Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 125

संस्कृताध्ययनस्य पञ्चविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२५) पाठः

In a question, श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला asks how the word धीवरः gets one of its meanings as ‘a fisherman’. Detailing this word धीवर, Apte’s online dictionary also quotes the following सुभाषितम् from भर्तृहरेः शृङ्गारशतकम् So, question from श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला becomes a good prompt to study this सुभाषितम् –

मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61

पदच्छेदैः –

मृग-मीन-सज्जनानां तृण-जल-संतोष-विहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः निष्कारणवैरिणः जगति ॥

!. What are mentioned in this सुभाषितम्, are three species of living beings, what they are content with and who their ill-wishers are, though there is no good cause for the ill-wishers to be ill-wishers !

I think, tabulation will make the thought better illustrated.

Species मृग Deer मीन Fish सज्जन Gentleman
what they are content with तृण Grass जल Water संतोष Contentedness
who their ill-wishers are लुब्धक Hunter धीवर Fisherman पिशुन The wicked
  1. There are just five words in the entire सुभाषितम्  But four of them are compound words. Counting the component words, contained in the compound words, the total number of words would be 14. That should make deciphering the compound words interesting.
  2. मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् –
  • (3-1) मृगः च मीनः च सज्जनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वेन मृगमीनसज्जनाः → तेषाम्  
  • (3-2) मृगः [मृग्-क] 1 (a) A quadruped, an animal in general; नाभिषेको न संस्कारः सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः । विक्रमार्जित- राज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेन्द्रता; see मृगाधिप below. (b) A wild beast. -2 A deer, an antelope; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः Ś.1.14; R.1.4,5; आश्रममृगो$यं न हन्तव्यः Ś.1. -3 Game in general. -4 The spots on the moon represented as an antelope. -5 Musk. -6 Seeking, search. -7 Pursuit, chase, hunting. -8 Inquiry, investigation. -9 Asking, soliciting. -10 A kind of elephant; N. of the third caste of elephants; Mātaṅga L.1.26.29; ‘भद्रा मन्द्रा मृगाश्चेति विज्ञेयास्त्रिविधा गजाः । क्रमेण हिमवद्विन्ध्यसह्यजाः ।’ com. on Rām.1.6.25. -11 N. of a particular class of men; मृगे तुष्टा च चित्रिणी; वदति मधुरवाणीं दीर्घनेत्रा$तिभीरुश्चपलमतिसुदेहः शीघ्रवेगो मृगो$यम् Śabdak. -12 The lunar mansion called मृगशिरस्. -13 The lunar month called मार्गशीर्ष. -14 The sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -15 N. of a district in Śākadvīpa.  
    • (3-2-1) Etymology of मृगः is from धातुः मृग् – 4 P., 1 Ā. (मृग्यति, मृगयते, मृगित) 1 To seek, search for, seek after; न रत्नमन्विष्यति मृग्यते हि तत् Ku.5. 45; गता दूता दूरं क्वचिदपि परेतान् मृगयितुम् G. L.25. -2 To hunt, chase, pursue. -3 To aim at, strive after. -4 To examine, investigate; अविचलितमनोभिः साधकैर्मृग्यमाणः Māl.5.1; अन्तर्यश्च मुमुक्षुभिर्नियमितप्राणादिभिर्मृग्यते V.1.1 ‘inwardly sought or investigated’. -5 To ask for, beg of one; एतावदेव मृगये प्रतिपक्षहेतोः M.5.2. -6 To visit, frequent.
  • (3-3) मीनः [मी-नक्] 1 A fish; सुप्तमीन इव ह्रदः R.1.73; मीनो नु हन्त कतमां गतिमभ्युपैतु Bv.1.17. -2 The twelfth sign of the zodiac (Pisces). -3 The first incarnation of Viṣṇu; see मत्स्यावतार.
    • Etymology of मीनः is from धातुः मी I. 9 U. (मीनाति मीनीते; seldom used in classical literature) 1 To kill, destroy, hurt, injure. -2 To lessen, diminish. -3 To change, alter. -4 To transgress, violate. -5 To disappear, be lost. -6To stray, go astray. -II. 1. P., 1 U. (मयति, माययति-ते) 1 To go, move. -2 To know, understand (गीतमत्योः). -III. 4. Ā. (मीयते) To die, perish; see प्रमी; जन्तोः प्रमीयमाणस्य जीवो नैवोपलभ्यते Mb.12.186.3.
    • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning.Meaning of  धातुः मी has violence in it. मीनः is what is nonviolent.
    • Meaning of मीनः should then be taken not as synonym of मत्स्यः – [मद्-स्यन्; Uṇ.4.2] 1 A fish; शूले मत्स्यानिवा- पक्ष्यन् दुर्बलान् बलवत्तराः Ms.7.2. -2 A particular variety of fish. -3 A king of the Matsyas. -त्स्यौ (dual) The sign Pisces of the zodiac. -त्स्याः(pl.) N. of a country and its inhabitants, the country of Virāṭa q. v.; Ms. 2.19.
      • The word मत्स्यः is from धातुः मद् I. 4 P. (माद्यति, मत्त) 1 To be drunk or intoxicated; वीक्ष्य मद्यमितरा तु ममाद Śi.1.27. -2 To be mad. -3 To revel or delight in. -4 To be glad or rejoiced. -5 Ved. To satisfy, delight, gladden.-6 To enjoy supreme felicity. -Caus. (मादयति) 1 To intoxicate; inebriate, madden. -2 (मदयति) To exhilarate, gladden, delight; मायूरी मदयति मार्जना मनांसि M.1.21; प्रकृतिमधुराः सन्त्येवान्ये मनो मदयन्ति ये Māl.1.36; Śi.13.38; Ki.5.26. -3 To inflame with passion; मदयति हृदयम् Māl.3.6. -4 (Ātm.) To be glad, rejoice, be pleased. -II. 1 Ā. (मादयते) To please, gratify. -III. 1 P. (मदति) 1 To be proud. -2 To be poor.
      • It seems मत्स्य-s are more energetic than मीन-s.
  • (3-4) सज्जन – सत् जनः इति सज्जनः (कर्मधारयः)
    • सत् a. (-ती f.) 1 Being, existing, existent; सन्तः स्वतः प्रकाशन्ते गुणा न परतो नृणाम् Bv.1.12; सत्कल्पवृक्षे वने Ś.7.12. -2 Real, essential, true; Bṛi. Up.2.3.1. -3 Good, virtuous, chaste; सती सती योगविसृष्टदेहा Ku.1. 21; Ś.5.17. -4 Noble, worthy, high; as in सत्कुलम्. -5 Right, proper. -6 Best, excellent. -7 Venerable, respectable. -8 Wise, learned. -9 Handsome, beautiful. -1 Firm, steady. -m. A good or virtuous man, a sage; आदानं हि विसर्गाय सतां वारिमुचामिव R.4.86; अविरतं परकार्यकृतां सतां मधुरिमातिशयेन वचो$मृतम् Bv.1.113; Bh.2. 78; R.1.1. -n. 1 That which really exists, entity, existence, essence. -2 The really existent truth, reality. -3 Good; as in सदसत् q. v. -4 Brahman or the Supre- me Spirit. -5 Ved. Water. -6 The primary cause (कारण); य ईक्षिता$हं रहितो$प्यसत्सतोः Bhāg.1.38.11. -7 (In gram.) The termination of the present parti- ciple. (सत्कृ means 1 to respect, treat with respect, receive hospitably. -2 to honour, worship, adore. -3 to adorn.)
    • जनः [जन्-अच्] 1 A creature, living being, man. -2 An individual or person (whether male or female); क्व वयं क्व परोक्षमन्मथो मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः Ś.2.18; तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः U.2.19; so सखीजनः a female friend; दासजनः a slave, अबलाजनः &c. (In this sense जनः or अयं जनः is often used by the speaker- whether male or female, in the sing. or pl. –instead of the first personal pronoun to speak of himself in the third person); अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने Ku.5.4 (male); भगवन् परवानयं जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे R.8.81 (female); पश्यानङ्गशरातुरं जनमिमं त्रातापि नो रक्षसि Nag.1.1. (female and pl.). -3 Men collectively, the people, the world (in sing. or pl.); एवं जनो गृह्णाति M.1; सतीमपि ज्ञातिकुलैक- संश्रयां जनो$न्यथा भर्तृमतीं विशङ्कते Ś.5.17. -4 Race, nation, tribe. -5 The world beyond Maharloka, the heaven of deified mortals. -6 A low man, the mob; L. D. B.
  • (3-5) मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen

