verily’ appeals to me very much. This meaning fits beautifully as invocation at the beginning of a ऋच् of ऋग्वेद

  2. a prefix – In उपसर्गवृत्तिः posted at संस्कृतव्याकरणस्य अध्ययनम् as many as 27 different meanings are given for prefix आ

* *

In काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar आ is detailed as follows -

* *

Suffix तः also has different meanings, primarily from different cases inherent in its usages -

  1. fifth case, ‘from’ e.g. ग्रामतः आगतः (= came from town)

  2. third case, ‘with’ or ‘by’ e.g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते = वृत्तेन न व्यथते = is not disturbed by the news.

  3. sixth, ‘of’ e,g. देवाः अर्जुनतः अभवन् = देवाः अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् = Gods came to the side of Arjuna or

  4. seventh case ‘at, in” e.g. अग्रतः तिष्ठ = stand in front

Meaning of तः is detailed in काशिनाथ शास्त्री अभ्यंकर’s Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar as follows -

* *

Notes टिप्पण्यः -

  1. By above analysis, both the interpretations seem to be valid.

  2. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (= Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides), one can appreciate that

    1. Rigvedic thoughts of course advocate open-mindedness to all noble thoughts from anywhere

    2. Internet can obtain to us thoughts from all over the world, from all times, whatever will keep on getting recorded on the internet.

  3. For the interpretation आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (= May our noble thoughts spread across the universe), one can appreciate that

    1. Rigvedic thoughts promote universal good, benevolence for all.

    2. By grammar whether यन्तु or आयन्तु are forms in Imperative mood, an order. So, it must not be wishful thinking that “our noble thoughts “may” spread across. Imperative mood is आज्ञार्थ an order

      1. If you have good thoughts, you must not keep them to yourself. You must spread the good word.

      2. Every good word is a gospel. The person who got the good thought in his mind has no ownership or authority to it and has no business to keep it to oneself. He must lend expression to it.

    3. Internet affords to us the facility to upload and share good thoughts and knowledge, not only during the lifetime, but for the benefit of future generations as well.

I guess this study does bring forth a positive connection between “internet to be installed” and this quote आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः (ऋग्वेदः १-८९-१)

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112

Posted in Lesson 112, Lessons 111-120 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on July 30, 2013

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 112

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वादशाधिकशततमः (११२) पाठः ।

There are many verses eulogizing गीता. They are often found in books of गीता as a compilation, popularly known as गीतामाहात्म्यम्. One verse, which has great poetic beauty is -

पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् |

नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

पदच्छेदान् कृत्वा -

पाराशर्य-वचः सरोजम् अमलं गीता-अर्थ-गन्ध-उत्कटम् |

नाना-आख्यानक-केसरं हरि-कथा-संबोधन-आबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहः-अहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयात् भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

The split-up of संधि-s, both explicit and also those implicit in compound words are shown above. We can now study all the words, deciphering also the compound words.

  1. पाराशर्यवचः = पाराशर्यम् वचः (कर्मधारयः)

    1. पाराशर्यम् = पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् | नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

      1. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः = son of पराशर, hence पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः

      2. पराशरस्य अयं इति पाराशरः (तद्धितं नाम) |

      3. पाराशरस्य इदम् इति पाराशर्यम् (तद्धितनाम्नः अन्यत्तद्धितम्) |

    2. वचः = वचस् इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. पाराशर्यवचः = (this) वचः speech of पाराशर i.e. of व्यासमुनिः

  2. सरोजम् = lotus

  3. अमलम् =

    1. न मलः यस्य (अथवा यस्मिन्) तत् – (नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः)

    2. मलः dirt, dust, blemish

    3. अमलम् = having no blemish

  4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् =

    1. गीतार्थः

      1. गीतायाः अर्थः → (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) अथवा

      2. गीतायां अर्थः अथवा

      3. गीता एव अर्थः → गीतार्थः (कर्मधारयः)

      4. गीतार्थः = meaningfulness contained in गीता or meaningfulness derived from गीता or meaningfulness by virtue of having been contained in गीता

    2. गीतार्थस्य गन्धः → गीतार्थगन्धः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

      1. गीतार्थगन्धः = fragrance of गीतार्थ

    3. गीतार्थगन्धेन उत्कटम् → गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)

      1. उत्कटम् = overwhelming

    4. गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ.

  5. नानाख्यानककेसरम् =

    1. आख्यानकं एव केसरं → आख्यानककेसरम् (कर्मधारयः)

    2. नाना आख्यानककेसराणि यस्य तत् (बहुव्रीहिः) → नानाख्यानककेसरम्

    3. आख्यानकम् = आ + ख्या इति धातुः | तस्मात् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “आख्यान” |

      1. तस्य प्रियं च लघुत्वम् च “आख्यानकम्” |

      2. आख्यानम् → आख्यानकम् (तद्धितम्)

      3. आख्यानकम् = short story, episode, story within a story

    4. केसरम् (पुष्पस्य) = filament of a flower

    5. नाना – विशेषणात्मकं बहुवचनात्मकं तथापि अव्ययम् | नाना = many, innumerable

    6. नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having many innumerable episodes, which are like the innumerable filaments in a (lotus) flower

  6. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् =

    1. हरेः कथा इति हरिकथा | अथवा हरिणा कथा इति हरिकथा |

    2. हरिकथा च (तेन) संबोधनं च → हरिकथासंबोधनम् (समाहारद्वन्द्वः)

      1. हरिकथासंबोधनम् = story (biography) of हरि and also his advice

    3. हरिकथासंबोधनेन आबोधितम् = हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्

      1. आबोधितम् = made vibrant, excited, exciting

    4. हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice

  7. लोके = जगति = in the world

  8. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः =

    1. षट् पदानि यस्य सः षट्पदः (बहुव्रीहिः) = भृङ्गः = honeybee

    2. सज्जनः एव षट्पदः सज्जनषट्पदः (कर्मधारयः)

    3. सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees

  9. अहरहः अहनि अहनि इति अहरहः (अव्ययीभावः) | अहरहः = day after day

  10. पेपीयमानम् -

    1. “पा” इति धातुः – पा (पिबति to drink)|

    2. तस्मात् कर्मणिप्रयोगे “पीयते” (= is drunk) |

    3. तस्मात् यङि (frequentative) “पेपीयते” |

    4. तस्य शानच्-कृदन्तं “पेपीयमान” |

    5. पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively

  11. मुदा =

    1. मुद् इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – मुद् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | मुद हर्षे १. १६

