Supplement to Lesson No. 70

Supplement to Lesson No. 70

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्ततितमस्य  (७०) पाठस्य परिशिष्टम् ।

Many interesting comments received on the lesson make a good study in themselves and merit compiling a supplement.

Comment 1

Oct 29, 2010 Shankara –
Abhyankarji, Are you sure this is a subhashita? I think, this is only a sarasasloka. A subhashita must contain some moral or lesson.
I replied saying – नमो नमः श्रीमन् “शंकर”-महोदय ! मया तु इदम् कस्मिन्श्चित् सुभाषितसन्ग्रहे एव प्राप्तमासीत् । संदेशः तु अस्ति एव, यत् हस्ताक्षरं सुष्ठु एव भवितव्यम् ।

Comment 2 –

October 29, 2010 From Shri. Arvind Kolhatkar, Toronto –
I saw the following verse in your lesson No 70.
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति को न वाचयति।
तस्मादप्यधिको मे यल्लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति॥
The version that I know of the same verse goes as under
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखितं तत्परो न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥
The first version does not agree with the meter.  The second not only goes with the meter but also has a richer content.

Comment 3 –

2010/10/29 Avinash Sathaye – भृ has basic meaning “to carry”. Compare with भार. Feeding is a derived meaning.
I replied – “भर्ता” इति शब्दः “भृ”-धातुतः एतत् सुष्ठु ज्ञापितम् । धन्यवादाः ।

2010/10/29 Avinash Sathaye – I forgot to add that I can see a deeper meaning in the verse, thus answering the criticism of Shankara.

The first husband is probably a really erudite person writing deep thoughts which are not understandable to others.
The second one, who thinks her husband an improvement was blessed with  the one who did not know what he was talking about.

In other words, if you let go of the idea of bad handwriting, it has a a serious meaning in terms of real knowledge.
Both deep and meaningless things are unintelligible and only a wise person can tell which is better.

Comment 4 –

Mr. Eddie Hadley also commented –

I have discovered something magical.
It is called SANSCRIPT (South Asian Network Software Conferring Relatively Immediate Phonetic Transliteration)
Mr. Hadley added how the lesson appears on applying SANSCRIPT – 

caturaḥ sakhi me bhartā yallikhati ko na vācayati ।

tasmādapyadhiko me yallikhati svayaṃ na vācayati ||
1 sandhi-vicchedān kṛtvā samāsānāṃ padāni ca darśayitvā  |
caturaḥ sakhi me bhartā yat likhati kaḥ na vācayati ।
tasmāt api adhika: me yat likhati svayaṃ na vācayati ||
2 samāsānāṃ vigrahāḥ śabdānāṃ vyutpattayaḥ viśleṣaṇāni ca |

This Supplement as a study of the comments –

While Shri. Shankara questioned eligibility of the verse to be called as a सुभाषितम् he has used an interesting word “sarasashloka” to say, what this verse may be called as. The word renders following analysis –

१ सरसश्लोकः ।
१.१ रसेन सह = सरस । उपपद-तत्पुरुषः ।
१.२ सरसः श्लोकः = सरसश्लोकः । कर्मधारयः ।
१.३ रसेन “रस्” १ प (= to tinkle) also १० उ (= to taste, to relish) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भाववाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम (qualitative masculine noun) “रस” (= what has the quality to cause taste, relish, tinkle) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (instrumental i.e. third case, singular) ।
१.४ सह (= with) अव्ययम् (indeclinable) ।
१.५ श्लोकः “श्लोक्” १ आ (= to praise, to compose in verse, to versify) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम (instrumental, masculine noun) “श्लोक” (= a verse) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case singular) ।
१.६ सरसश्लोकः = verse, which has relish in it.

In an earlier lesson, there was some discussion about who a poet is and what poetry is . There it was mentioned that वाक्यम् रसात्मकम् काव्यम् । meaning, if a sentence has relish in it, it becomes poetry !

In poetry नव रसा: nine sentiments are recognized. Well, that gives me a topic for the next lesson !

Both Mr. Aravind Kolhatkar and Mr. Avinash Sathaye suggest that one can and should read deeper meaning.

Since Mr. Aravind Kolhatkar has given a different version, I would first like to do detailed study of that version.

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखितं तत्परो न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यत्-लिखितं तत् पर: न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयं अपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च |

I think it should be alright to detail only what is new/different.

