Lesson 130

श्लोकशः संस्कृताध्ययने शताधिकत्रिंशत्तमः पाठः |

Lesson 130 in Learning Sanskrit by श्लोक-s

यदचेतनोऽपि पादैः स्पृष्टः प्रज्वलति सवितुरिनकान्तः

तत्तेजस्वी पुरुषः परकृतविकृतिं कथं सहते

Reading the श्लोक would be smooth by knowing the meter. For knowing the meter we must do prosody-analysis. For prosody-analysis, the four quarters should be identified. Identifying the quarters comes natural if one would read the verse letter by letter and word by word. One would experience while reading, a natural pause, which would be the end of a quarter. I got quarters as below when reading this श्लोक  

यदचेतनोऽपि पादैः

(112)(121)(22) = 12 मात्राः

स्पृष्टः प्रज्वलति सवितुरिनकान्तः

(222)(111)(111)(112)2 = 18 मात्राः

तत्तेजस्वी पुरुषः

(222)(2112) = 12 मात्राः

परकृतविकृतिं कथं सहते

(111)(111)(2 12)(112) = 15 मात्राः

Because the quarters are not equal, it becomes good to do assessment of only the मात्रा-s. Count of the मात्रा-s shows that it conforms to

यस्याः पादे प्रथमे |

द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

अष्टादश द्वितीये |

चतुर्थके पञ्चदश साऽऽर्या ||

So it is आर्या meter here.

(A) पदच्छेदैः – यत् अचेतनः अपि पादैः स्पृष्टः प्रज्वलति सवितुः इनकान्तः तत् तेजस्वी पुरुषः परकृतविकृतिम् कथम् सहते

(B) सामासिकशब्दानां विग्रहाः

(B-1) अचेतनः – न चेतनः इति अचेतनः (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)

  • चेतन a. (-नी f.) [चित् -ल्यु] 1 Animate, alive, living, sentient, feeling; चेतनाचेतनेषु Me.5 animate and inanimate. -2 Visible, conspicuous, distinguished. -नः 1 A sentient being, a man. -2 Soul, mind. -3 The supreme soul. -4 An animal in general. -ना 1 Sense, consciousness;

(B-2) इनकान्तः – इनेन कान्तः इति इनकान्तः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)

  • इन a. 1 Able, strong, powerful, mighty. -2 Bold, determined. -3 Glorious. -नः 1 A lord, master. लोके भवाञ्जगदिनः कलयावतीर्णः Bhāg.1.7.27. -2 The sun; तपत्विनः Śi.2.65. भजति कल्पमिनः प्रतिपद्ययम् Rām. Ch.4.21. (cf. इनो भागो धामनिधिरंशुमाल्यब्जिनीपतिः Ak. -3 A king; न न महीनमहीनपराक्रमम् R.9.5. -4 The lunar mansion Hasta. -Comp. -कान्तः sunstone (सूर्यकान्त); Bh.2.37. यदचेतनो$ पि पादैः स्पृष्टः प्रज्वलति सवितुरिनकान्तः. -सभम् a royal court or assembly. P.II.4.23
  • कान्तः – कान्त p. p. [कम्-क्त] 1 Desired, favourite, loved, dear; कान्तं क्रतुं चाक्षुषम् M.1.4. -2 Pleasing, agreeable; भीमकान्तैर्नृपगुणैः R.1.16. -3 Lovely, beautiful; सर्वः कान्तमात्मीयं पश्यति Ś.2. -तः 1 A lover. -2 A husband; कान्तोदन्तः सुहृदुपगतः संगमात् किंचिदूनः Me.12; Śi.1.3, 29. -3 Any beloved person. -4 The moon. -5 The spring. -6 A kind of iron. -7 A precious stone (in comp. with सूर्य, चन्द्र and अयस्). -8 An epithet of (1) Kārttikeya, (2) Kṛiṣṇa.
  • इनकान्तः = solar photovoltaic substance ?
    • Also, some interesting information about phosphorus “  White phosphorus is the least stable, the most reactive, the most volatile, the least dense, and the most toxic of the allotropes. It gradually changes to red phosphorus, a transformation accelerated by light and heat”.
    • In one English translation of this सुभाषितम् the word इनकान्तः has been translated as “jasper” See “..When even an inanimate object like jasper becomes hot with the touch of sun beams, then how can a brilliant man brook any affront from others ? ..”

(B-3) परकृतविकृतिम् – परकृतविकृतिः इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि सामासिकशब्दः | तस्य द्वितीयैकवचनम् |

  • परेण कृता इति परकृता (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः)
  • परकृता विकृतिः इति परकृतविकृतिः (कर्मधारयः)
    • विकृतिः = विपरीता कृतिः = inappropriate behaviour.

