Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 109

Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 109
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य नवाधिकशततमः (१०९) पाठः ।

We shall continue with verses सुभाषितानि 8 to 11 having हंसः the swan as the main theme and compiled in a chapter in the textbook for कोविद – examination of the सरल-संस्कृत-शिक्षा-series of भारतीय-विद्या-भवन.

अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासमेव । हंसस्य हन्ति नितरां कुपितो विधाता । न त्वस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् । वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिमपहर्तुमसौ समर्थः ।।८।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् एव । हंसस्य हन्ति नितरां कुपितः विधाता । न तु अस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् । वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिम् अपहर्तुम् असौ समर्थः ।।८।।
अन्वयेन – (यद्यपि) कुपितः विधाता हंसस्य अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् एव नितरां हन्ति (तथापि) अस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिम् अपहर्तुम् तु असौ समर्थः  न ।
Translation – Providence when upset with a swan may affect the swan’s enjoyment in (swimming in) a crowd of lotuses. But (the providence) cannot take away the famous faculty of the swans to separate milk and water.

Notes –

  1. अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् is an interesting compound word having 12 letters
    • The word has four components – अम्भोजिनी-वन-विहार-विलासम्
      • अम्भोजिनीनां वनम् = अम्भोजिनीवनम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
        • अम्भोजिनी is feminine of अम्भोज
        • अम्भोज is itself a compound word अम्भसि जायते इति (what grows in water, especially the lotus) अम्भोजम् (ज = जायते इति उपपदम्) । अतः उपपद-तत्पुरुषः अत्र ।
      • अम्भोजिनीवने विहारः = अम्भोजिनीवनविहारः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
      • अम्भोजिनीवनविहारः एव विलासः = अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासः (कर्मधारयः) –>तम् इति अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासम् (द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।)
  2. अम्भोजिनीवनविहारविलासमेव (१४ वर्णाः २-२-१-२-१-१-१-२-१-१-२-१-२-(२) = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः ) । हंसस्य हन्ति नितरां कुपितो विधाता (१४ वर्णाः २-२-१ २-१ १-१-२ १-१-२ १-२-२ = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः) । न त्वस्य दुग्धजलभेदविधौ प्रसिद्धाम् । वैदग्ध्यकीर्तिमपहर्तुमसौ समर्थः ।
    • अत्र वसन्ततिलका-वृत्तम् । अस्य लक्षणपदम् – उक्ता वसंततिलका तभजा जगौ गः ।
  3. The poet has thought it fit to repeat the meaning of fame in two words कीर्ति and प्रसिद्धा.
  4. Overall moral of the सुभाषितम् seems to be that inborn faculties are forever. One should focus on such faculties. 
    • Even God is incapable of taking away inborn faculties अपहर्तुम् असौ समर्थः  न.
    • In modern management parlance also, to focus on “core strengths” is advocated to be a good corporate strategy for growth.
    • I had read long time back a story. One person set up a saw-mill. That succeeded. Then he went on setting up saw-mill after saw-mill. Once his friend asked him, “if you want to expand your business, there would be many other investment options also. Why do you go on setting up saw-mill after saw-mill ?” The saw-mill owner however replied, “I know this business of saw-mills the best.”
—verse 8—

भृङ्गाङ्गनाजनमनोहरहारिनीत- । राजीवरेणुकणकीर्णपिशङ्गतोयाम् । रम्यां हिमाचलनदीं प्रविहाय हंस । हे हे हताश वद कां दिशमुत्सुकोऽसि ।।९।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोयाम् । रम्यां हिमाचलनदीं प्रविहाय हंस । हे हे हताश वद कां दिशम् उत्सुकः असि ।।९।।
अन्वयेन – हे हे हताश हंस, वद, भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोयाम् रम्यां हिमाचलनदीं प्रविहाय कां (अन्यां) दिशम् (गन्तुं) उत्सुकः असि ?
Before proceeding with translation of the verse, one must decipher the meaning of the long word – भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोयाम् = अयं निम्नमिव त्रयोदशपदी सामासिकः शब्दः (This compound word has 13 components as follows.) The word is spread across two quarters of the verse. Rather, two quarters of the verse are made up by a single word having (14*2 = 28 letters).