2.1 Considering comment of Dr. Avinash Sathaye –
भर्ता “भृ” १, ३ उ. (= to carry, to feed, to bear, to support, to foster, to cherish) इति धातुः (verb) । तस्मात् कर्तृवाचकं विशेषणम् “भर्तृ” (= one, who carries along, feeds, supports, fosters, cherishes, hence, husband) ।  अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) |

2.2 यल्लिखितम्

  • 2.2.1 This can be deciphered either as a सन्धि यल्लिखितम् = यत् + लिखितम् or
  • 2.2.2 as a समास
    येन लिखितम् = यल्लिखितम् । तृतीया तत्पुरुषः ।

Since version given by Mr. Kolhatkar has यल्लिखितं in place of यल्लिखति I was wondering how the syntax अन्वय would be.
Taking यल्लिखितम् = यत् + लिखितम् as a सन्धि the syntax becomes meaningful, as यत् (अनेन) लिखितम् i.e. by assuming (अनेन) to be implicit.
That assumption does not become necessary if it is deciphered as a समास “येन लिखितम् = यल्लिखितम् ।”
Deciphering as a समास also matches well with परलिखितम् in the second line.
2.3 परलिखितम् |

  • 2.3.1 परेण लिखितम् = परलिखितम् । तृतीया तत्पुरुषः ।
  • 2.3.2 परेण “पर” (= the other) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (instrumental i.e. third case, singular) ।
  • 2.3.3 परलिखितम् = written by other(s)

2.4 वाचयति ।
This can be deciphered to have two derivations –

  • 2.4.1 वाचयति Verb formed from noun “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) इति धातुः (verb) | तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् च (present tense, third person, singular) |
  • 2.4.2 वाचयति as causative of verb “वच्” २ प. (= to speak) | As causative the meaning would be “to make speak, to cause a speech, to prompt or provoke comment”

I guess, that the “deeper meaning”, which is suggested by both Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar and Dr. Avinash Sathaye, really hinges on interpreting this word “वाचयति” !
“यल्लिखितम् तत् वाचयति = whatever is written prompts or provokes comment.” is a concept which largely applies to all scriptures. What is written always has a deeper meaning.
One who writes only such writings is certainly an “erudite” person, as rightly said by Dr. Avinash Sathaye.

The second line as given by Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति seems to speak of a person who does not bother to read what is written by others nor what is written by himself.
What can that be meaning ?

  • Either the person is not a man of letters
  • Or he is a person, happy in his own world, possibly, happy being engrossed in deep meditation and totally disinterested in worldly arguments !
  • He may choose to speak or write off and on, but would not like to spend further effort in commenting or explaining the meaning of what he has written. He would let the world bother about it !

The second line in the version given by Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar has good import. But, I think, it misses the clarification, that the second line is by the friend of the lady in the first line. Also it misses the poetic charm, the satire, the punch implicit in तस्मादप्यधिको मे ।

Comment 5 –

In response to this supplement Mr. Kiran Paranjape promptly contributed his comment to say –

The version that I know of this is:

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति तत्परो न वाचयति।
तस्मादप्यधिकं मे स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥

It goes well with the meter, too.

Obviously this version from Mr. Paranjape combines good points of both the earlier versions !

One who “reads” वाचयति, would end up discovering ! And Mr. Eddie Hadley has discovered SANSCRIPT !
He added a punch-line at the bottom of his message “Seek, ye shall find !”

I find that the word “discover = remove the cover, unfold” is very interesting.
In ईशावास्योपनिषत् it says “तत् त्वं पूषन्नपावृणु” (= find that out by removing the cover)

Although Dr. Avinash Sathaye suggests leaving aside the thought that the सुभाषितम् speaks of the importance of good handwriting, there is a background, why I focused on the handwriting aspect. We noticed that my grandson does not have as good a handwriting. But good handwriting has been hereditary in our family. What a handwriting my father had ! Every line, simply a lace of pearls ! Hand-writings of my son and myself have also been fairly good. Certainly we want that my grandson should carry that “creed” in his i.e. fourth generation too ! So, I took up this सुभाषितम् to impress on him the importance of good handwriting ! Does not this सुभाषितम् do that in an amusing tone also ? My grandson is both amused and impressed !

Basically what is वाचनम् (= reading) from “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) ?
वाचनम् (= reading) is not just running our eyes over the text. Every reading must register a thought in our mind.
Every writing should also cause वाचनम् (= reading) !
I would not have been re-reading my lessons myself. But such thought-provoking comments really make me re-read and compose this supplement
स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयमपि वाचयति ! 🙂
I am deeply obliged for all the comments !

शुभमस्तु |

 

-o-O-o-

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Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 70

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 70

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्ततितमः (७०) पाठः ।

Just taking up a simpler सुभाषितम्  –

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति को न वाचयति ।
तस्मादप्यधिको मे यल्लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति ||

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यत् लिखति कः न वाचयति ।
तस्मात् अपि अधिक: मे यत् लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति ||

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च |

२.१ चतुरः “चतुर” (= smart) इति विशेषणम् (adjective) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (first case, singular) |

२.२ सखि “सखी” (= friend) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम (feminine noun) | तस्य संबोधन-विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (address or vocative case, singular) ।

२.३ मे “अस्मद्” (= I, we – pronoun of first person) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (genitive case, singular) |

२.४ भर्ता “भर्” १ प (= to feed) इति धातुः (verb) । तस्मात् कर्तृवाचकं विशेषणम् “भर्तृ” (= one, who feeds, hence, husband) ।  अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) |

२.५ यत् (= ) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि (here, neuter) । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (second i.e. accusative case, singular) |