(C) विशिष्टशब्दानां विवेचनम्

(C-1) स्पृष्टः – स्पृश् (6 प.) To touch ⇒ क्त-कृदन्तम् स्पृष्ट | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमैकवचनम् |

(C-2) प्रज्वलति – प्र+ज्वल् (1 प.) To become hot ⇒ लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(C-3) सवितुः – सवितृ ⇒ षष्ठ्यैकवचनम्

  • सवितृ a. (-त्री f.) [सू-तृच्] Generating, producing, yielding; सवित्री कामानां यदि जगति जागर्ति भवती G. L.23. -m. 1 The sun; अनन्यदृष्टिः सवितारमैक्षत Ku.5.2; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च K. P.7.

(C-4) तेजस्वी – तेजस्विन्  ⇒ पुँ. प्रथमैकवचनम् |

  • तेजस्विन् a. (-नी f.) 1 Brilliant, bright. -2 Powerful, heroic, strong; न तेजस्तेजस्वी प्रसृतमपरेषां विषहते U.6.14; Ki.16.16. -3 Dignified, noble. -4 Famous, illustrious. -5 Violent; Bṛi. S.11.2. -6 Haughty. -7 Lawful.

(C-5) पुरुषः – पुरुष ⇒ पुँ. प्रथमैकवचनम् |

  • पुरुषः [पुरि देहे शेते शी-ड पृषो˚ Tv.; पुर्-अग्रगमने कुषन् Uṇ. 4.74] 1 A male being, man; अर्थतः पुरुषो नारी या नारी सार्थतः पुमान् Mk.3.27; Ms.1.32;7.17;9.2; R.2.41. -2 Men, mankind.

(C-6) सहते – सह् (1 आ.) ⇒ लटि प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • सह् I. 4 P. (सह्यति) 1 To satisfy. -2 To be pleased. -3 To endure, bear. -II. 1 Ā. (सहते, epic Paras. also; सोढ; the स् of सह् is changed to ष् after prepositions ending in ह, as नि, परि, वि, except when ह् is changed for ढ्) 1 (a) To bear, endure, suffer, put up with.

(D) अन्वयाः अन्वयार्थाश्च

  1. यत् सवितुः पादैः स्पृष्टः इनकान्तः अचेतनः अपि प्रज्वलति  
    1. यत् = Fact being that
    2. सवितुः पादैः स्पृष्टः = touched by the feet of the Sun
    3. इनकान्तः = the sun-stone
    4. अचेतनः अपि = despite being non-living
    5. प्रज्वलति = becomes hot
  2. तत् तेजस्वी पुरुषः परकृतविकृतिम् कथम् सहते
    1. तत् = then
    2. कथम् = how
    3. तेजस्वी पुरुषः = a meritorious person
    4. सहते = (would) bear
    5. परकृतविकृतिम् = inappropriate treatment by others ?

(E) टिप्पण्यः Notes

  1. This सुभाषितम् is a good example of दृष्टान्तालङ्कारः a figure of speech, in which a hypothesis is explained by an example. The hypothesis is “Would (/should) a meritorious person bear inappropriate treatment by others ?” The example दृष्टान्त is that even a sun-stone, an inanimate object becomes hot (angry), when touched by sun by His feet. Any person causing another to be touched by his feet is disrespectful behaviour. Here, behaviour of the sun is considered as a disrespectful behaviour.
    1. As per English idiom, the figure of speech here can be called as personification. The sun-stone is inanimate. Its property of getting hot due to sun-rays is personified to a person feeling offended and getting angry. Even sun-rays are called as feet of the sun. So, the sun is also personified. Any person causing another to be touched by his feet is disrespectful behaviour. Here, sun-rays, feet of the sun, touching the sun-stone, is considered inappropriate behaviour of the sun unto the sun-stone. The sun-stone feels offended and becomes hot.  
  2. The सुभाषितम् is also a good advice about self-respect. I was highly impressed by the Japanese etiquette of exchanging business cards. Japanese Etiquette about business cardsThe etiquette is a marvelous combination of both self-respect and respect unto others.
  3. In the detailing I got in Apte’s dictionary for the word तेजस्विन्, there is a quote न तेजस्तेजस्वी प्रसृतमपरेषां विषहते U.6.14 (उत्तररामचरितम् Act 6 Verse 14). That verse seems to be a सुभाषितम् by itself and with identical purport as in this सुभाषितम्. It would be good to study that in the next lesson.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

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