(4) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम्

  • (4-1) (अनुक्रमेण) तृणेन जलेन संतोषेण वा विहिता वृत्तिः येषांस्ते तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तिनः → तेषाम्
    • (4-1-1) तृणम् – [तृह्-नक् हलोपश्च Uṇ.5.8] 1 Grass in general; किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसरः केसरी Bh.2.29. -2 A blade of grass, reed, straw. -3 Anything made of straw (as a mat for sitting); often used as a symbol of worthlessness or uselessness; तृणमिव लघुलक्ष्मीर्नैव तानसंरुणद्धि Bh.2.17; .
      • Etymology of तृणम् is from धातुः तृह् – 7. P., 1 U., 6 P. (तृणेढि, तर्हयति-ते, तृहति, तृढ; desid. तितृक्षति, तितर्हिषति, तितृंहिषति) To injure, hurt, kill, strike; न तृणेह्मीति लोको$यं मां विन्ते निष्पराक्रमम् Bk.6.39; (तानि) तृणेढु रामः सह लक्ष्मणेन 1.19.
      • The suffix नक् brings negative or opposite meaning. तृह् means To injure, hurt, kill, strike; तृणम् is what does not at all hurt.
  • (4-2) जलम् – जल a. [जल् अच् डस्य लो वा] 1 Dull, cold, frigid = जड q. v. -2 Stupid, idiotic. -लम् 1 Water; तातस्य कूपो$-यमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति । Pt.1.322. -2 A kind of fragrant medicinal plant or perfume (ह्रीवेर). -3 The embryo or uterus of a cow. -5 The constellation called पूर्वाषाढा.
    • Etymology of जल is from धातुः जल् – I. 1 P. (जलति) 1 To be rich or wealthy. -2 To cover, hide, screen. -3 To cover (as with a net), encircle, entangle. -4 To be sharp. -5 To be cold, stiff, dull, or dumb. -II. 10 P. (जालयति) To cover, screen &c.
  • (4-3) संतोषः 1 Satisfaction, contentment; संतोषमूलं हि सुखम् Ms.4.12; संतोष एव पुरुषस्य परं निधानम् Subhāṣ. -2 Pleasure, delight, joy. -3 The thumb and fore-finger.
    • Etymology of संतोषः is from धातुः संतुष् 4 P. 1 To be pleased, satisfied or contented; संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भर्त्रा भार्या तथैव च Ms.3.6; तृष्णे जृम्भसि पापकर्मनिरते नाद्यापि संतुष्यसि Bh.3.5; Bg.3.17. -2 To have great pleasure in. -Caus. 1 To satisfy; please, gratify. -2 To present with (anything).
    • Actually धातुः संतुष् is सं + तुष् where तुष् 4 P. (तुष्यति, तुष्ट) 1 To be pleased or satisfied, be contented or delighted with anything (usually with instr.); रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः Bh.2.8; Ms.3.27; Bg.2.55; Bk.2.13;15.8; R.3.62. -2 To become calm or quiet. -3 To satisfy, please (with acc.). -Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
    • As can be noted, meaning such as “To be pleased” has passive voice inherent. In case of verbs, which have passive voice inherent, the sense of active voice such as “To please” is obtained by its causative, such as Caus. (तोषयति-ते) To please, gratify, satisfy.
      • Another such धातु is जन् 4 Ā. (जायते, जज्ञे, अजनि-अजनिष्ट, जनितुम्, जात; pass. जन्यते or जायते) 1 To be born or produced (with abl. of source of birth); अजनि ते वै पुत्रः Ait. Br.; Ms.1.9; 3.39,41; प्राणाद्वायुरजायत Rv.1.9.12; Ms.1.8; 3.76;1.75. -2 To rise, spring up, grow (as a plant &c.) -3 To be, become, happen, take place, occur; अनिष्टादिष्टलाभे$पि न गतिर्जायते शुभा H.1.6; रक्तनेत्रो$जनि क्षणात Bk.6.32; Y.3.226; Ms.1.99. -4 To be possible, applicable &c. -5 To be born or destined for anything. -Caus. (जनयति) 1 To give birth, beget, cause, produce. -2 To cause, occasion.
  • (4-4) विहित – अत्र धातुः वि+धा  
    • धा – 3 U. (दधाति, धत्ते, दधौ-दधे, अधात्-अधित धास्यति-ते, धातुम्, हित; -pass. धीयते; -caus. धापयति-ते; -desid. धित्सति-ते) 1 To put, place, set, lay, put in, lay on or upon; विज्ञातदोषेषु दधाति दण्डम् Mb.; निःशङ्कं धीयते (v. l. for दीयते) लोकैः पश्य भस्मचये पदम् H.2.132. -2 To fix upon, direct (the mind or thoughts &c.) towards (with dat. or loc.); धत्ते चक्षुर्मुकुलिनि रणत्कोकिले बालचूते Māl.3.12; दधुः कुमारानुगमे मनांसि Bk.3.11;2.7; Ms.12.23. -3 To bestow anything upon one, grant, give, confer, present (with dat., gen., or loc.); धुर्यां लक्ष्मीमथ मयि भृशं धेहि देव प्रसीद Māl.1.3; यद्यस्य सो$दधात्सर्गे तत्तस्य स्वयमाविशत् Ms.1.29. -4 To hold, contain; तानपि दधासि मातः Bv.1.68; Ś.4.4. -5 To seize, take hold of (as in the hand); धनुररिभिरसह्यं मृष्टिपीडं दधाने Bk.1.26;4.26; -6 To wear, put on, bear; गुरूणि वासांसि विहाय तूर्णं तनूनि…… धत्ते जनः काममदालसाङ्गः Rs.6.13,16; धत्ते भरं कुसुमपत्रफलावलीनाम् Bv.1.94; दधतो मङ्गलक्षौमे R.12.8;9.4; Bk.17.54. -7 To assume, take, have, show, exhibit, possess; (usually Ātm.); काचः काञ्चनसंसर्गाद्धत्ते मारकतीं द्युतिम् H. Pr.35; शिरसि मसीपटलं दधाति दीपः Bv.1.74; R.2.7; Amaru. 27.7; Me.38; Bh.3.46; R.3.1; Bk.2.1;4.16,18; Śi.9.3;1.86; Ki.5.5. -8To hold up, sustain, bear up; गामधास्यत्कथं नागो मृणालमृदुभिः फणैः Ku.6.68. -9 To support, maintain संपद्विनिमयेनोभौ दधतुर्भुवनद्वयम् R.1.26. -1 To cause, create, produce, generate, make; मुग्धा कुड्मलिताननेन दधती वायुं स्थिता तत्र सा Amaru.72. -11 To suffer, undergo, incur; दधती रतेन भृशमुत्सुकताम् Śi.9.2, 32,66. -12 To perform, do. -13 Ved. To bring, convey. -14 To appoint, fix. [The meanings of this root, like those of दा, are variously modified according to the word with which it is connected; e. g. मनः, मतिम्, धियम्, &c. धा to fix the mind or thoughts upon, resolve upon; पदं धा to set foot on, to enter; कर्णे करं धा to place the hand on the ear &c.] -With अपि (the अ being sometimes dropped). 1 (a) to close, shut; ध्वनति मधुपसमूहे श्रवणमपिदधाति Gīt.5; so कर्णौ-नयने-पिदधाति (b) to cover, hide, conceal; प्रायो मूर्खः परिभवविधौ नाभिमानं पिधत्ते Ś. Til.17. (v.l.); प्रभावपिहिता V.4.2; Śi.9.76; Bk.7. 69. -2 to hinder, obstruct, bar; भुजंगपिहितद्वारं पातालमधि- तिष्ठति R.1.8. (The following verse illustrates the use of धा with some prepositions:– अधित कापि मुखे सलिलं सखी प्यधित कापि सरोजदलैः स्तनौ । व्यधित कापि हृदि व्यजनानिलं न्यधित कापि हिमं सुतनोस्तनौ N.4.111; or, better still, the following verse of Jagannātha:– निधानं धर्माणां किमपि च विधानं नवमुदां प्रधानं तीर्थानाममलपरिधानं त्रिजगतः । समाधानं बुद्धेरथ खलु तिरोधानमधियां श्रियामाधानं नः परिहरतु तापं तव वपुः ॥ G. L.18).