२.६ लिखति “लिख्” १ प (= to write) इति धातुः (verb) | तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् च (present tense, third person, singular) |

२.७ कः “किम्” (= who, what) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) |

२.८ न (= no, not) अव्ययम् (indeclinable) ।

२.९ वाचयति “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) इति धातुः (verb) | तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् च (present tense, third person, singular) |

२.१० तस्मात् “तत्” (= that) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (ablative i.e. fifth case, singular) ।

२.११ अपि (= even, also) अव्ययम् (indeclinable) ।

२.१२ अधिक: “अधिक” (= more) इति विशेषणम् (adjective) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here masculine) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) ।

२.१३ स्वयम् (= self) सर्वनामात्मकं अव्ययम् (basically a pronoun, often used as indeclinable) ।

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

३.१ सखि मे भर्ता चतुरः  = Friend, my husband (is) smart

३.२ यत् लिखति = what (he) writes

३.३ कः न वाचयति । = no one can read

३.४ मे तस्मात् अपि अधिक: = mine (is) even more (smart)

३.५ यत् लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति । = what (he) writes, (him)self does not (cannot) read !

४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ To decipher the meter –

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता । वर्णाः १८

१-१-२ १-१ २ २-२ मात्राः १२

यल्लिखति को न वाचयति । वर्णाः १०

२-१-१-१ २ १ २-१-१-१(२) मात्राः १४

तस्मादप्यधिको मे । वर्णाः ७

२-२-२-१-१-२ २ मात्राः १२

यल्लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति । वर्णाः ११

२-१-१-२ १-२ १ २-१-१-१ मात्राः १५

मात्राः in second line are one short of 15. But for this the verse seems to conform to उपगीति-वृत्तम् ।

४.२ We sent our son to learn typing and stenography, when he was in high-school 8th or 9th standard. Stenography what he learnt came very handy to him, in the college. He could make exhaustive notes of the lectures of the professors. But his notes were only readable for himself ! Of course he could read them himself for sure – unlike the “smarter” (?) husband in the second line of the सुभाषितम् here 🙂

४.३ I think, children must acquire adequate typing skills as early as possible. Thirty-forty years back, typing skills were for people, who would settle down for the job of a typist. Now with computers having become a common, rather an essential utility, typing skill has also become an essential skill. Computers will work at their tremendous speed. But if we put in data at our own pace, we are certainly under-utilizing the computer.

४.४ I am often amazed at the speed at which children send “SMS”es even from non-QWERTY keypads, deftly using both their thumbs !

४.५ Concepts of essential skill-sets have changed and keep changing every passing day !

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 69

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 69 

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य नवषष्टितमः (६) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson there was the mention of the quotation “मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय”

The complete मन्त्र is –

असतो मा सद्गमय ।
तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय ।

मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय ।

(अनृतान्मा ऋतं गमय)

१ सन्धिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा

असतः मा सत् गमय ।

तमसः मा ज्योतिः गमय ।

मृत्योः मा अमृतम् गमय ।

अनृतात् मा ऋतम् गमय ॥

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानाम् व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

.१ असतः ।
  • ..१ न सत् = असत् । नञ्तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ..२ न (= no, not) अव्ययम् ।
  • ..३ सत् अस्२ प. (= to be, to exist) इति धातुः । तस्मात् वर्तमानकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् सत्” (= existing, real, true) adjectival, present tense, derivative from the verbal root । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि ।
  • ..४ असतः असत्” (= non-existent, unreal, untruth, falsehood) इति सामासिकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.२ मा अस्मद्” (= I, we pronouns of first person) इति उत्तमपुरुषि सर्वनाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Second case, singular
.३ सत् अस्२ प. (= to be, to exist) इति धातुः । तस्मात् वर्तमानकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् सत्” (= existing, real, true) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि neuter । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
.४ गमय गम्१ प. (= to go to, to reach, to realize, to understand) इति धातुः । तस्य प्रयोजकस्य (= to make one go to, to lead) आज्ञार्थे द्वितीयपुरुषे एकवचनम् । Second person, singular of imperative of causative
.५ तमसः तमस्” (= darkness) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम neuter common noun तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.६ ज्योतिः ज्योति” (= flame, light) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम feminine common noun । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । nominative (first) case, singular
.६ मृत्योः मृ१ आ. (= to die, to decease) इति धातुः । तस्मात् क्रियावाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम मृत्यु” (= death) masculine noun indicating action । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.७ अमृतम् ।
  • .१ न मृतम् येन तत् (= that, which does not cause death i.e. that which prevents death,rather, forever)। नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः ।
    ..२ मृतम् मृ१ आ. (= to die, to decease) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् मृत” (= dead) adjectival derivative of past tense । अत्र मृतम् (= मृत्युः) एतदर्थेन नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम Here, the adjective is used in the sense of the noun.The adjectival derivative is of neuter gender । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Nominative (First) or accusative (second) case, singular
  • ..३ अमृतम् अमृत” (= nectar) इति सामासिकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम compounded neuter common noun। तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Nominative (first) case, singular.