    2. मुद् इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम अपि | मुदा = तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

    3. मुदा = हर्षेण, सहर्षम् = with joy, joyously

  12. भूयात् -

    1. भू इति धातुः |

    2. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – भू | भ्वा० सेट् प० | भू सत्तायाम् १. १

    3. तस्य विध्यर्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

    4. भूयात् = may it be

  13. भारत-पंकजं

    1. भारतं एव पंकजम् → भारतपंकजम् (कर्मधारयः)

    2. पङ्के जायते इति पङ्कजम् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) = born in mud, lotus

    3. भारतम् इति महाभारतम् |

    4. भारतपङ्कजम् = this महाभारतम्, which is a lotus itself

  14. कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि

    1. कलेः मलः इति कलिमलः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) = dirt of कलि

    2. कलिमलस्य प्रध्वंसि इति कलिमलप्रध्वंसि (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

    3. प्रध्वंसि – “प्र + ध्वंस्” इति धातुः |

      1. धातुपाठसूच्याम् – ध्वंस् | भ्वा० सेट् आ० | ध्वंसु- [अवस्रंसने]| ध्वंसु गतौ च १. ८५८

      2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “प्रध्वंसिन्” | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

      3. प्रध्वंसि = remover

    4. कलिमलप्रध्वंसि = remover of dirt of कलि

  1. नः – “अस्मद्” सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च | नः = our

  2. श्रेयसे -

    1. “श्रि” इति धातुः | धातुपाठसूच्याम् – श्रि | भ्वा० सेट् उ० | श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४

    2. तस्मात् विशेषणम् “श्रेयस्” | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम अपि श्रेयस् = serviceable, useful, for good, beneficial|

    3. श्रेयसे – श्रेयस् → चतुर्थी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च = for our benefit

Having deciphered meaning of all words, my father always advised that deciphering the meaning of the sentence or of clauses and sub-clauses should start by first analyzing the sentence(s), also the clauses and sub-clauses. The clauses and sub-clauses have either a verb क्रियापदम् or a verbal derivative धातुसाधितम् .

Here there is one clear क्रियापदम् verb – भूयात्

The subject-word कर्तृपदम् can be deciphered by asking question to the verb

कः/का/किम् भूयात् ? भारत-पंकजं भूयात् |

भूयात् is an intransitive verb. So, we do not have to decipher the कर्मपदम् object-word.

Then we can ask questions – How कथम्, when कदा, why किमर्थम्, where कुत्र.

भारत-पंकजं कथं भूयात् ? – भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |

किमर्थं भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् ? – नः श्रेयसे भारत-पंकजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि भूयात् |

This covers and puts into syntax all the words in the last line.

Since we located a verb-word भूयात् in the fourth line, we did the syntax of the fourth line.

Now going upwards to the third line पेपीयमानम् (= being drunk repetitively) is

  • a verbal derivative and has passive voice inbuilt.

  • So the subject of this verbal derivative ought to be with “with” or “by”.

  • पेपीयमानम् = being drunk repetitively → by whom ? सज्जन-षट्-पदैः = by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, when ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कदा ? अहरहः = day after day

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, how ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कथम् ? मुदा = joyously

  • Being drunk repetitively by gentlemen, who (are) like the honeybees, where ? पेपीयमानम् सज्जन-षट्-पदैः कुत्र ? लोके = in the world.

This brings the third line into syntax -

Being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्

This is an adjectival phrase. Which noun does it qualify ? सरोजम् lotus.

Which lotus ? पाराशर्यवचः the speech of पाराशर

The other words and phrases in the first two lines are also adjectival of the सरोजम् lotus.

  • अमलम् = blemishless

  • गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् = overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ

  • नानाख्यानककेसरम् = having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower

  • हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् = what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice

First three lines having so many adjectival words and phrases do not have an explicit verb. The most common implicit verb is “is अस्ति / भवति”

The syntax can then be -

पाराशर्यवचः

लोके सज्जन-षट्-पदैः अहरहः मुदा पेपीयमानम्

गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम्, नानाख्यानककेसरम्, हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम्, अमलम् सरोजम् अस्ति / भवति |

The speech of पाराशर is a blemish-less lotus, (nectar of) which,

- is being drunk day after day, repetitively and joyously by gentlemen in the world, who (are) like the honeybees,

- is overwhelming due to the fragrance of गीतार्थ,

- is having innumerable episodes or short stories, which are like the filaments of a (lotus-) flower,

- is, what has become vibrant, excited, exciting due to the story (biography) of हरि and also by his advice !

To analyze the meter -

पाराशर्यवचः सरोजममलं गीतार्थगन्धोत्कटम् | (१९ अक्षराणि)

(२-२-२)-(१-१-२) (१-२-१)-(१-१-२) (२-२-१)-(२-२-१)-२ इति मात्राः ।

म, स, ज, स, त, त, ग इति गणाः

नानाख्यानककेसरं हरिकथासंबोधनाबोधितम् |

लोके सज्जनषट्पदैरहरहः पेपीयमानं मुदा |

भूयाद्भारतपंकजं कलिमलप्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ||

अत्र शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम् |

अस्य लक्षणपदम् – सूर्याश्वैर्यदि मः सजौ सततगाः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् |

Notes टिप्पण्यः -

  1. The poetic beauty of the verse is obvious, right ?

    1. The poetic beauty is not just from the metrical discipline शब्दालङ्कार of शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम्  but

      1. The choice of the meter is also intelligent. शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् वृत्तम् has as many 19 letters in each line. It becomes an expansive meter.

      2. Eulogy should be expansive, right ?

    2. Possibly, poetic beauty is more charming due to the रूपक-अर्थालङ्कार use of ‘metaphor’ figure of speech.

      1. There is metaphor in महाभारतम् as the lotus

      2. also in calling the episodes as filaments of a lotus and

      3. in calling the readers, the gentlemen as honey-bees

      4. and in calling the reading of महाभारतम् as drinking the nectar, as by the honey-bees !

  2. In अहरहः पेपीयमानम् there is both repetitiveness, day after day, and also frequentative action. So the action “to drink” is not just day after day (once in a day), but frequentative, even in a day !

  3. Mention is of ‘speech of  पाराशर’. पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः composed it, narrated it, but got it written by श्रीगणेशः. As far as पाराशर i.e. व्यासमुनिः is concerned, his was वचः only.

  4. Although it was mentioned in the beginning that the verse is found in verses eulogizing गीता, it is not just about गीता. It speaks about the entire महाभारतम्, especially by virtue of mention of नानाख्यानककेसरम्.