    • बिहित = p. p. 1 Done, performed, made, acted. -2 Arranged, fixed, settled, appointed, determined. -3 Ordered, prescribed, decreed; विहिता व्यङ्गिता तेषाम् Pt. 1.21. -4 Framed, constructed. -5 Placed, deposited. -6 Furnished with, possessed of. -7 Fit to be done. -8 Distributed, apportioned. (See धा with वि)
  • (4-5) वृत्तिः – अत्र धातुः वृत्
    • वृत् – I. 4 Ā. (वृत्यते) 1 To choose, like; cf. वावृत्. -2 To distribute, divide. -II. 1 U. (वर्तयति-ते) To shine. III. 1 Ā. (वर्तते but Paras. also in the Aorist, Second Future and Conditional; also in the Desiderative; ववृते, अवृतत्-अवर्तिष्ट, वर्तिष्यते-वर्त्स्यति, वर्तितुम्, वृत्त) 1 To be, exist, abide, remain, subsist, stay; इदं मे मनसि वर्तते Ś.1; अत्र विषये$स्माकं महत् कुतूहलं वर्तते Pt.1; मरालकुलनायकः कथय रे कथं वर्तताम् Bv.1.3; often used merely as a copula; अतीत्य हरितो हरींश्च वर्तन्ते वाजिनः Ś.1. -2 To be in any particular condition or circumstances; पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य K.; so दुःखे, हर्षे, विषादे &c. वर्तते. -3 To happen, take place, occur, come to pass; सीतादेव्याः किं वृत्तमित्यस्ति काचित् प्रवृत्तिः U.2; सायं संप्रति वर्तते पथिक रे स्थानान्तरं गम्यताम् Śubhas. ‘now it is evening’ &c.; Ś. Til.6; अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदिता- त्मनाम् Bg.5.26. -4 To move on, proceed in regular course; सर्वथा वर्तते यज्ञः Ms.2.15; निर्व्याजमज्या ववृते Bk. 2.37; R.12.56. -5 To be maintained or supported by, live on, subsist by (fig. also); कस्त्वं किं वर्तसे ब्रह्मन् ज्ञातु- मिच्छामहे वयम् Rām.1.1.12; फलमूलवारिभिर्वर्तमाना K.172; Ms.3.77. -6 To turn, roll on, revolve; यावदियं लोकयात्रा वर्तते Ve.3. -7 To occupy or engage oneself, be occupied or engaged in, set about (with loc.); भगवान् काश्यपः शाश्वते ब्रह्मणि वर्तते Ś.1; इतरो दहने स्वकर्मणां ववृते ज्ञानमयेन वह्निना R.8.2; Ms.8.346; नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि Bg. 3.22. -8 To act, behave, conduct or demean oneself towards, do, perform, practise (usually with loc. or by itself); आर्यो$स्मिन् विनयेन वर्तताम् U.6; कविर्निसर्गसौहृदेन भरतेषु वर्तमानः Māl.1; औदासीन्येन वर्तितुम् R.1.25; मित्रवन् मय्यवर्तिष्ट Dk.; Ms.7.14;8.173;11.3. -9 To act a part, enter upon a course of conduct; साध्वीं वृत्तिं वर्तते ‘he acts an honest part’. -1 To act up to, abide by, follow; तदशक्यारम्भादुपरम्य मातुर्मते वर्तस्व Dk. -11 To have the sense of, signify, be used in the sense of; पुष्यसमीपस्थे चन्द्रमसि पुष्यशब्दो वर्तते Mbh. on P.IV.2.3 (often used in lexicons in this sense). -12 To tend or conduce to (with dat.); पुत्रेण किं फलं यो वै पितृदुःखाय वर्तते. -18 To rest or depend upon.
    • वृत्तिः – f. [वृत्-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Abiding, remaining, attitude, being in a particular state; as in विरुद्धवृत्ति, विपक्षवृत्ति &c. -3 State, condition; त्रयीं तिस्रो वृत्तीस्त्रिभुवनमथो त्रीनपि सुरान् Śiva-mahimna 27. -4 Action, movement, function, operation; शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिः R.3.43; Ku.3.73; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् (बाष्पम्) Ś.4. 15. -5 Course, method; विनयवारितवृत्तिः Ś.2.12. -6 Conduct, behaviour, course of conduct, mode of action; कुरु प्रियसखीवृत्तं सपत्नीजने Ś.4.18; Me.8; वैतसी वृत्तिः, बकवृत्तिः &c. -7 Profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of comp.); आश्रमांश्च यथासंख्यमसृजत् सहवृत्तिभिः Bhāg.3.12.41; वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् R.1.8; Ś.5.6; Pt.3.126. -3 Livelihood, maintenance, means of subsistence or livelihood; often in com.; सिंहत्वमङ्कागतसत्त्ववृत्तिः R.2.38; Ś.7.12; स्वयं- विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता Ku.5.28; (for the several means of subsistence, see Ms.4.4-6.) -9 Wages, hire. -1 Cause of activity. -11Respectful treatment; ब्रह्मचारिणः… आचार्ये प्राणान्तिकी च वृत्तिः Kau. A.1.3; त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रील्लँोकांश्च विजेष्यसि । पितृवृत्या त्विमं लोकं मातृवृत्त्या तथा परम् ॥ Mb.12.18.8. -12 Gloss, commentary, exposition; सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना Śi.2.112; काशिकावृत्तिः &c. -13 Revolving, turning round. -14 The circumference of a wheel or circle. -15 (In gram.) A complex formation requiring resolution or explanation. -16 The power or force of a word by which it expresses, indicates, or suggests a meaning; (these are three अभिधा, लक्षणा and व्यञ्जना); general character or force of a word; भ्रमयत भारती त उरुवृत्तिभिरुक्थजडान् Bhāg.1.87.36. -17 A style in composition (these are four; कौ(कै)शिकी, भारती, सात्वती and आरभटी q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारे कैशिकी वीरे सात्वत्यारभटी पुनः । रसे रौद्रे च बीभत्से वृत्तिः सर्वत्र भारती । चतस्रो वृत्तयो ह्येताः सर्वनाठ्यस्य मातृकाः ॥ S. D. -18Customary allowance. -19 Manner of thinking.
  • (4-6) तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness

(5) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः – लुब्धकः च धीवरः च पिशुनः च एतेषां इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः | अतः बहुवचनम् |

  • (5-1) लुब्धक – अत्र धातुः लुभ्
    • लुभ् – I. 6 P. To bewilder, confound, perplex. -II. 4 P. (लुभ्यति, लुब्ध) 1 To covet, long for, desire eagerly (with dat. or loc.); तथापि रामो लुलुभे मृगाय. -2 To allure, entice. -3 To be bewildered or perplexed, go astray. -Caus. (लोभयति-ते) 1 To make greedy, cause to long for, produce or excite desire for; पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk. 5.48. -2 To excite lust. -3 To entice, seduce, allure, attract; लोभ्यमाननयनः श्लथांशुकैर्मेखलागुणपदैर्नितम्बिभिः R.19.26. -4 To derange, disorder, disturb.
    • लुब्धकः 1 A hunter, fowler; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजल- संतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61. -2 A covetous or greedy man. -3 A libertine. -4 The star Sirius. -5The hinder part; वैशसं नाम विषयं लुब्धकेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.53.
  • (5-2) धीवरः – धिया वरः इति धीवरः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
    • (5-2-1) धिया – धीः इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      • धीः – [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
      • अत्र धातुः ध्यै  –  1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.
    • (5-2-2) वर a. [वृ-कर्मणि अप्] 1 Best, excellent, most beautiful or precious, choicest, finest, royal, princely; with gen. or loc. or usually at the end of comp.; वदतां वरः R.1.59; वेदविदां वरेण 5.23;11.54; Ku.6.18; नृवरः, तरुवराः, सरिद्वरा &c. -2 Better than, preferable to; ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वराः Ms.12.13; Y.1.352. -रः 1 The act of choosing, selecting. -2 Choice, selection. -3 A boon, blessing, favour (तपोभिरिष्यते यस्तु देवेभ्यः स वरो मतः); वरं वृ or याच् ‘to ask a boon’; प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरं वृणीष्व R.2.63; भवल्लब्धवरोदीर्णः Ku.2.32; (for the distinction between वर and आशिस् see आशिस्). -4 A gift, present, reward, recompense. -5 A wish, desire in general. -6 Solicitation, entreaty. -7 Charity, alms. -8 Surrounding, enclosing. -9 Obstructing, checking. -1 A bridegroom, husband; वरं वरयते कन्या; see under वधू (1) also. -11 A suitor, wooer. -12 A dowry. -13 A son-in-law; ‘वरो जामातरि श्रेष्ठे’ इति विश्वः; रथाङ्गभर्त्रे$भिनवं वराय Śi.3.36. -14 A dissolute man, libertine. -15 A sparrow. -16 Bdellium. -रम् Saffron; (for वरम् see separately).  
      • वरम् ind. Rather or better than, preferably to, it is better that &c. It is sometimes used with the ablative; समुन्नयन् भूतिमनार्यसंगमाद्वरं विरोधो$पि समं महात्मभिः Ki.1.8. But it is generally used absolutely, वरम् being used with the clause containing the thing preferred, and न च, न तु or न पुनः with the clause containing the thing to which the first is preferred, (both being put in the nominative case); वरं मौनं कार्यं न च वचनमुक्तं यदनृतं … वरं भिक्षाशित्वं न च परधनास्वादनसुखम् H.1.116; वरं प्राणत्यागो न पुनरधमानामुपगमः ibid; वरं गर्भस्रावो वरमृतुषु नैवाभिगमनम्, वरं जातप्रेतो वरमपि च कन्यैव जनिता । वरं वन्ध्या भार्या वरमपि च गर्भेषु वसतिर्न चाविद्वान् रूपद्रविणगुणयुक्तो$पि तनयः ॥ Pt.; sometimes न is used without च, तु or पुनः; याच्ञा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा Me.6.
    • (5-2-3) धीवरः A fisherman; मृगमीनसज्जनानां तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् । लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥ Bh.2.61; 1.85. -रम् Iron. -री 1 A fisherman’s wife. A kind of harpoon for catching fish. -3 A fish-basket.