.८ अनृतात् ।

  • ..१ न ऋतम् = अनृतम् । Compound word meaning not straightforward, not chaste नञ्तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ..२ ऋतम् ” (= to come forth) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् ऋत” (= straightforward) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • ..३ अनृतात् अनृत” (= not straightforward, vicious) इति सामासिकम् विशेषणम् adjectiival derivative of past tense । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि here neuter । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case singular
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च । 

 

 

  • मा असतः सत् गमय । = Lead me from untruth to truth
  • मा तमसः ज्योतिः गमय । = Lead me from darkness to light
  • मा मृत्योः अमृतम् गमय । = Lead me from death to immortality
  • मा अनृतात् ऋतम् गमय । = Lead me from viciousness to chastity
४ टिप्पणयः ।

.A mantra has a rhythm of its own. There does not have to be a meter.

.I am somewhat confused of the प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः of the words सत्, अमृतम् and ऋतम् Since in the second line ज्योतिः is in प्रथमा विभक्तिः the other words should also be considered to be in प्रथमा विभक्तिः But प्रथमा विभक्तिः makes the grammar itself awkward, more so, the English translation becomes quite awkward. I have tried to make the translation as close to the Sanskrit grammar, primarily by considering all these words to be of द्वितीया विभक्तिः But then प्रथमा विभक्तिः of the word ज्योतिः becomes a problem.

  • ..The translation derives only by considering द्वितीया विभक्तिः
.In (.) for the word “मा”, I am mentioning it as being of उत्तमपुरुष In Sanskrit grammar
  • The pronouns of the English third person – He, She, It, They are called as being of प्रथमपुरुष
  • The second person pronoun “you”, both singular and plural is called as being of मध्यमपुरुष or द्वितीयपुरुष
  • the pronouns of the English first person – I, we – are called as being of उत्तमपुरुष or तृतीयपुरुष
  • Declension tables for verbs are also quoted in such order.
 

  • A suggestion came forth, that the grammar of each word should also be given in English, and not just in Sanskrit text using Devanagari script. If I should give grammar in English as per terminology of English grammar, I should give Sanskrit grammar as per Sanskrit terminology. This will cause a great change of mentioning “first person” as per English grammar and calling the same pronoun as being of उत्तमपुरुष or तृतीयपुरुष as per terminology of Sanskrit grammar. The converse will also happen. For the first-person pronouns, I shall rather use the term उत्तमपुरुष instead of तृतीयपुरुष This may help to avoid, at least partially, the confusion.

४.४ The fourth line is not often quoted. I do not know whether it is there in the original text. I even do not know which the original text is. But I did come across the fourth line also, sometime, somewhere. As such, it does make the mantra more comprehensive, since truth and falsehood in the first line are certainly different from chastity and viciousness in the fourth line.
.Here darkness is ignorance and flame or light is knowledge.
  • .५.१ प्रज्वालितो ज्ञानमयः प्रदीपः ।
  • .५.२ Even in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता
यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्जुन ।
ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात् कुरुते तथा ॥४३७॥
सर्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन् प्रकाश उपजायते ।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्यात् विवृद्धम् सत्त्वमित्युत ॥१४११

.Death मृत्यु: and immortality अमृतम् are also in the idiomatic sense. “Even if one dies, one’s name should live.”

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 68

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 68

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य अष्ट-षष्टितमः (६८) पाठः ।

Now in this lesson एकादशः मन्त्रः of ईशावास्योपनिषत्  –

विद्याञ्चाविद्याञ्च  यस्तद्वेदोभयं सह |

अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययामृतमश्नुते  || ११ ||

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |

विद्याम् च अविद्याम् च यः तत् वेद उभयं सह |

अविद्यया मृत्युम् तीर्त्वा विद्यया अमृतम् अश्नुते || ११ ||

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च |

 

२.१ विद्याम् “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि “विद्या” | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.२ च (= and) अव्ययम् |

२.३ अविद्याम् |

  • २.३.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.३.२ न (= not) अव्ययम् |
  • २.३.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि “विद्या” |
  • २.३.४ अविद्याम् “अविद्या” (= what should not be learnt) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.४ यः “यत्” (= He who) ) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.५ वेद “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्य वर्तमाने प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

२.६ उभयम् “उभय” (= both) इति सर्वनाम | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.७ सह (= with, together) अव्ययम् |

२.८ मृत्युम् “मृ” ६ आ. (= to die) इति धातुः | तस्मात् क्रियावाचकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “मृत्यु” |  तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ||

२.९ तीर्त्वा “tRU ” १ प. (= to cross over) इति धातुः | तस्मात् त्वान्तं अव्ययम् |

२.१० अमृतम् |

  • २.१०.१ न मृतम् येन तत् = अमृतम् | नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः |
  • २.१०.२ न (= not) अव्ययम् |
  • २.१०.३ मृतम् “मृ” ६ आ. (= to die) इति धातुः | तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “मृत” (= deceased, dead) | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | प्रायः नाम अपि मृतम् = मरणम् (= death) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  • २.१०.४ अमृतम् “अमृत” (= nectar, immortality) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२.११ अश्नुते “अश्” ५ आ. (= to get) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

