Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 3

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach
Lesson 3
Also see YouTube videos Part 1 at <https://youtu.be/EelDNkhPLtc> and Part 2 at <https://youtu.be/kho2Aeu8MYg>
 
Glossary 3
No. English Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 in post-rainy season sharadi शरदि
2 no, not, does not na
3 rains varShati वर्षति
4 thunders garjati गर्जति
5 during rainy season varShAsu वर्षासु
6 quiet, noiseless niH-svanaH नि:स्वनः
7 cloud meghaH मेघः
8* noiseless cloud niHsvano meghaH निःस्वनो मेघः
9 mean-minded, lowly neechaH नीचः
10 talks, prattles vadati वदति
11* (the) lowly prattles neecho vadati नीचो वदति
12 does kurute कुरुते
13 good person,
gentleman
sujanaH सुजनः
14 does karoti करोति
15 only eva एव
16* does only karotyeva करोत्येव

Here we have three conjugations. The conjugated phrases are marked by *

(6) + (7) = (8) नि:स्वनः + मेघः = निःस्वनो मेघः

(9) + (10) = (11) नीचः + वदति = नीचो वदति

(14) + (15) = (16) करोति + एव = करोत्येव

 

In the first two conjugations two words haven’t really merged into each other. But the visarga (:) at the ending of the first word has become ओ
निःस्वन् + अः –> निःस्वन् + ओ = निःस्वनो
नीच् + अः –> नीच् + ओ = नीचो
 

In the third one करोति + एव = करोत् + इ + एव = करोत् + य् + एव = करोत्येव

Here vowel इ merges into vowel ए to become य् + ए. Then we have merging of त् + य् + ए becoming त्ये
There is no need to become unduly over-conscientious of this explanation of the third one. Even if you say करोति एव, करोति एव at some speed, you will realise that it does become करोत्येव. So, rules of conjugation are all logical and natural. Thanks to the sages like PaaNinee that naturally happening pronunciations also have been refined, structured into rules. The very name of the language “Sanskrit” means refined. It is these refinements which have made the language chaste. There is no other language in the world, which can match the chastity of Sanskrit.
Word #15 एव is not new. It was there in glossary 1. It is repeated just for the sake of convenience.

 

Exercises 3
From the words 1 to 16 in the glossary, prepare the following phrases –

 

No. Phrase Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 cloud, in post-rainy season, not, rains, thunders __________  __________ ___________ __________  __________  _________
2 quiet (noiseless) cloud, during rainy season, rains
__________  ___________  ________ __________  __________  ________
3 the lowly person, prattles, not, does __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________
4 not, talks, gentleman, does only __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________

 

In the glossary, you have the word “cloud” only once. You have to use it both in phrases (1) and (2). Likewise the word “not” is to be used at three places.

For the English word “does” we have in the glossary two Sanskrit words कुरुते and  करोति. They are interchangeable. Or even any one of the two can be used at both the places. But to keep the matter simple, in phrase 3, I have put “does” independently after “not”. In phrase 4, I have put it together “does only” as in the glossary. Use the glossary. So you will know which fits better where.

Now you can write down two-two phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good two-line verse, a good saying a सुभाषितम् !!

 

Here it is, how it reads –

sharadi na varShati garjati varShati varShAsu niHsvano meghaH

neecho vadati na kurute na vadati sujanaH karotyeva

शरदि न वर्षति गर्जति वर्षति वर्षासु निःस्वनो मेघः ।

नीचो वदति न कुरुते न वदति सुजनः करोत्येव ॥

 

Say it aloud. You will appreciate what musical rhythm is built in here by the poet, having composed it with quite some Onamatopoeia. Doesn’t that make it so easy to commit it to memory ? And there is of course a message, a moral, explained with an example of a very commonplace experience. To derive moral out of a commonplace experience is again refinement. Language itself is a refined language. Poetry shall of course be !

I am sure you will like this good saying सुभाषितम्. Learn it by heart.

 

You may think that for every lesson, I advise, “Learn it by heart”. But this is all poetry, music and easy knowledge, wisdom, eternal wisdom, saturated and condensed in such short verses. Why not learn it by heart ?

More the wisdom you have within your memory bank, wiser you will be. So learning Sanskrit is not just learning another language. It is enriching ourselves with all that wisdom you have in the literature of Sanskrit. That is my basic idea of “Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach”. How do you like that ?

Also, once you remember the verses, your vocabulary is also automatically building up. You do not have to make any separate effort to mug up words and their meanings. If the verse is understood along with its meaning, it is so many birds in one stone!

