Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 88

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 88
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य अष्टाशीतितमः (८८) पाठः ।

By his comment on the previous lesson, Mr. H. N. Bhat pointed out that श्लोकः ११-७-३५ in श्रीमद्भागवतम् speaks of 24 things in nature, from which man can learn many things. In the previous lesson the सुभाषितम् detailed what all should be learnt from an ass or donkey. Here is one about learning from a honeybee.

स्तोकं स्तोकं ग्रसेद्-ग्रासं देहो वर्तेत यावता ।
गृहानहिंसन्नातिष्ठेद्-वृत्तिं माधुकरीं मुनिः ।। श्रीमद्भागवते ११-८-९ ।।
Exercise 1 Rewrite this सुभाषितम् by breaking conjugations and showing component-words contained in compound words.
स्वाध्यायः १ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा पुनर्लिखतु सुभाषितम् । 

स्तोकं स्तोकं ग्रसेत् ग्रासं देहः वर्तेत यावता ।
गृहान् अहिंसन् आतिष्ठेत् वृत्तिं माधुकरीं मुनिः ।। 

Exercise 2 (a) Identify verbs and participles (verbal derivatives) and paraphrase the related clauses
2 (b) Analyse the clauses, identifying the main parts of speech i.e. subject, object / compliment, conjunctions.

स्वाध्यायः २ (अ) कानि अत्र क्रियापदानि धातुसाधितानि च, के तेषां वाक्यांशानाम् अन्वयाः  ?

२ (आ) कानि अत्र कर्तृपदानि, कर्मपदानि, पूरकानि ? 

२-१ क्रियापदम् “ग्रसेत्” । “(मनुजः) स्तोकं स्तोकं ग्रासं ग्रसेत्” इति प्रधान-वाक्यम् । अध्याहृतम् कर्तृपदम् “मनुजः” । कर्मपदं “ग्रासम्” ।
२-२ क्रियापदम् “वर्तेत” । एतत्तु अकर्मकम् । “यावता देहः वर्तेत” इति गौण-वाक्यम् । कर्तृपदम्  “देहः” । संबन्धसूचकं “यावता”  । 

२-३ धातुसाधितं “अहिंसन्” । विशेषणात्मकं गौण-वाक्यम् “गृहान् अहिंसन्” । “मुनिः”-शब्दस्य विशेषणम् ।  कर्मपदम् “गृहान्”

२-४ क्रियापदम् “आतिष्ठेत्” । “मुनिः वृत्तिं आतिष्ठेत्” इति प्रधान-वाक्यम् । कर्तृपदम्  “मुनिः” । कर्मपदं “वृत्तिम्” ।

Exercise 3 Decipher the compounds and detail etymology and declensions of all words
स्वाध्यायः ३ समासानां विग्रहान् शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तीः विश्लेषणानि च ददतु ।

३-१ स्तोकम् (= little)  इति अव्ययम् ।
३-२ ग्रसेत् “ग्रस्” १ प (= to eat) इति धातुः । तस्य विध्यर्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
३-३ ग्रासम् “ग्रस्” १ प (= to eat) इति धातुः । तस्मात् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “ग्रास” (= mouthful quantity) । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३-४ देहः “देह” (= body) इति  पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३-५ वर्तेत “वृत्” १ आ (= to be, to exist) इति धातुः । तस्य विध्यर्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
३-६ यावता (= as long as) इति अव्ययम् ।
३-७ गृहान्  “गृह” (= home, household) इति पुल्लिङ्गि / नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि ।  तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
३-८ अहिंसन् “हिंस्” ७ प १० उ (= to harm) इति धातुः । तस्मात् वर्तमानकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “हिंसत्” । तस्य नकारात्मकं विरुद्धार्थि “अहिंसत्” (= not harming) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३-९ आतिष्ठेत्  “आ + स्था” १ प (= to conduct oneself) इति धातुः । तस्य विध्यर्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
३-१० वृत्तिं  “वृत्” १ आ (= to be, to exist) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भाववाचकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “वृत्ति” (= conduct) । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३-११ माधुकरीम् माधुकरी (= of honeybee) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि विशेषणम् । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