  5. The lotus, being itself blemish-less, can remove dirt from us also !

शुभं भवतु |

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 111

Posted in Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach, Lessons 111-120 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on October 26, 2012

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 111
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकादशाधिकशततमः (११) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, mention was made of another सुभाषितम् which is a conversation between शिव and पार्वती and starts with कस्त्वं. The सुभाषितम् is as follows -

कस्त्वं शूली मृगय भिषजं नीलकण्ठः प्रियेऽहं
केकामेकां वद, पशुपतिर्नैवदृश्ये विषाणे ।
मुग्धे स्थाणुः, स चरति कथं, जीवितेशः शिवाया
गच्छाटव्यामिति हतवचाः पातु वश्चन्द्रचूडः ।।

संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा –

कः त्वं शूली मृगय भिषजं नीलकण्ठः प्रिये अहं
केकाम् एकां वद, पशुपतिः न एव दृश्ये विषाणे ।
मुग्धे स्थाणुः, सः चरति कथं, जीवितेशः शिवायाः
गच्छ अटव्याम् इति हतवचाः पातु वः चन्द्रचूडः ।।

अन्वयेन -

  1. (पार्वती पृच्छति) कः त्वं ? (शिवः उत्तरति) (अहं) शूली (अस्मि) ।
    • पार्वती asks, “Who is that ?” Shiva replies, “I am शूली”.
      • This word शूली has two meanings –
        1. शूली = one who carries शूल, the trident
        2. शूली = one suffering from pain, typically headache
  2. (पार्वती सूचयति) मृगय भिषजं Taking the second meaning of शूली, Parvati suggests, “Go, find a doctor”.
    • मृगय – “मृग्” इति चुरादि (10) आत्मनेपदी धातुः । मृग अन्वेषणे (मृग् = to find, to hunt for)। तस्य लोट्-आज्ञार्थे मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
    • भिषजम् – “भिषज्” (= a physician, a doctor) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  3. (शिवः स्मारयति) प्रिये अहं नीलकण्ठः (अस्मि) । – Shiva reminds, “Oh dear ! I am नीलकण्ठः
    • नीलकण्ठः grammatically means ‘one whose neck is blue’. This again lends two interpretations.
      1. Shiva is known as नीलकण्ठः, because his neck turned blue after consuming the poison, which came out during the churning of the ocean by Gods and demons.
      2. नीलकण्ठः becomes an apt adjective for a peacock
  4. (पार्वती सूचयति) एकां केकाम् वद – Taking the second meaning, Parvati suggests, “Can you please demonstrate one note of the peacock ?’ The note emitted by a peacock is called as केका.
  5. (शिवः स्मारयति) (अहं) पशुपतिः (अस्मि) । – Shiva then reminds, “I am पशुपति”
    • पशुपतिः also has two connotations
      1. Shiva is पशुपति, because he is considered to be the lord of all animal-world
      2. पशुपति also refers to the supreme among four-legged animals, especially as नंदी carrier of Shiva
  6. .(पार्वती आलोचनं करोति) विषाणे दृश्ये न एव । –
    • Considering the second meaning, Parvati observes, “How come I do not see horns (on you) ?”
    • Literally, विषाणे दृश्ये न एव = Horns are not in sight at all.
      • दृश्ये – “दृश्” इति भ्वादि (1) परस्मैपदी धातुः । दृशिर् प्रेक्षणे (दृश् = to see) । तस्मात् नपुम्सकलिङ्गि नाम दृश्य (= sight, what is in sight) । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
  7. (शिवः स्मारयति) मुग्धे (अहं) स्थाणुः (अस्मि) । –
    • Shiva wonders, “Why is she so confused ?” and reminds saying, “I am स्थाणुः”. But स्थाणुः again has different meanings, two popular ones being
      1. स्थाणु is an epithet of Shiva
      2. स्थाणुः means something, which is rock-solid, a pillar
    • मुग्धे – “मुह्” इति दिवादि (4) तथा रधादि (7) परस्मैपदी धातुः । मुह वैचित्ये (मुह् = to be confused) । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गी गि “मुग्धा” (= one, who is confused) । तस्य संबोधनप्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च
  8. (पार्वती आलोचनं करोति) सः चरति कथं ?
    • Taking the second meaning, Parvati asks, “How then are you moving about ?”
  9. (शिवः स्मारयति) (अहं) शिवायाः जीवितेशः (अस्मि) ।
    • Shiva almost gives out his own name, saying, “I am the very life of शिवा”. But शिवा still has different meanings –
      1. शिवा means Parvati, the spouse of शिव.
      2. शिवा also means a jackal in general, the Sami tree, yellow grass, etc.
  10. (पार्वती सूचयति) अटव्याम् गच्छ
    • Taking the meaning of शिवा as jackal, Parvati suggests, “Go to the jungle”.
  11. इति हतवचाः चन्द्रचूडः वः पातु । – May the Lord चन्द्रचूडः (= who wears the moon on his head), so defeated in the debate, (yet) protect us !!

Notes -

  1. Even when the poet is narrating how Shiva was defeated in the debate by Parvati, finally he prays for protection by Shiva, This seems to be in a vein that the poet as a devotee would consider himself to be a friend of the Godhood and would have the liberty to narrate a funny incident that happened with his friend. Friendship is considered to be one of nine ways of doing devotion to God. Even in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता अर्जुन pleads, सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तं हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति (See 11-41)
  2. The meter of this verse is मन्दाक्रान्ता
    • There are 17 syllables in each quarter
    • लक्षणपदम् –  मन्दाक्रान्तांबुधिरसनगैर्मो भनौ तौ गयुग्मम्. Hence गण-s are म, भ, न, त, त, ग, ग.
  3. The verse is beautiful specimen of poetry, focusing on alternate meanings of words.
    • In Shiva calling Parvati as मुग्धें, the poet has resorted to the figure of speech of irony विरोधाभास. It is not Parvati, who is confused. She is provoking Shiva to declare in unambiguous words, who He is.
  4. It is also a good example of a rule in effective communication, that communication should employ words which have clarity of meaning.
  5. By getting Shiva to state, who He is, in so many ways, the poet has also presented various facets of Shiva’s caricature.
  6. All in all, the verse is a good, highly enjoyable specimen of Sanskrit poetry.
  7. This verse also underscores a good precept that Goddesses are also as intelligent and smart as the Gods, if not smarter. Intelligence has no gender-bias. Rightly hence is the diktat in मनुस्मृति – यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः । Gods enjoy and bless the place, where women are respected.

