Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकविंशत्यधिकशततमः (१२१) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, we saw how verses in Sanskrit had mathematics encoded in them. Here is another style of encoding of numbers.

भास्कराचार्य well-known Indian mathematician and astronomer lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was also well-versed in Sanskrit prosody, so much so, that he recorded his year of birth and the year of his composing his book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी in a verse –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

Whereas in the verse in the previous lesson, numbers were encoded by letters, in this verse numbers are encoded by words.

रस = 6, Note, रस means ‘taste’. Tastes are six, Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, Pungent, and Astringent.

गुण = 3 Note, गुण means ‘characteristics’, which are three सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्

पूर्ण = 0 Note, पूर्ण means ‘complete’. पूर्ण is connoted to mean zero, because zero makes the set of numbers complete.

मही = 1 Note, मही means ‘earth’. Earth is only one.

To decipher the verse by the usual sequence –

(1) पदच्छेदैः

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये अभवत् मम उत्पत्तिः ।

रसगुणवर्षेण मया सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

(2) शब्दानां विश्लेषणानि

(2-1) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये This is a compound word having 8 component words viz. रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही, सम, शक, नृप and समय. There have to be विग्रह-s, the statements to detail interrelation among the component words.

  • (2-1-1) रसः च गुणः च पूर्णं च मही च एतेषां द्वन्द्वेन रसगुणपूर्णमह्यः (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
    • The words रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही connote numbers as noted above.
    • Since numbers have digits, values of which increase leftward by increasing power of 10, (starting from 0-th power of 10 at the unit’s place), numerical values of रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही have to be taken leftwards. So Sanskrit rule for placing numbers by their digital value is अङ्कानां वामतो गतिः
    • So the year connoted by रस, गुण, पूर्ण, मही when read leftwards becomes 1036.
  • (2-1-2) रसगुणपूर्णमहीभिः समः रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) means ‘equal to रसगुणपूर्णमही’
  • (2-1-3) शकनृपसमयः =
    • शकः येन (कृतः) सः नृपः शकनृपः (बहुव्रीहिः) = King who started counting of time
    • शकनृपेण (प्रचालितः) समयः शकनृपसमयः (मध्यमपदलोपी) = time (actually the year), the counting was started by the king. This refers to King Shalivahan, who started the system of counting of time, wherein every year is called as a शक or as शालिवाहनशक. This was about 78 AD. So year of शालिवाहनशक is approximately 78 years less than the Christian. Presently in 2015, from 21st March to be precise, शालिवाहनशक is 1937
  • (2-1-4) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमः शकनृपसमयः इति रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमयः (कर्मधारयः)
  • (2-1-5) रसगुणपूर्णमहीसमशकनृपसमये = In शालिवाहनशक 1036, i.e. in (1036 + 78 =) 1114 AD

(2-2) अभवत् – भू (1 प.) इति धातुः | भू सत्तायाम् (= to be, to become, to happen) तस्य लङ्-लकारे (अनद्यतनभूते) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

(2-3) मम – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-4) उत्पत्तिः – उत् + पत् (1 प.) इति धातुः | तस्मात् क्तिच्-प्रत्ययेन स्त्रीलिङ्गी संज्ञा | तस्याः प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-5) रसगुणवर्षेण – This again is a compound word, having 3 component words – रस, गुण and वर्ष.

  • (2-5-1) रसः च गुणः च रसगुणौ (इतरेतर-द्वन्द्वः)
  • (2-5-2) रसगुणाभ्यां वर्षम् यस्य सः रसगुणवर्षः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (2-5-3) From the encoding detailed at (2-1-1), रसगुणवर्षः = one, who is 36 years old

(2-6) मया – अस्मद् (= pronoun of first person उत्तमपुरुष) इति सर्वनाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(2-7) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – This compound word has 4 component words – सिद्ध्, अन्त, शिरस् and मणिः