  • ३-११-१ मधु करोति इति मधुकरः । उपपद-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ३-११-२ मधुकरस्य वृत्तिः माधुकरी वृत्तिः ।
  • ३-११-३ मधु (= honey) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च ।

३-१२ मुनिः “मुनि” (= Muni, a mendicant) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

Exercise 4 Arrange the सुभाषितम् in prose syntax and give its translation into English
स्वाध्यायः ४ अन्वयान् कृत्वा आङ्ग्ल-भाषायां अनुवादान् ददतु ।
४-१ यावता देहः वर्तेत  = As long as body exists (i.e. as long as one lives)
४-२ (मनुजः) स्तोकं स्तोकं ग्रासं ग्रसेत् । = man should eat little by little
४-३ गृहान् अहिंसन् = Without causing harm to homely people
४-४ मुनिः माधुकरीम् वृत्तिं आतिष्ठेत् । = A Muni (a mendicant) should conduct oneself like a honeybee does.

Exercise 5 In what meter is this verse composed ?
स्वाध्यायः ५ अस्य काव्यस्य रचना कस्मिन् वृत्ते अस्ति ?
To decipher the meter we have to set the verse into four quarters –

स्तोकं स्तोकं ग्रसेद्-ग्रासं  । वर्णाः ८
२-२ २-२ १-२-२-२ इति मात्राः ।
देहो वर्तेत यावता । वर्णाः ८
२-२ २-२-१२-१-२ इति मात्राः ।
गृहानहिंसन्नातिष्ठेद् । वर्णाः ८
१-२-१-२-२-२-२ इति मात्राः ।
वृत्तिं माधुकरीं मुनिः । वर्णाः ८
२-२ २-१-१-२ १-२ इति मात्राः । 

अत्र अनुष्टुभ् छन्दः । अस्य लक्षणपदम् – श्लोके षष्ठं गुरु ज्ञेयम् सर्वत्र लघु पञ्चमम् । द्विचतुः पादयोर्-र्हस्वं सप्तमं दीर्घमन्ययोः ।।
परन्तु तृतीये पादे पञ्चमं लघु नास्ति । एषः कश्चिदपवादः ।

Exercise 6 What type of literary style is used here ?
स्वाध्यायः ६ अस्ति कश्चित् शब्दालङ्कारः वा अर्थालङ्कारः अपि अत्र उपयोजितः ?

१. In the verse the conduct of a honeybee is superimposed on a mendicant. 

Exercise 7 What moral is learnt from this सुभाषितम् ?
स्वाध्यायः ७ अस्मिन् सुभाषिते का नीतिः उपदिष्टास्ति ?

This सुभाषितम् brings forth what one should learn from a honeybee. 

The moral is suggested primarily keeping in mind mendicants. Mendicants subsist by getting offerings from devout homely people. They should get the offering of their daily food from more than one home, so that burden of philanthropy would not greatly affect people of a single household.

Exercise 8 Comments, Notes, Observations, if any.
टिप्पणयः ।

८-१ The conjugated word गृहानहिंसन्नातिष्ठेद् has become quite some complex because it can be broken differently also. At http://wikisource.org/wiki/उद्धवगीता_२ the सुभाषितम् reads as follows –

स्तोकं स्तोकं ग्रसेत् ग्रासं देहः वर्तेत यावता ।
गृहान् अहिंसत् न आतिष्ठेत् वृत्तिं माधुकरीं मुनिः॥

By breaking the conjugation as गृहान् अहिंसत् न आतिष्ठेत् there are two negatives – one in अहिंसत् and न itself. This will lend a meaning opposite of what is detailed at (४-३) and (४-४).

One needs to be careful while breaking conjugated words. They need to be broken in a manner that the intended meaning will be properly reflected. I hope, the breaking of this conjugation, as done by me is appropriate.

८-२ The सुभाषितम् is based on an observation of how a honeybee collects the honey. After the honeybee has extracted honey from any flower, by looking at the flower one cannot make out whether any honeybee had come there and extracted any honey. The flower remains substantially unaffected even after the honeybee has extracted some honey from it.