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 110

Posted in Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach, Lessons 101 to 110 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on October 24, 2012

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 110
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य दशाधिकशततमः (११०) पाठः ।

We shall continue with verses सुभाषितानि 12 to 14 having हंसः the swan as the main theme and compiled in a chapter in the textbook for कोविद – examination of the सरल-संस्कृत-शिक्षा-series of भारतीय-विद्या-भवन. The three सुभाषितानि 12 to 14 are as follows -

कस्त्वं लोहितलोचनास्यचरणः हंसः कुतो मानसात् । किं तत्रास्ति सुवर्णपङ्कजवनान्यंभः सुधासन्निभम् ।

रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयो वैदूर्यरोहाः क्वचित् । शम्बूका अपि सन्ति नेति च बकैराकर्ण्य हीहीकृतम् ।।१२।।

काके कार्ष्ण्यमलौकिकं  धवलिमा हंसे निसर्गस्थिता । गाम्भीर्ये महदन्तरं वचसि यो भेदः स किं कथ्यते ।

एतावत्सु विशेषणेष्वपि सखे यत्रेदमालोक्यते । के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवो देशाय तस्मै नमः ।।१३।।

क्रुद्धोलूकनखप्रपातविगलत्पक्षा अपि स्वाश्रयम् । ये नोज्झन्ति पुरीषपुष्टवपुषस्ते केचिदन्ये द्विजाः ।

ये तु स्वर्गतरंगिणीबिसलतालेशेन संवर्धिता । गाङ्गं नीरमपि त्यजन्ति कलुषं ते राजहंसा वयम् ।।१४।।

Now, taking them one by one -

Verse (12)
कस्त्वं लोहितलोचनास्यचरणः हंसः कुतो मानसात् । किं तत्रास्ति सुवर्णपङ्कजवनान्यंभः सुधासन्निभम् ।

रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयो वैदूर्यरोहाः क्वचित् । शम्बूका अपि सन्ति नेति च बकैराकर्ण्य हीहीकृतम् ।।१२।।

संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – कः त्वं लोहितलोचन असि अचरणः हंसः कुतः मानसात् । किं तत्र अस्ति सुवर्णपङ्कजवनानि अंभः सुधासन्निभम् ।
रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयः वैदूर्यरोहाः क्वचित् । शम्बूकाः अपि सन्ति न इति च बकैः आकर्ण्य हीहीकृतम् ।।१२।।

Dr. Avinash Sathaye very kindly advises an alternative संधिविच्छेद of लोहितलोचनास्यचरणः as लोहित – लोचन +आस्य+चरणः
अन्वयेन -

  1. लोहितलोचन, अचरणः त्वं कः असि ? (अहं) हंसः (अस्मि) । = Eh, you red-eyed one, who are you, that has no legs ? I am a swan.
    • The question is asked by cranes, who want to demean the swan. That is why they address him as red-eyed one, one, who has no legs (so, a lame one)
    • Usually when a swan swims, its legs are not seen. In contrast cranes have long, stick-like legs.
    • By the alternate संधिविच्छेद as लोहित – लोचन +आस्य+चरणः the paraphrasing will be – कः त्वं लोहित – लोचन +आस्य+चरणः ? meaning, “Who are you, someone with red eyes, red face and red feet ? Note, आस्य = face.
  2. कुतः (आगतः असि) ? मानसात् (आगतः अस्मि) । = Where-from have you come ? From the Manasa.
  3. किं तत्र अस्ति ?= What is there  ?
  4. सुधासन्निभम् अंभः (अस्ति) = There is water, which is clean (nourishing) like nectar
    • सुधा means nectar as also milk. सन्निभ means “having shine as of”. So सुधासन्निभ seems to more refer to the looks than quality.
    • सुवर्णपङ्कजवनानि (सन्ति) = There are hordes of golden lotuses.
    • रत्नानां निचयाः प्रवालमणयः क्वचित् वैदूर्यरोहाः (सन्ति) = There are treasures of jewels, coral beads, as also trees that grow in Vidura mountains.
  5. (किं तत्र) शम्बूकाः अपि च सन्ति ? = Are there also conch-shells or snails ?
    • Conch-shells and snails are more to be found near a sea-shore and not at a lake.
  6. न इति आकर्ण्य = On getting ‘No’ as answer
  7. बकैः हीहीकृतम् । = cranes chided at the swan, “hey, hey hey, hey, sssss !

Notes -

  1. The cranes, usually more in number than swans, were bent upon making fun of the swan, out of their jealousy about the grace of a swan. So, they went on asking questions, until they got “No” as the answer. Having got such answer, they chided at the swan.
  2. Alternative संधिविच्छेद of लोहितलोचनास्यचरणः as लोहित – लोचन +आस्य+चरणः brings forth लोहित-आस्य (= red-faced). Being red-faced is an idiom in English meaning one, who has become ashamed. The poet of this verse also wants the cranes to make the swan feel ashamed, red-faced !
  3. हीहीकृतम् is an interesting word, right ? The verbal root is हीहीकृ derived by using हीही as prefix to the root कृ.
  4. The meter of this verse (as also of the next two) is शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् (लक्षणपदम् –  सूर्याश्वैर्यदि मः सजौ सततगाः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम्) – 19 syllables per quarter and having गण-s, म, स, ज, स, त, त, ग.
  5. The chiding by the cranes brings to mind another सुभाषितम् – गुणी गुणं वेत्ति न वेत्ति निर्गुणः People devoid of character cannot appreciate character. Only people of character can appreciate character of others.
  6. This verse also brings to mind another सुभाषितम्, a question-answer dialogue between Shiva and Parvati. That सुभाषितम् is in मन्दाक्रान्ता  meter, but starts with कस्त्वं…

Verse 13 -
काके कार्ष्ण्यमलौकिकं धवलिमा हंसे निसर्गस्थिता । गाम्भीर्ये महदन्तरं वचसि यो भेदः स किं कथ्यते ।

एतावत्सु विशेषणेष्वपि सखे यत्रेदमालोक्यते । के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवो देशाय तस्मै नमः ।।१३।।

संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – काके कार्ष्ण्यम् अलौकिकं  धवलिमा हंसे निसर्गस्थिता । गाम्भीर्ये महत् अन्तरं वचसि यः भेदः सः किं कथ्यते ।
एतावत्सु विशेषणेषु अपि सखे यत्र इदम् आलोक्यते । के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवः देशाय तस्मै नमः ।।१३।।
अन्वयेन –

  1. काके अलौकिकं कार्ष्ण्यम् (अस्ति), हंसे धवलिमा निसर्गस्थिता (अस्ति) = Crows have unique darkness. Whiteness of swans is natural.
  2. (हंसस्य) गाम्भीर्ये (काकस्य) वचसि महत् अन्तरं (अस्ति) । = Serenity (of swans) and prattle (of crows) make a big difference.
  3. यः (एतद्विधः) भेदः सः किं कथ्यते ? = What to say of these differences ?
  4. सखे एतावत्सु विशेषणेषु (सत्सु) अपि यत्र “के काकाः खलु के च हंसशिशवः” इदम् आलोक्यते, तस्मै देशाय नमः । = Friend there being these differences, if there is a place, where people keep wondering, “which are crows and which are ducklings of swans ?”, I would only offer obeisances to such a place.