  1. भृङ्ग = Honey bee
  2. अङ्गना = female
  3. जन = people
  4. मनो = mind
  5. हर = to extract
  6. हारि = extracting
  7. नीत = (past passive participle) carried
  8. राजीव = blue lotus flower
  9. रेणु = pollen of flowers
  10. कण = particle
  11. कीर्ण = strewn
  12. पिशङ्ग = brackish
  13. तोयाम् = तोया = तोयं अस्याः (एवं पिशङ्गम्) अस्ति –> ताम्
With above meanings of all the component words, there is still some challenge to write विग्रह-s to relate all components with each other. I wonder whether it is easier to work by parts.
  • राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोया = (River) that has its water become brackish due to the pollen of blue lotus flowers strewn
  • हारि-नीत = (the pollen) extracted and carried by
  • जन-मनो-हर = extracting the minds of people, enchanting the minds of people, pleasing to people
  • भृङ्ग-अङ्गना = female of honey-bee
  • By putting together the meanings by parts, one gets
    • (River) that has its water become brackish due to the pollen extracted, carried and strewn, by female(s) of honey-bee, from blue lotus flowers, which (are) pleasing to people
    • In deriving this meaning of भृङ्ग-अङ्गना-जन-मनो-हर-हारि-नीत-राजीव-रेणु-कण-कीर्ण-पिशङ्ग-तोया, I have indulged in some transposition of words and phrases from their order in the meanings of parts.
      • The part हारि-नीत is more closely connected with भृङ्ग-अङ्गना than with जन-मनो-हर and
      • राजीव is better connected with जन-मनो-हर than with हारि-नीत.
    • I hope, this transposition is okay.

Actually swans can be found only in lakes, that is in placid waters, not in flowing waters as of rivers. There again, rivers such as Brahmaputra in Himalayan region have large downfalls प्रपात-s. How can swans be there in such waters ? Even when granting that poets can fancy even impracticable ideas, highly twisted and complex composition and highly impracticable ideas make the verse unpalatable in my opinion. There is no great moral either implicit in the verse.

—verse 9—

हंसः प्रयाति शनकैर्यदि यातु तस्य । नैसर्गिकी गतिरियं न हि तत्र चित्रम् । गत्या तया जिगमिषुर्बक एक मूढः । चेतो दुनोति सकलस्य जनस्य नूनम् ।।१०।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – हंसः प्रयाति शनकैः यदि यातु तस्य । नैसर्गिकी गतिः इयं न हि तत्र चित्रम् । गत्या तया जिगमिषुः बकः एकः मूढः । चेतः दुनोति सकलस्य जनस्य नूनम् ।।१०।।
अन्वयेन – यदि हंसः शनकैः प्रयाति, यातु । इयं तस्य नैसर्गिकी गतिः । न हि तत्र चित्रम् । तया गत्या जिगमिषुः एकः मूढः बकः सकलस्य जनस्य चेतः दुनोति नूनम् ।।१०।।
Translation – If a swan goes quietly (slowly), let him do so. That is his natural way. Nothing unusual (or surprising) there. A foolish crane wanting to go in the same manner as the swan disturbs (unnecessarily distracts) people, really.
Notes –

  1. हंसः प्रयाति शनकैर्यदि यातु तस्य (१४ वर्णाः २-२ १-२-१ १-१-२-१-१ २-१ २-(२) = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः ) । Here also, as in verse #8, the meter is वसन्ततिलका-वृत्तम् ।
  2. Two words are interesting – जिगमिषुः and दुनोति.
    1. जिगमिषुः – The derivation is गन्तुं इच्छा जिगमिषा । जिगमिषा यस्य सः जिगमिषुः ।
    2. दुनोति – दु इति स्वादि (५) अनिट् परस्मैपदी धातुः । टुदु उपतापे (दु = To cause trouble, to disturb, to distract) । तस्य वर्तमानकाले प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
  3. This brings to mind the श्लोक in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – श्रेयान् स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् । स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ।।३-३५।। It would be dangerous भयावह for the crane to emulate the swan, because some person annoyed by the unwarranted behaviour of the crane wanting to emulate the swan, may want to hurl a stone at the crane, wanting to drive the crane away and in turn, the crane may suffer harm.
—verse 10—

भुक्ता मृणालपटली भवता निपीता- । न्यम्बूनि यत्र नलिनानि निषेवितानि । हे राजहंस वद तस्य सरोवरस्य । कृत्येन केन भवितासि कृतोपकारः ।।११।।
संधिविच्छेदान्कृत्वा – भुक्ता मृणालपटली भवता निपीतानि अम्बूनि यत्र नलिनानि निषेवितानि । हे राजहंस वद तस्य सरोवरस्य । कृत्येन केन भविता असि कृत-उपकारः ।।११।।
अन्वयेन – हे राजहंस वद यत्र भवता मृणालपटली भुक्ता, अम्बूनि निपीतानि, नलिनानि निषेवितानि, तस्य सरोवरस्य केन कृत्येन कृत-उपकारः भविता असि ।।११।।
Translation –

  1. Hey swan, tell (me) by what action have you obliged that lake, (such that) there you enjoyed eating the lotus-roots, drank the waters and enjoyed the company of lotuses ? or
  2. Hey swan, tell (me) by what action would you (return) the obligations of that lake, where you enjoyed eating the lotus-roots, drank the waters and enjoyed the company of lotuses ?

