Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 115

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य पञ्चदशाधिकशततमः (११५) पाठः ।

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्

Commenting on my previous Lesson No. 113, on आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः Shri. Shrinivas Tilak suggested that this quote कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् also merits a study.

It does. One common aspect in both these quotes is the word विश्व. This word in these and many other quotes in वेद-s more than establish that वेद-s always focused on Universal good. To think of वेद-s as scriptures of Hindus will hence be a narrow-minded view and will prevent universal benefit that can certainly happen from the wisdom advocated in the वेद-s .

In his extended comment Shri. Shrinivas Tilak also clarified …

कृण्वन्तो विश्वं आर्यम् occurs in Rigveda

  1. at 3:30.6 in a sukta composed by Vishvamitra. It is one of the six of his Sampat suktas. Here an appeal is made to Indra to render the entire cosmos ‘arya.’

  2. It also occurs at 9:63.5 in the Somasukta where an appeal is made to Soma to render the entire cosmos ‘Arya.’

As has been mentioned by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak the point to be dealt with is the interpretation of the word आर्य.

Since I have set the style of word-by-word analysis for posts at this blog, I should of course do that.

This quote is even shorter than the previous one. Just two words.

By पदच्छेद

कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् = कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्

So, now it becomes three words कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम्.

Going into word-by-word analysis

(1) कृण्वन्तः =

it is noted – (अ) धातुपाठसूच्याम् –

  1. कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ ||

  2. कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७ ||

  3. कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० ||

    • Study there was limited to कृ | त० अनिट् उ० | डुकृञ् करणे ८. १० because it was only this, which was relevant there.

    • However here, study of

      • कृ | भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८ and/or of

      • कृ | स्वा० अनिट् उ० | कृञ् हिंसायाम् ५. ७

      • becomes necessary, because the word here is कृण्वन्तः

    • Grammar of कृण्वन्तः is -कृञ् (कृ) धातुः | तस्मात् शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् कृण्वन् | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

      • The धातुः  for कृण्वन् is कृञ्, not the धातुः डुकृञ्. because शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् from धातुः डुकृञ् is कुर्वन्, not कृण्वन्.

  • It is smartness of पाणिनि to give different name to the same धातु, when it is in another गण. By that we can clearly say कृण्वन् is from कृञ् and कुर्वन् is from डुकृञ्

  • Although धातुपाठसूची enlists the धातु as भ्वा० अनिट् उ० | (कृञ् करणे)१. १०४८, this is not so detailed in बृहद्धातुरूपावलिः

  • In Apte’s dictionary also only 5 U. and 8 U. are mentioned and meaning of 5U. conforms to कृञ् हिंसायाम् as can be seen from this image –

  • The dilemma is

    • The meaning कृञ् हिंसायाम् does not at all fit the context of the quote under study.

    • कृञ् करणे is mentioned only in धातुपाठसूची obtained from http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/dhatupathaindex_sa.html.

    • Simple way to resolve the matter is to consider that कृण्वन्तः is Vedic usage in place of कुर्वन्तः with meaning identical to classical usage कुर्वन्तः

(2) विश्वं – विश्व is a pronoun in Sanskrit ! See in गणपाठ –

  • सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि १.१.२७

    • सर्वादि। सर्व। विश्व। उभ। उभय। डतर। डतम। अन्य। अन्यतर। इतर। त्वत्। त्व। नेम। सम। सिम।

  • विश्व being a सर्वनाम really prompts a question what is a सर्वनाम ?

    • As a compound word it can have a derivation विग्रहवाक्य – सर्वस्य नाम इति सर्वनाम (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)

  • Here विश्वं = “विश्व” (= ) इति सर्वनाम | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे –

    • विश्व (विश्-व उणादि 1-151)

      • उणादि 1-151 अशूप्रुषिलटिकणिखटिविशिभ्यः क्वन्

    • धातुः विश् धातुपाठसूच्याम् – विश् | तु० अनिट् प० | विश प्रवेशने ६. १६०

(3) आर्यम् –

  • Etymology given in Apte’s dictionary is ऋ-ण्यत्

    • So, it is from धातुः ऋ.