      • In my response to श्रीमती रेणुका काशिभटला I had said, “.. I would agree with you that for the word धीवर to have one meaning as fisherman, there must have been some story or logic.
      • Actually instead of the meaning ‘fisherman’ I would think that the meaning of धीवर should be ‘boatman’.
      • Then the logic can be that a boatman who takes you safely to the other bank is no less than God, who also can take you safely to the other bank. So a boatman is धीवर !
      • Recently during a trip to Kerala we saw Chinese fishing nets. Those were huge nets installed on a river bank and were mainly mechanisms to lower and lift the nets. That was fishermanship, not boatmanship.
      • I think धीवर is boatman. Most blessed among boatmen is निषादराज, who in श्रीरामायणम् ferried प्रभु श्रीरामचन्द्र to the other bank. It could be that story from which the word धीवर got its meaning, ‘a boatman’.
    • Nevertheless, in the context of मीन in this श्लोक, meaning of धीवर as fisherman seems appropriate.
  • (5-3) पिशुनाः – पिशुन a. [पिश्-उनच् किच्च; Uṇ.3.55] 1 (a) Indicating, manifesting, evincing, displaying, indicative of; शत्रूनामनिशं विनाशपिशुनः Śi.1.75; तुल्यानुरागपिशुनम् V.2.14; R.1.53; Amaru.97. (b) Memorable for, commemorating; क्षेत्रं क्षत्रप्रधनपिशुनं कौरवं तद् भजेथाः Me.48. -2 Slan- derous, back-biting, calumniating; पिशुनजनं खलु बिभ्रति क्षितीन्द्राः Bv.1.74. -3 Betraying, treacherous. -4 Harsh, cruel, unkind. -5 Wicked, malicious; malignant. -6 Low, vile, contemptible; of a wicked person; पिशुनं भोजनं भुङ्क्ते ब्रह्महत्यासमं विदुः Mb.13.136.16. -7 Foolish, stupid. -नः 1 A slanderer, back-biter, tale-bearer, base informer, traitor, calumniator; वरं प्राणत्यागो न च पिशुनवाक्येष्वभिरुचिः; H.1.116; Pt.1.34; Ms.3.161; पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः Bh.1.55. -2 Cotton. -3 An epithet of Nārada. -4 A crow. -5 N. of a goblin (said to be dangerous to pregnant women). -6 N. of a writer on अर्थशास्त्र mentioned by Kauṭilya in connection with राज- पुत्ररक्षण; Kau. A.1.17.
    • अत्र पिश् धातुः – पिश् 6 U. (पिंशति-ते) To shape, fashion, form; त्वष्टा रूपाणि पिंशतु Rv.1.184.1. -2 To be organised. -3 To light, irradiate. -4 To be reduced to one’s constituent parts. -5 Ved. To adorn, decorate.-6 To make ready, prepare.
  • (5-4) लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)

(6) निष्कारणवैरिणः –

    • (6-1) निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत् निष्कारणम् |
      • निष्कारणं वैरमिति निष्कारणवैरम् |
      • निष्कारणवैरमस्यास्तीति निष्कारणवैरिन् |
      • तस्मात् निष्कारणवैरिणः-इति प्रथमाविभक्त्या बहुवचनेन च |
    • (6-2) निष्कारणम् 1 Removing, taking away. -2 Killing; cf. निकारण.
      • The prefix निष् has many shades of meaning. In explaining निष्कारणम् as निषिद्धं कारणं यस्य तत्, I am considering निष् to mean निषिद्धम्.
      • निष्कारणम् = without plausible reason
    • (6-3) वैरिणः – वैरिन् इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
      • वैरिन् – a. [वैरमस्त्यस्य इनि] Hostile, inimical. -m. 1 An enemy; शौर्ये वैरिणि वज्रमाशु निपतत्वर्थो$स्तु नः केवलम् Bh. 2.39; महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् Bg.3.37; R. 12.14. -2 A hero, brave person.
      • वैरम् [वीरस्य भावः अण्] 1 Hostility, enmity, animosity, spite, grudge, opposition, quarrel; दानेन वैराण्यपि यान्ति नाशम् Subhāṣ.; अज्ञातहृदयेष्वेवं वैरीभवति सौहृदम् Ś.5. 24 ‘turns into enmity’; विधाय वैरं सामर्षे नरो$रौ य उदासते । प्रक्षिप्योदर्चिषं कक्षे शेरते ते$भिमारुतम् Śi.2.42. -2 Hatred, revenge. -3 Heroism, prowess. -4 A hostile host; यदा हि पूर्वं निकृतो निकृन्तेद्वैरं सपुष्पं सफलं विदित्वा Mb.3.34.2

 

  • (6-4) निष्कारणवैरिणः = enemies without plausible reason.