 

३.१ यः विद्याम् च अविद्यां च उभयम् सह तत् वेद । = He, who understands “That” alongwith understanding of what is knowledge and what is not knowledge

३.२ अविद्यया मृत्युम् तीर्त्वा = by understanding what is not knowledge one would transcend death

३.३ विद्यया अमृतं अश्नुते | = by understanding what is knowledge one gets immortality

४ टिप्पणयः |

 

४.१ As mentioned in the notes in previous lesson श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and आचार्य विनोबा भावे have given different connotations of the words “विद्या” and “अविद्या”

४.२ In this मन्त्र the thought is carried forward to derive the conclusion that understanding both “विद्या” and “अविद्या” should finally lead to understanding “That”, i.e. “ईशतत्त्व” or “परमात्मतत्त्व”.

४.३ The statements (३.२) and (३.३) are again somewhat challenging to grasp their full import. Possibly the famous मन्त्र “मृत्योर्मामृतम् गमय” also connotes the same conclusion as is presented by these two statements (३.२) and (३.३)

४.४ विनोबाजी ’s definition of “अविद्या” as the state devoid of sensibility appeals to be a good definition to understand how knowledge of this state would lead one to transcend death. A state devoid of sensibility is akin to death. Achieving that state at a conscious level is transcending death !

४.५ The concept of death can as well be understood to be idiomatic. One can transcend death conceptually. There is an interesting episode in महाभारतम्. After the epic battle, there was the ceremony for enthroning युधिष्ठिर as the king. Many Brahmins had come from all over the kingdom and also from all friendly kingdoms. Among those Brahmins was also a demon चार्वाक disguised as a Brahmin. Just when the ceremonial rituals were about to commence, चार्वाक challenged युधिष्ठिर that he was not eligible to be the king. युधिष्ठिर also never wanted to be a king with any strain of non-approval in anyone’s mind. He listened patiently to चार्वाक’s arguments. चार्वाक argued, “Eh yudhiShThira, You have been a party in a war where hundreds of thousands of lives were lost, hundreds of thousands of mothers lost their sons, hundreds of thousands of wives lost their husbands, hundreds of thousands of sisters lost their brothers, hundreds of thousands of innocent children lost their fathers. You are a killer, a gruesome murderer. Only atonement for a murderer is to penalise oneself to death.”

युधिष्ठिर very calmly replied, “Oh Brahmin, do you not know that I have been a famous king, who ruled from my capital in इन्द्रप्रस्थ ? I have been such a king, of whom there is no equal. I have been a king who had no equal in the entire history of human race. I am a king, who shall have no equal anytime in the future. I say this with great pride. Pride is suicidal. So, by indulging in self-praise I have committed suicide. Secondly, oh Brahmin, by your argument, you have inflicted insult on  a king. Insult is virtual death for a king. So, I have already atoned myself by dying twice.”

Pride and insult were both “अविद्या”. युधिष्ठिर was knowledgeable of this “अविद्या” and transcended death by that knowledge !

४.६ श्रीमान् आदिशङ्कराचार्य explains “अविद्या” saying “अविद्या” is following prescribed practices, without questioning “why” of those prescriptions. By logic of the converse, “विद्या” means pursuing the field of knowledge with the spirit of enquiry, inquiring also about the ईशतत्त्व ! And if this pursuit leads to “realisation” of that “ईशतत्त्व”, that then would be the pinnacle of “विद्या”, immortality! “विद्यया अमृतं अश्नुते” !

४.७ There is another episode again in महाभारतम्, which in a way exemplifies this. After running the affairs of the state honourably for hundreds of years, पाण्डव-s alongwith द्रौपदी decided to retire to the heavens. But in the final climb, युधिष्ठिर was left alone. However one dog kept him company all along. Finally युधिष्ठिर and the dog arrived at the gates of the heaven. इन्द्र had known that युधिष्ठिर was on his way and sent his charioteer माताली to receive युधिष्ठिर ! “Welcome, Sir !” said माताली.  युधिष्ठिर beckoned the dog also to join. At that, माताली said, “Sorry, Sir ! But dogs are not allowed admission here.” युधिष्ठिर replied, “I have not known of any code of justice where you forsake a friend who has given you company all along in a long journey. If you do not admit this dog, then I also would not seek entry into such unjust heaven !” माताली was perplexed because it was beyond his diktat to make an exception.

Suddenly, Lord यम made his appearance from nowhere. He said to माताली, “Admit him !” माताली started to say something like “But, Sir …..!”  He was looking around for the dog. But there was no dog !

Lord यम said, “I was that dog. I accompanied युधिष्ठिर  all along. I did so, to test युधिष्ठिर’s sense of justice !”

Turning to युधिष्ठिर, यम said, “Welcome my son ! You have passed the test !”