Notes -

  1. There is obvious pun in “.. I would only offer obeisances to such a place ..” People at such place certainly do not have even minimal intelligence. There is a सुभाषितम्, which details, places, where one should not linger even for a little while. I think, that सुभाषितम् will also make an interesting study.
  2. This verse is more about a place, where people do not have even minimal intelligence. Swans and crows are excuses to detail such place. There are different figures of speech here, such as उपरोध, अन्योक्ति, etc.
  3. The word कार्ष्ण्यम् (= darkness) is derived from कृष्ण, meaning black or dark.
    • The letter र्ष्ण्य has many consonants combined – र् ष् ण् य् the sound becoming complete with the vowel अ. How many maximum number of consonants can combine together to make one composite syllabic instant (pronunciation) ?
  4. When saying गाम्भीर्ये वचसि the poet has smartly left implicit words to be understood as (हंसस्य) गाम्भीर्ये (काकस्य) वचसि
  5. एतावत्सु विशेषणेषु (सत्सु) (= there being these differences or there being these distinct characteristics) is सति-सप्तमी, which is a specialty of संस्कृत-constructs.
  6. The poet has thought it fit to use passive voice both at सः किं कथ्यते and इदम् आलोक्यते.
    • There again, the verb आलोक्यते is from धातु “लोक्”, which is not found in common use. It has inflections both by भ्वादि (1 गण), चुरादि (10 गण). Meaning is identical – लोकृ दर्शने (लोक् = to see).
    • Meaning of लोक् is identical and sound is so close to that of English verb ‘to look’.
    • With prefix आ, आलोक्  means ‘to look askance’, i.e. ‘to be not sure of what one is looking at’. There is no such prefix for ‘look’ in English.

Verse 14 -
क्रुद्धोलूकनखप्रपातविगलत्पक्षा अपि स्वाश्रयम् । ये नोज्झन्ति पुरीषपुष्टवपुषस्ते केचिदन्ये द्विजाः ।
ये तु स्वर्गतरंगिणीबिसलतालेशेन संवर्धिता । गाङ्गं नीरमपि त्यजन्ति कलुषं ते राजहंसा वयम् ।।१४।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा –
क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्

पक्षाः अपि स्व-आश्रयम् । ये न उज्झन्ति पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः ते केचित् अन्ये द्विजाः ।
ये तु स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन संवर्धिताः । गाङ्गं नीरम् अपि त्यजन्ति कलुषं ते राजहंसाः वयम् ।।१४।।

अन्वयाः शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि च -

  1. ये पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः अपि स्व-आश्रयम् न उज्झन्ति, ते केचित् अन्ये द्विजाः (सन्ति) ।
    • पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः = पुरीषेण पुष्टा वपुः येषां ते (बहुव्रीहिः)
      • पुरीषेण – पुरीष (= dirt, filthy matter, fece, excretion) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • पुष्टा – “पुष्” इति दिवादि (4) तथा क्र्यादि (9) परस्मैपदी धातुः । पुष पुष्टौ (पुष् = to nourish) । तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तं विशेषणम् । अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि “पुष्टा” (= fattened) ।
      • वपुः – “वपुस्” (= body) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः – “पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुस्” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
      • पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः = those whose bodies have fattened by eating filthy things.
    • क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः = क्रुद्धस्य उलूकस्य नखानां प्रपातैः विगलन्तौ पक्षौ येषां ते (बहुव्रीहिः)
      • क्रुद्धस्य – “क्रुध्” इति दिवादि (4) परस्मैपदी धातुः । क्रुध क्रोधे (कोपे) (क्रुध् = to get angry) । तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तं विशेषणम् “क्रुद्ध” (= angered) । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • उलूकस्य – “उलूक” (= owl) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • नखानां – “नख” (= nail) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
      • प्रपातैः – “प्र + पत्” इति भ्वादि (1) धातुः । पत्लृ गतौ (पत् = to fall) । तस्य प्रयोजकात् (= to hit) पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम “प्रपात” (= stroke) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
      • विगलन्तौ – “वि + गल्” इति चुरादि (10) धातुः । गल स्रवणे (गल् = to bleed) । तस्मात् शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् “विगलत्” (= bleeding) । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च ।
      • पक्षौ – “पक्ष” (= wing) इति पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनं च ।
      • क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः – “क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्ष” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
      • क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः = those, whose wings are bleeding from strokes by nails of angered owls.
  2. Overall meaning of – ये पुरीष-पुष्ट-वपुषः क्रुद्ध-उलूक-नख-प्रपातविगलत्पक्षाः अपि स्व-आश्रयम् न उज्झन्ति, ते केचित् अन्ये द्विजाः (सन्ति) = Those would be some other birds, who, fattened by devouring filthy matter, would not leave their abode, even when bleeding due to strokes of nails of angered owls.
  3. ये तु स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन संवर्धिताः, कलुषं गाङ्गं नीरम् अपि त्यजन्ति, ते वयम् राजहंसाः (स्मः) ।
    • स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन = स्वर्गे (स्थितानां) तरंगिणीनाम् बिसानां लतायाः लेशेन
    • स्वर्गे = in the heavens
    • (स्थितानां) = obtained
    • तरंगिणीनाम् – तरंगिणी (= floating, floating causing gentle waves) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
    • बिसानां – बिस (= stalk of a lotus) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।
    • लतायाः – लता (= creeper) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
    • लेशेन – लेश (= particle, small, tender portion) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।
  4. Overall meaning of – ये तु स्वर्ग-तरंगिणी-बिस-लता-लेशेन संवर्धिताः, कलुषं गाङ्गं नीरम् अपि त्यजन्ति, ते वयम् राजहंसाः (स्मः) । We are such princely swans, who, nurtured by small tender portions of creeping stalks of lotuses, floating in heavenly waters, would forsake even water of (holy) Ganges, if it is dirty.