Likewise mendicants should collect food for their daily need little by little from different (usual recommendation is said to be five) households and not from a single household.

All these codes of mendicants collecting food from households is a subject by itself provoking wide-ranging thoughts in my mind. Maybe I may compile a supplement to present those thoughts, unless I may locate some relevant सुभाषितम् as well.

८-३ The next shloka also details what should be learnt from a honeybee. The shloka is

अणुभ्यश्च महद्-भ्यश्च शास्त्रेभ्यः कुशलो नरः ।
सर्वतः सारमादद्यात् पुष्पेभ्य इव षट्-पदः ।। श्रीमद्भागवते ११-८-१० ।।
It would be good to study this shloka in the next lesson.
शुभमस्तु । 

-o-O-o-

4 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 88

  1. It is a very simple that mendicants should collect daily food from households only what is needed for subsistence. Otherwise, they would be a burden to the householders. This is intended by the subhashita directly, apart from the lesson of philosophy it teachers.

    Not to consume more what is needed for subsistence since hoarding would affect the householders on whom he has to depend. The bee too collect a little by little from each house without doing any damage to the flower from which collects honey. The mendicant is taught to live the life of a bee.

    माधुकरीं वृत्तिमातिष्ठेत् । which is the main predicate of the verse. And to split it otherwise, would be injustice to the author.

    And one more thing, it is not in the महाभारत, but in श्रीमद्भागवत-पुराण ११ स्कन्ध where the verses are to be found.

    The present context is the अवधूत narrates how he learnt his hight ideals of life from the nature from many things in the world.

    and one more note on the grammatical peculiarity of गृह:

    It is used both in neuter gender and masculine gender. But in the masculine gender it is always used in the plural. गृहाः पुंसि च भूम्न्येव निकाय्यनिलयालयाः ( २. २. ५१) according to अमर।
    but in neuter gender it can be used in three numbers also

    गृहम् – गृहे – गृहाणि।

    गृहाणि नाम तान्येव तपोराशिर्भवादृशः।
    संभावयति यान्येवं पावनैः पादपांसुभिः॥

    Only those are homes (deserve to be called so), which are honored by the great sages who are the treasure of penance, by the holy dust of their feet.

    (कान्ति style of speech)

    देवधिष्ण्यमिवाराध्यमद्य प्रभृति नो गृहम्।
    युष्मत्पादरजःपातधौतनि:शेषकिल्बिषम्॥

    From this day onwards our house has become a holy place like the temple (abode) of God, by having all of the sin is washed away by the fall of dust of your feet. (addressed to the same sage in the above verse).

    .hyperbolic expression is another variety of the quality कान्ति (the same statement put in a different style).

    (Both illustratins from काव्यादर्श). But in masculine gender it is used in plural only as above.

  2. It is the same portion of भागवतपुराण named as उद्धवगीता, in the 11th Skandha as it is preached to उद्धव instead of अर्जुन in महाभारतम्। The same is the topic of the present गीता too, but in a different style, probably a practical devotee or on the model of a अवधूत.

    and it is the same verse, but probably wrongly split in the wikisource page. There may be commentaries on उद्धवगीता too, but the popular one भगवद्गीता itself. It is the acts of अवधूत that he acquired from the nature these things by his observation.

  3. यावता is not adjective in the verse. It is a relative modified to give meaning “by which quantity” (of food contextually is the implied relative noun), derived from the pronoun यत्. ’यत्तदेतेभ्यः परिमाणे वतुप् (५।२।३९) इति वतुप्प्रत्यये, यावत् यत् परिमाणम् अस्य – यावत्। यावता (ग्रासेन) देहो वर्तेत, (तावद्) ग्रासं स्तोकं स्तोकं ग्रसेत्।

    The Vaishnava tradition identifies this अवधूत who narrates the lessons from the 24 guru-s with दत्तत्रेय and it is the popular belief too that the अवधूत referred to in the set of Five गीता-s in series beginning with उद्धवगीता in भागवत is दत्तात्रेय। But it has no supporting statement in the entire text of भागवत purana and I could not find any source for this identification apart from the mention in wiki source and an article referred to therein.

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