Notes –

  1. The word कृत-उपकारः can be deciphered both as कृतः उपकारः येन सः (तृतीया-बहुव्रीहिः) अथवा कृतः उपकारः यस्मै सः (चतुर्थी-बहुव्रीहिः) These options, I believe, would lend two translation-options as ‘you obliged that lake’ or ‘you would return the obligations of that lake’.
  2. The word भविता also has two grammatical connotations –
    1. भविता = third person singular in luT-future tense (लुट्-भविष्यत् भू-धातोः) of verbal root भू. Hence the meaning ‘You would be one, who did the obligations कृत-उपकारः = कृतः उपकारः येन सः
    2. भविता = “भवितृ” (= one, who is about to become or one, who would become) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुंल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् ।
  3. The word मृणालपटली is a compound word having components मृणाल and पटली. मृणाल = root of lotus पटली = a collection. Hence मृणालपटली = a collection of roots of lotuses.
  4. भुक्ता मृणालपटली भवता निपीता (१४ वर्णाः २-२ १-२-१-१-१-२ १-१-२ १-२-२ = त, भ, ज, ज, ग, ग इति गणाः ) । Here also, as in verses 8 and 10, the meter is वसन्ततिलका-वृत्तम् ।
    1. The word निपीतान्यम्बूनि ends at निपीता- in the first quarter and continues as न्यम्बूनि in the second quarter.
    2. When doing संधि-विच्छेद it has to be treated as one word निपीतान्यम्बूनि and then be split as निपीतानि अम्बूनि
  5. The poet seems to be envying the enjoyments of the swan, that the swan enjoys all of the lake, without returning any of the obligations. But lakes and swans seem to be mutually graceful. Swans get all the enjoyments, the lakes are more graceful because of the swans. As has been said in verse #7, not having swans is a loss for the lake. हानिस्तु तेषां हि सरोवराणां । येषां मरालैः सह विप्रयोगः ।।
  6. Such mutual grace mutual dependence between Godhood and devotee is beautifully brought out in the श्लोक in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – देवान्भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः । परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ ।।३-११।।
  7. From another standpoint, swans being provided with all the enjoyments by the lakes are just a way of Nature’s gracefulness. There was a beautiful poem in the text-book for परिचय-exam of भारतीय-विद्या-भवन. The theme-line of the poem was “ससर्ज क्षेमाय नृणां विधाता”. One verse there reads – लतासु पुष्पाणि वनेषु वृक्षान् । फलानि वृक्षेषु फलेषु सारम् । पुष्पेषु रूपं गन्धं च शोभनम् । ससर्ज क्षेमाय नृणां विधाता ।। The Creator has just been graceful and kind to humanity that He created flowers on creepers and trees in jungles, fruits on trees, juices in fruits, beauty in flowers and also fragrance in flowers. (Shall we add, by taking clue from this verse # 11) The Creator has just been graceful and kind to humanity that He created swans to adorn the lakes !
  8. Let us just be thankful to Him and not do harm to anything that He has created !!

—verse 11—

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

2 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by Fresh Approach – Lesson No. 109

  1. This brings to mind the श्लोक in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – श्रेयान् स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् । स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ।।३-३५।। It would be dangerous भयावह for the crane to emulate the swan, because some person annoyed by the unwarranted behaviour of the crane wanting to emulate the swan, may want to hurl a stone at the crane, wanting to drive the crane away and in turn, the crane may suffer harm.

    Thanks for your comments on the verse. The poets rejoiced the movement of swan and you can find hundreds of verses describing its majesty like this one:

    क्षामोदरी हंसगतिः प्रमत्ता सौंदर्यसौभाग्यवती प्रलोला । न पीडिता येन रतौ यथेच्छं वृथा गतं तस्य नरस्य जीवितम् ॥

    । मदोत्कटा हंसगतिः प्रचण्डा चण्डविक्रमा ।

    । हंसीयाना वाणी हंसगतिः सुकृतिनेत्रपुण्यकला ॥ ८९॥

    but none described the swift movement or foolishness of Baka.

  2. Two words are interesting – जिगमिषुः and दुनोति.
    जिगमिषुः – The derivation is गन्तुं इच्छा जिगमिषा । जिगमिषा यस्य सः जिगमिषुः ।

    The first is grammatically correct. The other is wrong.

    It derived from the dessiderative verb गन्तुमिच्छति – जिगमिष् – जिगमिषतीति जिगमिषुः and not as the second as per
    सनाशंसभिक्ष उः॥ ३।२।१६८|

    http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/sarvanisutrani/3.2.168.htm

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