 

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

 

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 2

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 2
Glossary 2
No. English Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 industriousness,
diligence
udyamaH उद्यमः
2 grit to explore sAhasam साहसम्
3 boldness dhairyam धैर्यम्
4 intellect buddhiH बुद्धिः
5 strength shaktiH शक्तिः
6 capacity to fight and win parAkramaH पराक्रमः
7 six ShaT षट्
8 these e-te एते
9 these six ShaDete षडेते
10 where yatra यत्र
11 are present, exist var-tan-te वर्तन्ते
12 there tatra तत्र
13 God devaH देव:
14 helpful sahAyya-kRut सहाय्यकृत्

From 7, 8 and 9 we notice that षट् + एते = षडेते  When two words are in succession of each other, it becomes natural during pronunciation, that the ending of the first word and the beginning of the next word will merge. Such merging of sounds is called as conjugation

15 conjugation sandhiH सन्धि:

 

There were three conjugations already in Lesson 1.
1.  त्वम् + एव = त्वमेव
2.  बन्धुः + च = बन्धुश्च
3.  शुभम् + अस्तु = शुभमस्तु
Conjugations are logical and natural, aren’t they ?

Word #13 is not new. It was there in glossary 1. There, it was just  देव, because it was in Address case, to say there, “Oh God”. Here it is in Nominative Case. प्रथमा विभक्तिः Hence देव:
 
16 Address sambodhanam सम्बोधनम्
17 case vibhaktiH विभक्तिः
18 Address case sambodhan-vibhaktiH सम्बोधन-विभक्तिः
19 first prathamA प्रथमा
20 Nominative or
subjective case
prathamA vibhatiH प्रथमा विभक्तिः

Exercises 2
From the words 1 to 14 in the glossary, prepare the following phrases –

No. Phrase Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 Industriousness, grit to explore,
boldness
__________  __________ ___________ __________  __________  _________
2 intellect, strength, capacity to
fight and win
__________  ___________  ________ __________  __________  ________
3 these six where exist __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________
4 there God helpful __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________

Now you can write down two phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good two-line verse, a good saying !!

21 a good saying subhAShitam सुभाषितम्

Here it is how it reads –

udyamaH sAhasam dhairyam buddhiH shaktiH parAkramaH

ShaDete yatra vartante tatra devaH sahAyya-kRut

उद्यमः साहसं धैर्यं बुद्धिः शक्तिः पराक्रमः ।

षट् एते यत्र वर्तन्ते तत्र देवः सहाय्यकृत् ॥

I am sure you will like this good saying सुभाषितम्. Learn it by heart.

In Sanskrit there are thousands of such “good sayings”. Would it not be charming and impressive, if you can quote them verbatim? And they are so crisp verses, all pearls of wisdom !! That is one very good and strong reason, why one should learn Sanskrit.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

 

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 1

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach
Lesson 1
Glossary 1
No. English Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 You tvam त्वम्
2 only eva एव
3 you only tvameva त्वमेव
4 mother mAtA माता
5 and cha
6 father pitA पिता
7 brother bandhuH बन्धुः
8 friend sakhA सखा
9 knowledge vidyA विद्या
10 wealth draviNam द्रविणं
11 all, everything sarvam सर्वं
12 of me mama मम
13 Oh God deva देव

Exercises 1
From the above glossary, prepare the following phrases –

No. Phrase Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 You only mother __________  __________ __________  __________
2 and Father you only __  _______  ________ __  _______  ________
3 You only brother and __________  __________  ___ __________  __________  ___
4 friend you only __________  __________ __________  __________
5 You only knowledge __________  __________ __________  __________
6 Wealth you only __________  __________ __________  __________
7 You only everything of me __________  __________   ________ __________  __________   ________
8 Oh God ! Oh God __________  __________ __________  __________

Now you can write down two phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good four-line verse, a good prayer !!

I am sure you will like this prayer. Learn it by heart.

Now you have learnt a prayer, of which you also know the meaning.

Say it by yourself whenever and wherever you like. Maybe you can meditate with this prayer.

If someone prays to God, calling Him mother, father, brother, friend, knowledge, wealth, everything, very earnestly, He will answer!!

You may find this prayer on the internet in Devanagari. You would find one small difference.

OK, let me give that to you here itself. In phrase 3, you will find that  बन्धुः च is written as बन्धुश्च. That difference is simple and logical.

बन्धुः + च (bandhuH + cha = bandhush-cha). Hence, बन्धुश्च

A vertical line at the end of each line (।) is really the “full stop” in Devanagari. Two vertical lines (॥) denote the end of a stanza.

Do you really need a “key” to the exercise 1 ?

Anyway, here it is –

tvameva mAtA cha pitA tvameva
tvameva bandhush-cha sakhA tvameva
tvameva vidyA draviNam tvameva
tvameva sarvam mama deva deva
त्वमेव माता च पिता त्वमेव ।
त्वमेव बन्धुश्च सखा त्वमेव ।
त्वमेव विद्या द्रविणं त्वमेव ।
त्वमेव सर्वं मम देव देव ॥
शुभमस्तु (शुभम् + अस्तु) ।
Blissful shubham शुभम्
be it astu अस्तु
Blissful be it shubhamastu शुभमस्तु

-o-O-o-