  • (2-7-1) सिद्धः अन्तः यस्मिन् सः सिद्धान्तः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • सिद्धः – सिध् (4 प.) इति धातुः | षिधु संराद्धौ (= to be accomplished, to be attained, to be fulfilled) | तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “सिद्ध्” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • अन्तः = end, the ultimate, the truth, aim, goal, objective, what is unarguable
    • सिद्धान्तः = Statement in which unarguable truth is accomplished, a definitive statement
  • (2-7-2) शिरसि मणिः शिरोमणिः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • शिरसि – शिरस् (= head) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मणिः – a jewel
  • (2-7-3) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी – सिद्धान्तैः शिरोमणिः इव (अयं ग्रन्थः) सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी
    • Book, which has become like a jewel (in the crown) by virtue of definitive statements.
    • Probably भास्कराचार्य named his work as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, with the idea that सिद्धान्त-s should be worn on the head (in the head ?) as adorably as a jewel.
    • By this token the compound word सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी can as well be deciphered as
  • (2-7-4) सिद्धान्तानां (समुच्चयः) शिरोमणिः इव यस्य सः सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी (Note, here प्रातिपदिकम् to be taken as सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिन् The suffix इन् connotes (सिद्धान्तशिरोमणिः) अस्य अस्ति इति one who owns it. So, everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी !

(2-8) रचितः – रच् (10 उ.) इति धातुः | रच प्रतियत्ने (= to compose, to arrange, to devise) तस्मात् क्त-कृदन्तम् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “रचित” | अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

(3) Overall Meaning – I was born in the शालिवाहनशक 1036 and I composed सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी when I was 36 years old.

(4) चतुष्पादात्मकं वृत्तविश्लेषणम् Meter of the verse by study of its four quarters –

रसगुणपूर्णमहीसम –

१-१-१-१-२-१-१-२-१-१ = १२ मात्राः

शकनृपसमयेऽभवन्ममोत्पत्तिः ।

१-१-१-१-१-१-२ १-२-१-२-२-२ = १८ मात्राः

रसगुणवर्षेण मया

१-१-१-१-२-२-१ १-२ = १२ मात्राः

सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी रचितः ||

२-२-१-१-२-१-२ १-१-२ = १५ मात्राः

This is आर्यावृत्तम्. Note –

यस्याः पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रास्तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

अष्टादश द्वितीये पञ्चदश चतुर्थके आर्या ||

(5) टिप्पण्यः Notes

(5-1) One is left to wonder what treasure of knowledge is left codified in which all Sanskrit literature.

  • We studied in the previous lesson how a single verse is as good a praise of both श्रीकृष्ण and शिव and also a value of pie to 32 digits.
  • There is a verse which is a solution to such moves of the rook on a chessboard, that one starts on a particular square and returns to the same square.
  • Dr. Sampadanand Mishra compiled a book “The Wonder that is Sanskrit” ISBN 81-7060-182-7 (Sri Aurobindo Society).

(5-2) The book सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी itself has four parts – Part (1) लीलावती covers Arithmetic and Geometry. Part (2) बीजगणितम् covers Algebra. Parts (3) ग्रहगणिताध्यायः and (4) गोलाध्यायः cover calculations related to the astronomy, i.e. motions and relative motions of planets, etc.

  • (5-2-1) It is said that सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, say, until Indian education system was overhauled by British educationists like Macaulay. One can get some interesting reading about this at http://www.historydiscussion.net/articles/spreading-of-western-education-during-british-rule/2065
  • It comes to mind that if सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी was the text-book of mathematics all across India for nearly 700 years, there must be great value there. I wish I shall be able to deal with at least Parts (1) and (2) at https://ganitabhyas.wordpress.com/
  • If भास्कराचार्य intended that everyone who masters सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी becomes a सिद्धान्तशिरोमणी, may it so happen !

शुभमस्तु !!!

-o-O-o-

 

One thought on “Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 121

  1. amazing info. thanks gor sharing
    i still struggling with the basics.
    I missed the beginning lessons. can it be repeated

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