 

(7) जगति – “जगत्” इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(8) Putting together meanings of different phrases as derived in (3-5), (4-6), (5-4), (6-4) and (7), the overall meaning is

  • जगति = In the world
  • मृगमीनसज्जनानाम् = Of deer, of fish and of gentlemen
  • तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् = of those who are content with grass, water and contentedness
  • लुब्धक-धीवर-पिशुनाः = hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, (respectively)
  • निष्कारणवैरिणः = (are) enemies without plausible reason.

(9) To check the meter,

मृगमीनसज्जनानां

1-1-2-1-2-1-2-2 = 12 मात्राः

तृणजलसंतोषविहितवृत्तीनाम् ।

1-1-1-1-2-2-1-1-1-1-2-2-2 = 18 मात्राः

लुब्धकधीवरपिशुना

2-1-1-2-1-1-1-1-2 = 12 मात्राः

निष्कारणवैरिणो जगति ॥

2-2-1-1-2-1-2 1-1-(2) = 15 मात्राः

This conforms to यस्याः पादे प्रथमे | द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि | अष्टादश द्वितीये | चतुर्थके पञ्चदश  साऽर्या ||

(10) भर्तृहरि could have as well thought it good to make the observation as a question, say, “ Why in the world, are hunters, fishermen and wicked persons, enemies of deer, of fish and of gentlemen, (respectively), even though these are (themselves) content (merely) with grass, water and contentedness ?”

  • भर्तृहरि made it into a statement instead of a question, including therein his answer as निष्कारणम् (= without plausible reason)

(11) Do we accept भर्तृहरि’s answer or can we think of a different answer ?

(12) Thinking of deer and hunters brings to mind a story in महाभारतम्. During their 12-years long exile into forests, one night when in द्वैतवन, a flock of deer appeared in Yudhishthira’s dream and begged, “Sir, only a few of us are left. Can you oblige us by thinking of us ?” The next day, Yudhishthira narrated his dream. All agreed and the Pandavas moved on to काम्युकवन. (अध्याय 258 of वनपर्व). There is a moral, right ?

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

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Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 122

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य द्वाविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२२) पाठः ।

Pun श्लेषः is a very interesting literary ornament अर्थालङ्कारः   of any language. This cannot be more true for a language as Sanskrit. I came across the following one in a post by Dr. Subramanian Swamy on his Facebook page.

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् |

तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् ||

When doing search on the internet on this verse, I came across some interesting mention at https://www.facebook.com/INDClub/posts/995595803792674 There it is said that “… In 1982, Gurupad K. Hegde wrote an entire book titled “Pun in Sanskrit Literature”. (published by Mysore College and has more than 300 examples. …”

Since both lines are identical, the pun or difference in meaning would come from splitting the words differently, i.e. by different पदच्छेद-s.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम्

(2) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् = तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम्

With these two पदच्छेद-s, the syntax will also be different.

(1) तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा अज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज |

(2) तम् आखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज मा-ज्ञानदायकम् → राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज |

For deciphering the meanings, we need to focus mainly on four words अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रम् मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रम्

(1) अज्ञानदायकम् –

  • (1-1) न ज्ञानम् इति अज्ञानम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-2) दायकम् – दा-धातुतः ण्वुल्-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् यद्ददाति तद्दायकम्
  • (1-3) अज्ञानस्य दायकम् इति अज्ञानदायकम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (1-4) अज्ञानदायकम् = That which causes unintelligence

(2) तमाखुपत्रम् –

  • (2-1) तमाखोः पत्रम् इति तमाखुपत्रम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (2-2) तमाखोः – “तमाखु” (= tobacco) इति नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-3) पत्रम् – “पत्र” (= leaf) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (2-4) तमाखुपत्रम् = tobacco-leaf

(3) मा-ज्ञानदायकम् – माज्ञानदायक-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (3-1) मायाः ज्ञानम् इति माज्ञानम् (पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुषः अथवा षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-2) माज्ञानस्य दायकः माज्ञानदायकः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (3-3) मायाः – मा (= Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
  • (3-4) माज्ञानदायकः =
    • (3-4-1) One who provides knowledge of or about (षष्ठी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati
    • (3-4-2) One, who provides knowledge (as available from (पञ्चमी) मा i.e. Goddess of knowledge, Saraswati

(4) आखुपत्रम् – आखुपत्र-इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • (4-1) आखुः पत्रं यस्य सः आखुपत्रः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (4-2) आखुः = a mouse
  • (4-3) पत्रम् = vehicle
  • (4-4) आखुपत्रः = one, who has a mouse as his vehicle i.e. गणेशः

(5) The सुभाषितम् is said to have the context of an incident between a king and his well-wishing minister.

  • The king had become addicted to chewing tobacco-leaf. The minister knew that that is not good for the king. So, he said to the king राजेन्द्र अज्ञानदायकम् तमाखुपत्रं मा भज Do not chew the tobacco-leaf, which causes loss of intelligence or which brings to you a blemish of being unintelligent
  • The king agreed, but asked, “What can I do ?” The minister suggested राजेन्द्र तं मा-ज्ञानदायकम् आखुपत्रं भज Engage yourself in singing the praise of Ganesh, who provides knowledge.

(6) It was possible for the minister to use the same words, but convey two different meanings, because Sanskrit affords great freedom from syntax.

(7) The two different meanings would get more appropriately conveyed by difference in intonation.

  • In the first instance तमाखुपत्रं राजेन्द्र भज माज्ञानदायकम् would have the word तमाखुपत्रं being said in one continuous utterance.
  • In the second instance the same word तमाखुपत्रं would rather be pronounced as तम् आखुपत्रं with clear split of the संधि.

(8) This brings forth some significance of Vedic mantras often written with diacritic marks, called as स्वरांकनम् In the present case,

  • for the first instance the तमाखुपत्रं may rather have a short vertical line, superscript between the letters मा and खु, rather, after the letter मा, indicating some extended pronunciation of मा. So the word would be written as तमा|खुपत्रं
  • for the second instance apart from clear split as तम् आखुपत्रं, there could be an underscore below the letter त suggesting a little stress on this letter, which will also help the split pronunciation. So it may rather be written as म् आखुपत्रं.