Sense of justice is “विद्या” By the knowledge of “विद्या” युधिष्ठिर  got uninhibited admission into the heavens ! विद्ययामृतमश्नुते !

४.८ Among spiritually accomplished souls, there are said to be those who more pursue the spiritual path with the spirit of inquiry, विद्याभ्यसनम्. There are also those, who pursue the path of following prescribed practices हरि -पाद-सेवनम्

४.९ If I may say so, from my understanding, Chapters 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 17 and 18  in गीता  are more of विद्याभ्यसनम् category. Chapters 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 are of हरि-पाद-सेवनम् category.

४.१० These three मन्त्राः of ईशावास्योपनिषत्  advise that one should understand both “विद्या” and “अविद्या”. In turn the advice is that one should study all chapters of गीता !

४.११ Reference in (४.३) above, to the other famous mantra “मृत्योर्मामृतम् गमय” brings to mind that all the three lines of that मन्त्र together summarise the import of these three मन्त्राः 8th, 9th and 10th in ईशावास्योपनिषत्  It should be appropriate to study that other mantra also wholesomely in the next lesson and explore the correlation !

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 67

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 67

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्त-षष्टितमः (६७) पाठः ।

Having studied नवमः मन्त्रः of ईशावास्योपनिषत्  in the previous lesson, now दशमः मन्त्रः –

अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्यया अन्यदाहुरविद्यया |

इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नस्तद्विचचक्षिरे || १० ||

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |

अन्यत् एव आहुः विद्यया अन्यत् आहुः अविद्यया |

इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नः तद् विचचक्षिरे || १० ||

२ समासानां विग्रहाः, शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः, विश्लेषणानि  च |

२.१ अन्यत् (= different) इति सार्वनामिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.२ एव (= only) अव्ययम् ।

२.३ आहुः “अह्” १ आ. १० उ. (= to say) इति धातुः | तस्य भूतकाले तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

  • Optionally the धातुः is taken to be “ब्रू” (= to say) २ उ. |

२.४ विद्यया “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” | तस्य तृतीया विभाक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.५ अविद्यया |

  • २.५.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.५.२ न (= not) अव्ययम् |
  • २.५.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” |
  • २.५.४ अविद्यया “अविद्या” (= what is not knowledge) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.६ इति (= all this) अव्ययम् |

२.७ शुश्रुम “श्रु” ५ प. (= to hear, to listen to) इति धातुः | तस्य भूतकाले प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

२.८ धीराणाम्  “धीर” (= wise, bold) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

२.९ ये “यत्” (= he, it, those who) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभाक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

२.१० नः “अस्मद्” (= I, we) इति प्रथमपुरुषि सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य द्वितीया  विभाक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

२.११ तद् (= that) इति तृतीय-पुरुषि सर्वनाम | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.१२ विचचक्षिरे “वि + चक्ष्” २ प. (= to explain in detail) इति धातुः | तस्य परोक्षभूते तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

विद्यया अन्यत् एव आहुः | =

  • (They) said, “(It is) different from knowledge.

अविद्यया अन्यत् आहुः | =

  • (They) said, “(It is) different from what is not knowledge.

ये नः विचचक्षिरे इति तद् धीराणां शुश्रुम | =

  • Those who explained in detail to us, from those wise (sages), (we) learnt “that” like this.

४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः terms “विद्या” to mean the practice of “ज्ञानयोग” and “अविद्या” to mean the practice of कर्म-योग” Possibly those who practice कर्म-योग will follow the diktats without questioning “why”. There is some logic in terming such indulgence in a specified practice, without questioning “why”, as “अविद्या”.

४.२ आचार्य विनोबा भावे calls “विद्या” to mean “sensibility” (जाणीव in Marathi) and “अविद्या” to mean a state devoid of sensibility (नेणीव in Marathi). By this definition, “अविद्या” seems to be conceptually similar to the concept of a “null set” in mathematics ! That is some smart logic of आचार्य विनोबा भावे ! No wonder why he was so much respected as being an आचार्य

  • आचार्य विनोबा भावे also makes an interesting observation that तृतीया विभक्तिः employed for the words विद्यया and अविद्यया is actually to be interpreted as being पञ्चमी विभक्तिः । He even explains how such switching of विभक्तिः has been validated in other scriptures also.
  • Such nuances come to notice only when doing word-by-word study. Scriptures like ईशावास्योपनिषत् have to be studied as minutely.
  • The study has to be further carried forward in a spiritual pursuit. But I think one needs His grace to be able to make any progress on the spiritual path.

४.३ Both agree that “That”, which is explained by the sages to the ऋषि is “ईशतत्त्व” or “परमात्मतत्त्व” And “That” is of course different from “विद्या” and also different from “अविद्या”

४.४ Actually these connotations of “विद्या” and “अविद्या” as termed by श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and by आचार्य विनोबा भावे are mentioned by them in their commentaries on the previous नवमः मन्त्रः also. It was only my thinking that these connotations should rather be put forth for deliberation when discussing this दशमः मन्त्रः ।

४.५ This is only a glimpse of how an उपनिषत् becomes a philosophical heavy weight ! Such philosophical statements are admittedly beyond my capacity to make any more elaboration. The ऋषि himself says that this was explained to him by wise sages. To “realise” full import of such heavy-weight philosophical statements, one needs to progress very far on the path of spiritual pursuit. Honestly I do not know, whether I am even at the “start” point of that spiritual path.