    • ण्यत् (य) = a termination प्रत्यय of potential passive participle as in कार्य, हास्य

  • धातुः ऋ, धातुपाठसूच्याम् –

    • ऋ | भ्वा० अनिट् प० | ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६ ||

    • ऋ | जु० अनिट् प० | ऋ- [गतौ]३. १७ ||

    • ऋ | स्वा० सेट् प० | ऋ [हिंसायाम्][इत्येके]५. ३८ |

  • बृहद्धातुरूपावल्याम् – (१) तत्र धातुकोशे –

      • Interesting to note – अर्यः स्वामिवैश्ययोः | आर्यो ब्राह्मणः |

    • (२) धातुरूपावल्याम् –

    • Here also see  –

      • footnote for अर्यः १० स्वामी वैश्यो वा

      • footnote for आर्यः ११ स्वामिवैश्याभ्यामन्यत्र

  • Basically अर्य / आर्य is from धातुः ऋ and is similar to कार्य from कृ.

  • धातुः ऋ and आर्य are detailed in Apte’s dictionary as follows –


With all above details simple word by word meaning of कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् becomes –

कृण्वन्तः = those, making

विश्वं = the whole world

आर्यम् = noble

कृण्वन्तः विश्वं आर्यम् = those, making the whole world noble

The phrase does not have an explicit subject and predicate.

Considering the context explained by Shri. Shrinivas Tilak, as a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively, subject and predicate become explicit by adding भवन्तु

Note –

भवन्तु = भू इति धातुः | तस्य आज्ञार्थे (लोटि) प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

भवन्तु is प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्.

For this verb, there are options for कर्तृपदं as – ते, ताः, तानि and भवन्तः.

  • ते, ताः, तानि = They

  • भवन्तः = You (plural of respectful second person masculine pronoun भवान्)

Being a prayer, the कर्तृपदं should be भवन्तः = You

भवन्तु = May you be

भवन्तः i.e. इन्द्र or सोम connote the Supreme Powers. By कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् we pray to them “… May you be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

When reading the quote independently, there can be another option to make the subject and predicate explicit by adding भवेम (= Let us all be)

Note –

भवेम = भू इति धातुः | तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

अन्वयः – विश्वं आर्यम् कृण्वन्तः भवेम

भवेम is already उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम्. Hence कर्तृपदं is वयम् only.

With this, the meaning of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम् becomes “… Lets us all be those, making the whole world noble ..”.

The basic concept is of whole world noble विश्वमार्यम् ! means nothing ignoble, no negativity of any type, any time, anywhere !

Whole world noble, has to of course include oneself and include everyone else, even every other being.

  • Hindu Gods and Goddesses have been caricatured to be congenial to all sorts of creatures, even venomous cobra, worn around the neck by शिव, The gigantic serpent शेष being the couch for विष्णु. Mouse a rodent being the carrier of गणेश, Maybe, this is all symbolism. If it is symbolism, all the more the reason to delve deeper and understand the meaningfulness of all this symbolism.

विश्वमार्यम् means no negativity. Negativity of human character has been delineated, with mention six enemies षड्रिपु-s, which make the character negative – काम, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, मद, मत्सर

काम = desire

क्रोध = anger

लोभ = greed

मोह = distraction, fallibility

मद = ego

मत्सर = jealousy

For विश्वमार्यम् to come true, cleansing of character has to begin with oneself !

The word आर्य has been associated also with the Aryan tribe or race, which is said to have descended from the Arctic region and spread around the world, one stream moving into Europe, another into Arabian Gulf and yet another into Indian subcontinent across the हिन्दुकुश ranges.

  • Lokmanya Tilak is said to have concluded it to be so, in his book Orion or Arctic Home in the Vedas

  • Based on similar hypothesis, Adolf Hitler is said to have adopted स्वस्तिक (unfortunately in anticlockwise direction) on the shoulders of his military uniform.

  • I think, Shah of Iran, who was made to flee Iran, had, in the long array of his regal titles, one title as आर्यमिहिर

But such meaning of आर्य, being the name of a tribe or race, does not fit to the context of कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्, being a prayer to इन्द्र and सोम respectively.

One must go by the nobler meaning, obtaining from grammar and etymology, that आर्य is ऋ-ण्यत् an adjective derived from ऋ and meaning noble.

शुभं भवतु |