(9) Even when writing माज्ञानदायकम्

  • for the first instance, where it is to be interpreted as संधि of मा + अज्ञानदायकम् one may write it with an अवग्रह (ऽ) hence as माऽज्ञानदायकम्
  • for the second instance, where it is intended to be a compound word, one would write it as a single word माज्ञानदायकम्.
  • Note, संधि is compulsory when composing a compound word. In a sentence, it is optional. This is very succinctly clarified in a verse संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः | नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते ||

(10) Using स्वरांकनम् would rob the verse of the intended pun. Using the अवग्रह would also rob the pun from the write-up, though the pronunciation would be the same.

(11) Use of स्वरांकनम् or of अवग्रह then is a matter of discretion विवक्षा. When pun is intended, the discretion विवक्षा should rather be not to use them.

(12) Statements of philosophical, eternal truths would have no pun, no double meaning, only one meaning. Hence स्वरांकनम् is very important for such statements as in Vedic literature. स्वरांकनम् is related to pronunciation, related to correct pronunciation, and that is how Vedic literature is said to have been passed on and preserved down thousands of years, we must acknowledge the significance of this oral tradition that we have the Vedic literature till date even though great libraries of Nalanda and Takshshila were burnt down, where, they say, the embers were burning for nearly four weeks (so huge was the store of knowledge !)

(13) Knowledge acquired should be retained in the mind and in the memory. That is the essence of the oral tradition. God has provided human mind with incalculable amount of memory storage, that too with great retrievability. ऋषि-s and मुनि-s had realized that and put a great faith in that and very thoughtfully devised the teacher-disciple scheme of education (गुरु-शिष्य-परंपरा), rather than the present day textbook scheme of education.

(14) Coming back to the verse, most charming part is that two statements, grammatically opposite of each other, one in the affirmative and the other its negative, तमाखुपत्रं मा भज and तमाखुपत्रं भज are both valid !

(15) The verb भज is also interesting. The धातु is, भज् having क्त-कृदन्त as भक्त. This धातु भज् has as many as 20+ shades of meaning as detailed in Apte’s dictionary.

  • भज् I. 1 U. (भजति-ते but usually Atm. only; बभाज, भेजे, अभाक्षीत्, अभक्त, भक्ष्यति-ते, भक्त) 1 (a) To share, distribute, divide; भजेरन् पैतृकं रिक्थम् Ms.9.14; न तत्पुत्रै- र्भजेत् सार्धम् 29,119. (b) To assign, allot, apportion; गायत्रीमग्नये$भजत् Ait. Br. -2 To obtain for oneself, share in, partake of; पित्र्यं वा भजते शीलम् Ms.1.59. -3 To accept, receive; चामुण्डे भगवति मन्त्रसाधनादावुद्दिष्टामुपनिहितां भजस्व पूजाम् Māl.5.25. -4 (a) To resort to, betake oneself to, have recourse to; शिलातलं भेजे K.179; मातर्लक्ष्मि भजस्व कंचिदपरम् Bh.3.64; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमप- कृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5.1; Bv.1.83; R.17.28. (b) To practise, follow, cultivate, observe; तृष्णां छिन्धि भज क्षमाम् Bh.2.77; भेजे धर्ममनातुरः R.1.21; Mu.3.1. -5 To enjoy, possess, have, suffer, experience, entertain; विधुरपि भजतेतरां कलङ्कम् Bv.1.74; न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् Bh.2.8; व्यक्तिं भजन्त्यापगाः Ś.7.8; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43; Māl.3.9; U.1.35. -6 To wait or attend upon, serve; (दोग्ध्रीं) भेजे भुजोच्छिन्नरिपुर्निषण्णाम् R.2.23; Pt.1.181; Mk.1.32. -7 To adore, honour, worship (as a god). -8 To choose, select, prefer, accept; सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद्भजन्ते M.1.2. -9 To enjoy carnally; वसोर्वीर्योत्पन्नामभजत मुनिर्मत्स्यतनयाम् Pt.4.5. -1 To be attached or devoted to; आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं विद्याविहीनमकुलीनमसंस्कृतं वा Pt.1.35. -11 To take possession of. -12 To fall to the lot of any one. -13 To grant, bestow. -14 To supply, furnish (Ved.). -15 To favour; ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् Bg.4.11. -16 To decide in favour of, declare for. -17 To love, court (affection). -18 To apply oneself to, be engaged in. -19 To cook, dress (food). -20 To employ, engage. (The meanings of this root are variously modified according to the noun with which it is connected:– e. g. निद्रां भज् to go to sleep; मूर्छां भज् to swoon; भावं भज् to show love for &c. &c.). -Caus. 1 To divide. -2 To put to flight, pursue. -3 To cook, dress. -II. 1.U. (भाजयति-ते, regarded by some as the caus. of भज् I) 1 To cook. -2 To give.
  • Almost each of the 20+ meanings can be applied in the interpretation of the verse. Does not that make the verse such a multifaceted pum ?
    • Especially I think in तमाखुपत्रं मा भज the meaning “Do not become subservient to it” Is not habit of eating तमाखुपत्रं compelling, that one becomes slave of that habit ?
    • The poet seems to have used the verb भज very pleadingly when saying तमाखुपत्रं मा भज. He is not just saying “do not chew the tobacco”. The minister does not want the king to become a slave of that bad habit, which is as good as losing one’s discretionary intelligence. That is what bad habits are अज्ञानदायक. They rob you of your discretionary intelligence.
    • The second line suggests, rather recommends a noble engagement, a perfect antidote to bad habits.

(16) The verse is not just a sage advice given by a minister to his king. It is a caution and advice to all of us to desist from such dangerous things as tobacco. That is why the verse is a सुभाषितम् !

शुभमस्तु !!

-o-O-o

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२१) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, we saw how verses in Sanskrit had mathematics encoded in them. Here is another style of encoding of numbers.

भास्कराचार्य well-known Indian mathematician and astronomer lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was also well-versed in Sanskrit prosody, so much so, that he recorded his year of birth and the year of his composing his book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी in a verse –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

Whereas in the verse in the previous lesson, numbers were encoded by letters, in this verse numbers are encoded by words.

रस = 6, Note, रस means ‘taste’. Tastes are six, Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, Pungent, and Astringent.