शुभमस्तु |

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Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 66

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 66

संस्कृतभाषायाः   नूतनाध्ययनस्य  षट्-षष्टितमः  (६६) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, there was the mention of विद्याभ्यसनं व्यसनम् . There is a thought-provoking advice in ईशावास्योपनिषत् about what all should be learnt as विद्याभ्यसनम् The advice is in a triplet of मन्त्राः 9th 10th and 11th We shall have to study them one by one. Here is नवमः मन्त्रः –

अन्धं  तमः  प्रविशन्ति  येऽविद्यामुपासते  |

ततो भूय इव ते तमः य उ विद्यायां रताः || ९ ||

१ संधि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति ये अविद्यां उपासते ।

ततः भूयः इव ते तमः ये उ विद्यायां रताः || ९ ||

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

२.१  अन्धम्  “अन्ध” (= blind) इति विशेषणम्  | अत्र नपुम्सकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.२  तमः “तमस्” (= darkness) इति नपुम्सकलिङ्गि नाम |  तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.३ प्रविशन्ति “प्र + विश्” ६ प. (= to enter) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम्  |

२.४ ये  “यत्” (= he, it) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा  विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

२.५ अविद्याम्  |

  • २.५.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.५.२ न (= not) अव्ययम्  |
  • २.५.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणं “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” |
  • २.५.४ अविद्याम् “अविद्या” (= what should not be learnt) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.६ उपासते | ”उप + आस्”  २ आ. (= to sit near, to practice, to indulge in) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

२.७ ततः (= then, therefore, further, furthermore) अव्ययम् |

२.८ भूयः (= again, also) अव्ययम् |

२.९ इव (= as if, like that) अव्ययम् |

२.१० ते “तत्” (=he, it) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।

२.११ उ (= uh) अव्ययम् |

२.१२ विद्यायाम्  “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणं “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.१३ रताः “रम्” २ आ. (= to enjoy) इति धातुः | तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणं “रत” (= engaged) | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि |  तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

ये अविद्यां उपासते (ते) अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति | = those who indulge in what should not be learnt, enter blinding darkness.

ततः ये विद्यायां रताः उ ते भूयः तमः (प्रविशन्ति) इव | = Furthermore, those who are engaged in what should be learnt, uh ! they also (enter into) darkness of sorts!

४ टिप्पणयः  |

४.१ श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and आचार्य विनोबा भावे both call every stanza in ईशावास्योपनिषत् as “मन्त्रः”. Every syllable in a मन्त्र has a weightage मात्रा of its own ! Weightages are related to stress exerted and time spent in the pronunciation of the syllable. Weightages are three (1) unstressed अनुदात्त (2) stressed उदात्त or (3) elongated प्लुत Every syllable has to be pronounced by its appropriate weightage. In this manner every मन्त्र gets a rhythm of its own. The rhythm has the capacity to cause reverberations in all the surrounding environment. The reverberations have the capacity to “cleanse” the environment !

Every quotation in वेदाः is a मन्त्रः ।

An उपनिषत् is also called as वेदान्त. So every quotation in an उपनिषत् is also a मन्त्र.

ईशावास्योपनिषत् is वेदान्त of यजुर्वेद.

४.२ The ऋषि whosoever composed this ईशावास्योपनिषत् speaks in this मन्त्र ९ about two classes of people – (1) those who indulge in what should not be learnt and (2) those who stay engaged in what should be learnt. The मन्त्र is thought-provoking because the ऋषि makes the statement that both classes of people enter darkness. The statement is thought-provoking, especially because it says, those who stay engaged in what should be learnt also enter into darkness.

विनोबाजी interprets this as suggesting that one should know, at least for complete knowledge even that what should not be learnt.

I think the statement can be clearer with some example. I have thought of this example. How to stay healthy is something what should be learnt. Conversely how to fall sick is something which should not be learnt. But knowledge and practice of staying healthy will be incomplete without the knowledge of what makes us fall sick. So, knowledge of what should not be learnt yet becomes complimentary to the knowledge of what should be learnt. Maybe the proverb “Half knowledge is dangerous” has this logic only ! Knowing only what should be learnt becomes half knowledge.

How to stay healthy and what can make us fall sick are two sides, positive and negative, of the same field of knowledge. For complete knowledge there should be knowledge of both the sides.

Possibly a good example of positive and negative is in the field of photography. In old style of photography, they would put a film in the camera. Click of the camera would expose the film to light reflected by the object. “Developing” the exposed film would make a negative. The negative is used to expose another coated paper. Coating on this other coated paper would also suffer exposure. Washing the coating would reveal the positive image. Thus positive image emerges by intelligent use of the negative !!