Notes -

  1. One reason for growing incidence of obesity is said to be junk food. In this verse also, reference is made to “fattening” due to eating filthy matter.
    • This brings to mind the verse in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – यातयामं गतरसं पूतिपर्युषितं च यत् । उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ।। 17 -10 ।। It is a good, crisp specification of what should be considered as तामस diet.
  2. In the second line, taking the pretext of the princely swans, the poet seems to have announced a caution, that waters of Ganges should not be blindly respected as being holy and hence good for any purpose. The princely swans would forsake water of (holy) Ganges also, if it is dirty.

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 109

Posted in Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach, Lessons 101 to 110 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on October 8, 2012

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 109
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य नवाधिकशततमः (१०९) पाठः ।

We shall continue with verses सुभाषितानि 8 to 11 having हंसः the swan as the main theme and compiled in a chapter in the textbook for कोविद – examination of the सरल-संस्कृत-शिक्षा-series of भारतीय-विद्या-भवन.

अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासमेव । हंसस्य हन्ति नितरां कुपितो विधाता । न त्वस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् । वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिमपहर्तुमसौ समर्थः ।।८।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा - अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् एव । हंसस्य हन्ति नितरां कुपितः विधाता । न तु अस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् । वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिम् अपहर्तुम् असौ समर्थः ।।८।।
अन्वयेन - (यद्यपि) कुपितः विधाता हंसस्य अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् एव नितरां हन्ति (तथापि) अस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिम् अपहर्तुम् तु असौ समर्थः  न ।
Translation - Providence when upset with a swan may affect the swan’s enjoyment in (swimming in) a crowd of lotuses. But (the providence) cannot take away the famous faculty of the swans to separate milk and water.

Notes -

  1. अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् is an interesting compound word having 12 letters
    • The word has four components – अम्भोजिनी-वन-विहार-विलासम्
      • अम्भोजिनीनां वनम् = अम्भोजिनीवनम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
        • अम्भोजिनी is feminine of अम्भोज
        • अम्भोज is itself a compound word अम्भसि जायते इति (what grows in water, especially the lotus) अम्भोजम् (ज = जायते इति उपपदम्) । अतः उपपद-तत्पुरुषः अत्र ।
      • अम्भोजिनीवने विहारः = अम्भोजिनीवनविहारः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
      • अम्भोजिनीवनविहारः एव विलासः = अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासः (कर्मधारयः) –>तम् इति अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् (द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।)
  2. अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासमेव (१४ वर्णाः २-२-१-२-१-१-१-२-१-१-२-१-२-(२) = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः ) । हंसस्य हन्ति नितरां कुपितो विधाता (१४ वर्णाः २-२-१ २-१ १-१-२ १-१-२ १-२-२ = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः) । न त्वस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् । वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिमपहर्तुमसौ समर्थः ।
    • अत्र वसन्ततिलका-वृत्तम् । अस्य लक्षणपदम् – उक्ता वसंततिलका तभजा जगौ गः ।
  3. The poet has thought it fit to repeat the meaning of fame in two words कीर्ति and प्रसिद्धा.
  4. Overall moral of the सुभाषितम् seems to be that inborn faculties are forever. One should focus on such faculties. 
    • Even God is incapable of taking away inborn faculties अपहर्तुम् असौ समर्थः  न.
    • In modern management parlance also, to focus on “core strengths” is advocated to be a good corporate strategy for growth.
    • I had read long time back a story. One person set up a saw-mill. That succeeded. Then he went on setting up saw-mill after saw-mill. Once his friend asked him, “if you want to expand your business, there would be many other investment options also. Why do you go on setting up saw-mill after saw-mill ?” The saw-mill owner however replied, “I know this business of saw-mills the best.”
—verse 8—

भृङ्गाङ्गनाजनमनोहरहारिनीत- । राजीवरेणुकणकीर्णपिशङ्गतोयाम् । रम्यां हिमाचलनदीं प्रविहाय हंस । हे हे हताश वद कां दिशमुत्सुकोऽसि ।।९।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा - भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोयाम् । रम्यां हिमाचलनदीं प्रविहाय हंस । हे हे हताश वद कां दिशम् उत्सुकः असि ।।९।।
अन्वयेन - हे हे हताश हंस, वद, भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोयाम् रम्यां हिमाचलनदीं प्रविहाय कां (अन्यां) दिशम् (गन्तुं) उत्सुकः असि ?
Before proceeding with translation of the verse, one must decipher the meaning of the long word – भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोयाम् = अयं निम्नमिव त्रयोदशपदी सामासिकः शब्दः (This compound word has 13 components as follows.) The word is spread across two quarters of the verse. Rather, two quarters of the verse are made up by a single word having (14*2 = 28 letters).

  1. भृङ्ग = Honey bee
  2. अङ्गना = female
  3. जन = people
  4. मनो = mind
  5. हर = to extract
  6. हारि = extracting
  7. नीत = (past passive participle) carried
  8. राजीव = blue lotus flower
  9. रेणु = pollen of flowers
  10. कण = particle
  11. कीर्ण = strewn
  12. पिशङ्ग = brackish
  13. तोयाम् = तोया = तोयं अस्याः (एवं पिशङ्गम्) अस्ति –> ताम्
With above meanings of all the component words, there is still some challenge to write विग्रह-s to relate all components with each other. I wonder whether it is easier to work by parts.
  • राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोया = (River) that has its water become brackish due to the pollen of blue lotus flowers strewn
  • हारि-नीत = (the pollen) extracted and carried by
  • जन-मनो-हर = extracting the minds of people, enchanting the minds of people, pleasing to people
  • भृङ्ग-अङ्गना = female of honey-bee
  • By putting together the meanings by parts, one gets
    • (River) that has its water become brackish due to the pollen extracted, carried and strewn, by female(s) of honey-bee, from blue lotus flowers, which (are) pleasing to people
    • In deriving this meaning of भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोया, I have indulged in some transposition of words and phrases from their order in the meanings of parts.
      • The part हारि-नीत is more closely connected with भृङ्ग-अङ्गना than with जन-मनो-हर and
      • राजीव is better connected with जन-मनो-हर than with हारि-नीत.
    • I hope, this transposition is okay.

Actually swans can be found only in lakes, that is in placid waters, not in flowing waters as of rivers. There again, rivers such as Brahmaputra in Himalayan region have large downfalls प्रपात-s. How can swans be there in such waters ? Even when granting that poets can fancy even impracticable ideas, highly twisted and complex composition and highly impracticable ideas make the verse unpalatable in my opinion. There is no great moral either implicit in the verse.