गुण = 3 Note, गुण means ‘characteristics’, which are three सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्

पूर्ण = 0 Note, पूर्ण means ‘complete’. पूर्ण is connoted to mean zero, because zero makes the set of numbers complete.

मही = 1 Note, मही means ‘earth’. Earth is only one.

To decipher the verse by the usual sequence –

(1) पदच्छेदैः

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये अभवत् मम उत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

(2) शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि

(2-1) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये This is a compound word having 8 component words viz. रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही, सम, शक, नृप and समय. There have to be विग्रह-s, the statements to detail interrelation among the component words.

  • (2-1-1) रसः च गुणः च पूर्णं च मही च एतेषां द्वन्द्वेन रसगुणपूर्णमह्यः (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
    • The words रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही connote numbers as noted above.
    • Since numbers have digits, values of which increase leftward by increasing power of 10, (starting from 0-th power of 10 at the unit’s place), numerical values of रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही have to be taken leftwards. So Sanskrit rule for placing numbers by their digital value is अङ्कानां वामतो गतिः
    • So the year connoted by रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही when read leftwards becomes 1036.
  • (2-1-2) रसगुणपूर्णमहीभिः समः रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) means ‘equal to रसगुणपूर्णमही’
  • (2-1-3) शकनृपसमयः =
    • शकः येन (कृतः) सः नृपः शकनृपः (बहुव्रीहिः) = King who started counting of time
    • शकनृपेण (प्रचालितः) समयः शकनृपसमयः (मध्यमपदलोपी) = time (actually the year), the counting was started by the king. This refers to King Shalivahan, who started the system of counting of time, wherein every year is called as a शक or as शालिवाहनशक. This was about 78 AD. So year of शालिवाहनशक is approximately 78 years less than the Christian. Presently in 2015, from 21st March to be precise, शालिवाहनशक is 1937
  • (2-1-4) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः शकनृपसमयः इति रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयः (कर्मधारयः)
  • (2-1-5) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये = In शालिवाहनशक 1036, i.e. in (1036 + 78 =) 1114 AD

(2-2) अभवत् – भू (1 प.) इति धातुः | भू सत्तायाम् (= to be, to become, to happen) तस्य लङ्-लकारे (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(2-3) मम – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-4) उत्पत्तिः – उत् + पत् (1 प.) इति धातुः | तस्मात् क्तिच्-प्रत्ययेन स्त्रीलिङ्गी संज्ञा | तस्याः प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-5) रसगुणवर्षेण – This again is a compound word, having 3 component words – रस, गुण and वर्ष.

  • (2-5-1) रसः च गुणः च रसगुणौ (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
  • (2-5-2) रसगुणाभ्यां वर्षम् यस्य सः रसगुणवर्षः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (2-5-3) From the encoding detailed at (2-1-1), रसगुणवर्षः = one, who is 36 years old

(2-6) मया – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-7) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – This compound word has 4 component words – सिद्ध्, अन्त, शिरस् and मणिः

  • (2-7-1) सिद्धः अन्तः यस्मिन् सः सिद्धान्तः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • सिद्धः – सिध् (4 प.) इति धातुः | षिधु संराद्धौ (= to be accomplished, to be attained, to be fulfilled) | तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “सिद्ध्” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • अन्तः = end, the ultimate, the truth, aim, goal, objective, what is unarguable
    • सिद्धान्तः = Statement in which unarguable truth is accomplished, a definitive statement
  • (2-7-2) शिरसि मणिः शिरोमणिः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • शिरसि – शिरस् (= head) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मणिः – a jewel
  • (2-7-3) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – सिद्धान्तैः शिरोमणिः इव (अयं ग्रन्थः) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी
    • Book, which has become like a jewel (in the crown) by virtue of definitive statements.
    • Probably भास्कराचार्य named his work as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, with the idea that सिद्धान्त-s should be worn on the head (in the head ?) as adorably as a jewel.
    • By this token the compound word सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी can as well be deciphered as
  • (2-7-4) सिद्धान्तानां (समुच्चयः) शिरोमणिः इव यस्य सः सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी (Note, here प्रातिपदिकम् to be taken as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिन् The suffix इन् connotes (सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिः) अस्य अस्ति इति one who owns it. So, everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी !

(2-8) रचितः – रच् (10 उ.) इति धातुः | रच प्रतियत्ने (= to compose, to arrange, to devise) तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “रचित” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(3) Overall Meaning – I was born in the शालिवाहनशक 1036 and I composed सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी when I was 36 years old.

(4) चतुष्पादात्मकं वृत्तविश्लेषणम् Meter of the verse by study of its four quarters –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसम –

१-१-१-१-२-१-१-२-१-१ = १२ मात्राः

शकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

१-१-१-१-१-१-२ १-२-१-२-२-२ = १८ मात्राः

रसगुणवर्षेण मया

१-१-१-१-२-२-१ १-२ = १२ मात्राः

सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

२-२-१-१-२-१-२ १-१-२ = १५ मात्राः

This is आर्यावृत्तम्. Note –

यस्याः पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

अष्टादश द्वितीये पञ्चदश चतुर्थके आर्या ||

(5) टिप्पण्यः Notes

(5-1) One is left to wonder what treasure of knowledge is left codified in which all Sanskrit literature.

  • We studied in the previous lesson how a single verse is as good a praise of both श्रीकृष्ण and शिव and also a value of pie to 32 digits.
  • There is a verse which is a solution to such moves of the rook on a chessboard, that one starts on a particular square and returns to the same square.
  • Dr. Sampadanand Mishra compiled a book “The Wonder that is Sanskrit” ISBN 81-7060-182-7 (Sri Aurobindo Society).

(5-2) The book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी itself has four parts – Part (1) लीलावती covers Arithmetic and Geometry. Part (2) बीजगणितम् covers Algebra. Parts (3) ग्रहगणिताध्यायः and (4) गोलाध्यायः cover calculations related to the astronomy, i.e. motions and relative motions of planets, etc.

  • (5-2-1) It is said that सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, say, until Indian education system was overhauled by British educationists like Macaulay. One can get some interesting reading about this at http://www.historydiscussion.net/articles/spreading-of-western-education-during-british-rule/2065
  • It comes to mind that if सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, there must be great value there. I wish I shall be able to deal with at least Parts (1) and (2) at https://ganitabhyas.wordpress.com/
  • If भास्कराचार्य intended that everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, may it so happen !

शुभमस्तु !!!

-o-O-o-