All digital screens also, before images appear on them, are dark. That darkness, negativity becomes positive when images appear.

४.३ Complete, more comprehensive significance of this मन्त्र will emerge after studying the other two मन्त्र-s also.

शुभमस्तु |

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Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 65

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 65
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य पञ्च-षष्टितमः (६५) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson there was the mention of addictions व्यसनम् Here is a सुभाषितम् which gives a positive twist to the meaning of the word व्यसनम् –

व्यसनान्यत्र बहूनि व्यसनद्वयमेव केवलं व्यसनम् ।
विद्याभ्यसनं व्यसनं अथवा हरिपादसेवनं व्यसनम् ।।

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानाम् पदानि च दर्शयित्वा –

व्यसनानि अत्र बहूनि व्यसन-द्वयम् एव केवलं व्यसनम् ।
विद्या-अभ्यसनम्  व्यसनं अथवा हरि-पाद-सेवनं व्यसनम् ।।

२ समासानाम् विग्रहाः शब्दानाम् व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च –

२-१ व्यसनानि “वि + अस्” २ प (= to be addicted) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “व्यसन” (= addiction) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२-२ अत्र  (= here) अव्ययम् ।
२-३ बहूनि बहु (= many, multifold) इति अनिश्चित-संख्यावाचकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२-४ व्यसन-द्वयम् । 

  • २-४-१ व्यसनयोः द्वयम् = व्यसन-द्वयम् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-४-२ व्यसनयोः “वि + अस्” २ प (= to be addicted) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “व्यसन” (= addiction) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च ।
  • २-४-३ द्वयम् “द्वि” (= two) इति संख्यावाचकम् विशेषणम् । तस्मात् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “द्वय” (= pair, couplet) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-४-४ व्यसन-द्वयम् = a couplet of or a pair of addictions
२-५ एव (= only) अव्ययम् ।
२-६ केवलम् (= only) अव्ययम् ।
२-७ विद्याभ्यसनम्  । 

  • २-७-१ विद्यायाः अभ्यसनम् = विद्याभ्यसनम् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-७-२ विद्यायाः “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to understand, to learn) इति धातुः । तस्मात् विध्यर्थि स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “विद्या” (= addiction) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-७-३ अभ्यसनम् “अभि + अस्” २ प. (= to be at, to be wholesomely at, to focus at, to study) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “अभ्यसन” (= studying, learning) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-७-४ विद्याभ्यसनम् = to be addicted at studying, at learning, at gaining knowledge

२-८ अथवा (= or) अव्ययम् ।
२-९ हरि-पाद-सेवनम् ।

  • २-९-१ हरेः पादौ = हरिपादौ । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-९-२ हरिपादयोः सेवनम् = हरिपादसेवनम् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • २-९-३ हरेः “हृ” १ उ. (= to take, to take away, to lead) इति धातुः । तस्मात् कर्तृवाचकं पुल्लिङ्गि विशेषनाम “हरि” (= He who takes away (worldly miseries), Lord VishNu) । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-९-४ पादौ “पाद” (= foot) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च ।
  • २-९-५ हरिपादयोः “हरिपाद” (= foot of Lord VishNu) इति सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च ।
  • २-९-६ सेवनम् सेव् १ आ. (= to serve, to render service) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “सेवन” (= service, rendering service) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।
 

व्यसनानि अत्र बहूनि (सन्ति) । = There are many addictions (possible)
व्यसन-द्वयम् एव केवलं व्यसनम् । = Only a couple of addictions are (worthwhile)
विद्या-अभ्यसनम्  व्यसनं अथवा हरि-पाद-सेवनं व्यसनम् = Either addiction of study or addiction of service at Lord’s feet (should be the addictions).

४ टिप्पणयः ।

४-१ First, to find the meter of the verse –

व्यसनान्यत्र बहूनि । वर्णानां संख्या ८
१-१-२-२-१ १-२-२ कुलमात्राः १२
व्यसनद्वयमेव केवलं व्यसनम् । वर्णानां संख्या १४
१-१-२-१-१-२-१ २-१-२ १-१-२ कुलमात्राः १८
विद्याभ्यसनं व्यसनं । वर्णानां संख्या ८
२-२-१-१-२ १-१-२ कुलमात्राः १२
अथवा हरिपादसेवनं व्यसनम् । वर्णानां संख्या १३
१-१-२ १-१-२-१-२-१-२ १-१-२ कुलमात्राः १८

एतत् आर्या-वृत्तम् । Actually आर्या-वृत्तम्  has nine sub-divisions. Most common आर्या-वृत्तम् has १५ कुलमात्राः in the fourth line. Here we have १८.

४-२ By using the word व्यसनम् repetitively, the poet has struck a sweet rhythm ! Such adornment of repetitive sounds is called as अनुप्रासः This adornment is a शब्दालङ्कारः, because it uses शब्द (= sound) to adorn the poetry. 

४-३ The poet has said it all and said it so sweetly ! There should be nothing to add.

शुभमस्तु ।

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