—verse 9—

हंसः प्रयाति शनकैर्यदि यातु तस्य । नैसर्गिकी गतिरियं न हि तत्र चित्रम् । गत्या तया जिगमिषुर्बक एक मूढः । चेतो दुनोति सकलस्य जनस्य नूनम् ।।१०।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा - हंसः प्रयाति शनकैः यदि यातु तस्य । नैसर्गिकी गतिः इयं न हि तत्र चित्रम् । गत्या तया जिगमिषुः बकः एकः मूढः । चेतः दुनोति सकलस्य जनस्य नूनम् ।।१०।।
अन्वयेन - यदि हंसः शनकैः प्रयाति, यातु । इयं तस्य नैसर्गिकी गतिः । न हि तत्र चित्रम् । तया गत्या जिगमिषुः एकः मूढः बकः सकलस्य जनस्य चेतः दुनोति नूनम् ।।१०।।
Translation - If a swan goes quietly (slowly), let him do so. That is his natural way. Nothing unusual (or surprising) there. A foolish crane wanting to go in the same manner as the swan disturbs (unnecessarily distracts) people, really.
Notes -

  1. हंसः प्रयाति शनकैर्यदि यातु तस्य (१४ वर्णाः २-२ १-२-१ १-१-२-१-१ २-१ २-(२) = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः ) । Here also, as in verse #8, the meter is वसन्ततिलका-वृत्तम् ।
  2. Two words are interesting – जिगमिषुः and दुनोति.
    1. जिगमिषुः – The derivation is गन्तुं इच्छा जिगमिषा । जिगमिषा यस्य सः जिगमिषुः ।
    2. दुनोति – दु इति स्वादि (५) अनिट् परस्मैपदी धातुः । टुदु उपतापे (दु = To cause trouble, to disturb, to distract) । तस्य वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
  3. This brings to mind the श्लोक in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – श्रेयान् स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् । स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ।।३-३५।। It would be dangerous भयावह for the crane to emulate the swan, because some person annoyed by the unwarranted behaviour of the crane wanting to emulate the swan, may want to hurl a stone at the crane, wanting to drive the crane away and in turn, the crane may suffer harm.
—verse 10—

भुक्ता मृणालपटली भवता निपीता- । न्यम्बूनि यत्र नलिनानि निषेवितानि । हे राजहंस वद तस्य सरोवरस्य । कृत्येन केन भवितासि कृतोपकारः ।।११।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा - भुक्ता मृणालपटली भवता निपीतानि अम्बूनि यत्र नलिनानि निषेवितानि । हे राजहंस वद तस्य सरोवरस्य । कृत्येन केन भविता असि कृत-उपकारः ।।११।।
अन्वयेन - हे राजहंस वद यत्र भवता मृणालपटली भुक्ता, अम्बूनि निपीतानि, नलिनानि निषेवितानि, तस्य सरोवरस्य केन कृत्येन कृत-उपकारः भविता असि ।।११।।
Translation -

  1. Hey swan, tell (me) by what action have you obliged that lake, (such that) there you enjoyed eating the lotus-roots, drank the waters and enjoyed the company of lotuses ? or
  2. Hey swan, tell (me) by what action would you (return) the obligations of that lake, where you enjoyed eating the lotus-roots, drank the waters and enjoyed the company of lotuses ?

Notes -

  1. The word कृत-उपकारः can be deciphered both as कृतः उपकारः येन सः (तृतीया-बहुव्रीहिः) अथवा कृतः उपकारः यस्मै सः (चतुर्थी-बहुव्रीहिः) These options, I believe, would lend two translation-options as ‘you obliged that lake’ or ‘you would return the obligations of that lake’.
  2. The word भविता also has two grammatical connotations –
    1. भविता = third person singular in luT-future tense (लुट्-भविष्यत् भू-धातोः) of verbal root भू. Hence the meaning ‘You would be one, who did the obligations कृत-उपकारः = कृतः उपकारः येन सः
    2. भविता = “भवितृ” (= one, who is about to become or one, who would become) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् ।
  3. The word मृणालपटली is a compound word having components मृणाल and पटली. मृणाल = root of lotus पटली = a collection. Hence मृणालपटली = a collection of roots of lotuses.
  4. भुक्ता मृणालपटली भवता निपीता (१४ वर्णाः २-२ १-२-१-१-१-२ १-१-२ १-२-२ = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः ) । Here also, as in verses 8 and 10, the meter is वसन्ततिलका-वृत्तम् ।
    1. The word निपीतान्यम्बूनि ends at निपीता- in the first quarter and continues as न्यम्बूनि in the second quarter.
    2. When doing संधि-विच्छेद it has to be treated as one word निपीतान्यम्बूनि and then be split as निपीतानि अम्बूनि
  5. The poet seems to be envying the enjoyments of the swan, that the swan enjoys all of the lake, without returning any of the obligations. But lakes and swans seem to be mutually graceful. Swans get all the enjoyments, the lakes are more graceful because of the swans. As has been said in verse #7, not having swans is a loss for the lake. हानिस्तु तेषां हि सरोवराणां । येषां मरालैः सह विप्रयोगः ।।
  6. Such mutual grace mutual dependence between Godhood and devotee is beautifully brought out in the श्लोक in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – देवान्भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः । परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ ।।३-११।।
  7. From another standpoint, swans being provided with all the enjoyments by the lakes are just a way of Nature’s gracefulness. There was a beautiful poem in the text-book for परिचय-exam of भारतीय-विद्या-भवन. The theme-line of the poem was “ससर्ज क्षेमाय नृणां विधाता”. One verse there reads – लतासु पुष्पाणि वनेषु वृक्षान् । फलानि वृक्षेषु फलेषु सारम् । पुष्पेषु रूपं गन्धं च शोभनम् । ससर्ज क्षेमाय नृणां विधाता ।। The Creator has just been graceful and kind to humanity that He created flowers on creepers and trees in jungles, fruits on trees, juices in fruits, beauty in flowers and also fragrance in flowers. (Shall we add, by taking clue from this verse # 11) The Creator has just been graceful and kind to humanity that He created swans to adorn the lakes !
  8. Let us just be thankful to Him and not do harm to anything that He has created !!

—verse 11—

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 108

Posted in Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach, Lessons 101 to 110 by slabhyankar अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः on October 5, 2012

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 108
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य अष्टाधिकशततमः (१०८) पाठः ।

Continuing with सुभाषितानि having हंसः the swan as the main theme and compiled in a chapter in the textbook for कोविद – examination of the सरल-संस्कृत-शिक्षा-series of भारतीय-विद्या-भवन, there the सुभाषितानि 5, 6 and 7 are as follows.

नीर-क्षीर-विवेके हंसालस्यं त्वमेव तनुषे चेत् । विश्वेऽस्मिन्नधुनान्यः कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति कः ।।५।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – नीर-क्षीर-विवेके हंस आलस्यं त्वम् एव तनुषे चेत् । विश्वे अस्मिन् अधुना अन्यः कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति कः ।।५।।
अन्वयेन – हंस, नीर-क्षीर-विवेके त्वम् एव आलस्यं तनुषे चेत्, अधुना अस्मिन् विश्वे कः अन्यः कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति ।
Translation – Oh Swan ! If you yourself become lazy at separating water from milk, now in today’s world who else will follow one’s family-traditions ?
Notes -

  1. The meter here is आर्या. अस्य लक्षणपदम् – यस्याः पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रा तथा तृतीयेऽपि । अष्टादश द्वितीये चतुर्थके पञ्चदश सार्या ।।
    • नीर-क्षीर-विवेके (२-२-२-१-१-२-२ = १२) । हंसालस्यं त्वमेव तनुषे चेत् (२-२-२-२ १-२-१ १-१-२ २ = १८) । विश्वेऽस्मिन्नधुनान्यः (२-२-२-१-१-२-२ = १२) । कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति कः (१-२-१-२ २-१-२-१-१ २ = १५) ।
  2. Taking the pretext of a hypothetical instance of a swan choosing not to go by its capability to distinguish between milk and water, the poet seems to endorse the importance of one abiding by one’s inborn character.
  3. I am a bit intrigued by the verb तनुषे. The form is present tense, second person, singular from धातु ‘तन्’. Here तनुषे is from तनादि (८) आत्मनेपदी । तनु विस्तारे (तन् = to expand, to spread, to stretch). I have translated त्वम् एव आलस्यं तनुषे चेत् as “If you yourself become lazy”.
    • The धातु ‘तन्’ is actually उभयपदी. It seems the poet has wantonly chosen the आत्मनेपदी form because आत्मनेपदी implies reflection unto oneself. Note, आत्मने = unto oneself.
    • Literally the translation would be ‘if you spread laziness unto oneself’. Now, yawning is a reflex action of laziness. And there is a ‘spread’ in yawning. Also one may stretch one’s arms and maybe, also legs when yawning. That stretch of the arms and legs is also a spread, a stretch तनु विस्तारे !
    • Using the choicest of verbs and in आत्मनेपदी is poetic brilliance !
    • My intrigue was also because of the part तनु in तनुषे. तनु means body. That prompted me to think of तनुषे to also mean embodying laziness, when translating त्वम् एव आलस्यं तनुषे चेत् as “If you yourself become lazy” implying ‘if you embody laziness’ or ‘if you adopt laziness’.

गाङ्गमम्बु सितमम्बु यामुनं । कज्जलाभमुभयत्र मज्जतः । राजहंस तव सैव शुभ्रता । चीयते न च न चापचीयते ।।६।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – गाङ्गम्-अम्बु सितम्-अम्बु यामुनं । कज्जलाभम् उभयत्र मज्जतः । राजहंस तव सा एव शुभ्रता । चीयते न च न च अपचीयते ।।६।।
अन्वयेन – गाङ्गम्-अम्बु सितम्-अम्बु (भवति), यामुनं कज्जलाभम् ((भवति) । राजहंस उभयत्र मज्जतः तव शुभ्रता सा एव (भवति) । (तव शुभ्रता) न चीयते च न अपचीयते च ।
Translation – Hey swan, whether you may swim in the fresh, clear water of the Ganges or in blackish water of Yamuna, your whiteness neither grows nor does it diminish.
Notes -

  1. Meter here is रथोद्धता – अस्य लक्षणपदम् “रात्परैनरलगै रथोद्धता ।”
    • गाङ्गमम्बु सितमम्बु यामुनं (२-१-२-१ १-१-२-१ २-१-२ इति ११ वर्णाः र, न, र, ल, ग इति गणाः) । कज्जलाभमुभयत्र मज्जतः (२-१-२-१-१-१-२-१ २-१-२ इति ११ वर्णाः र, न, र, ल, ग इति गणाः) । राजहंस तव सैव शुभ्रता । चीयते न च न चापचीयते ।।
  2. Most सुभाषितानि with swan as the theme seem to emphasize basic ‘characteristics would not change or should not change.’
  3. The sound ज्ज in the second quarter and the fourth quarter चीयते न च न चापचीयते have some onomatopoeia.

यत्रापि कुत्रापि भवन्ति हंसाः । हंसा महीमण्डलमण्डलानि । हानिस्तु तेषां हि सरोवराणाम् । येषां मरालैः सह विप्रयोगः ।।७।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – यत्र अपि कुत्र अपि भवन्ति हंसाः । हंसाः  महीमण्डलमण्डलानि । हानिः तु तेषां हि सरोवराणाम् । येषां मरालैः सह विप्रयोगः ।।७।।
अन्वयेन – यत्र अपि कुत्र अपि हंसाः भवन्ति, हंसाः  महीमण्डलमण्डलानि (भवन्ति) । येषां सरोवराणाम् मरालैः सह विप्रयोगः (भवति) तेषां तु हानिः हि ।
Translation – Wherever the swans be, they adorn the place. If any lake is not congenial to swans, it is a loss only to the lake.
Notes -

  1. विप्रयोगः seems to be an interesting word coined and used here to connote non-congeniality.
  2. The meter here is इन्द्रवज्रा अस्य लक्षणपदम् – स्यादिन्द्रवज्रा यदि तौ जगौ गः ।
    • यत्रापि कुत्रापि भवन्ति हंसाः (२-२-१ २-२-१ १-२-१ २-२) इति ११ वर्णाः त, त, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः । हंसा महीमण्डलमण्डलानि (२-२ १-२-२-१-१-२-१-२-(२) इति ११ वर्णाः त, त, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः । हानिस्तु तेषां हि सरोवराणाम् (२-२-१ २-२-१ १-२-१-२-२ इति ११ वर्णाः त, त, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः । येषां मरालैः सह विप्रयोग (२-२ १-२-२ १-१२-१-२-२ इति ११ वर्णाः त, त, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः) ।

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-
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