Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 77

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 77

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्त-सप्ततितमः (७७) पाठः ।

As mentioned in the previous lesson, this सुभाषितम् is also in the same vein –

रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः ।

न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् ।

सुधां विना न प्रययुर्विरामम् ।

न निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः ।।

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

रत्नैः महा-अर्हैः तुतुषुः न देवाः ।

न भेजिरे भीम-विषेण भीतिम् ।

सुधाम् विना न प्रययुः विरामम् ।

न निश्चितार्थात् विरमन्ति धीराः ।।

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

२-१ रत्नैः “रत्न” (= jewel) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
२-२ महार्हैः “महार्ह” (= greatly adored) इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।

  • २-२-१ महती अर्हता यस्य तत् = महार्हम् । बहुव्रीहिः ।
  • २-२-२ महती “महत्” (= great) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-२-३ अर्हता “अर्-ह् ” १ प. (= to deserve, to command respect) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भाववाचकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “अर्हता” (= eligibility, respect) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२-३ तुतुषुः “तुष्” ४ प. (= to be pleased, to be happy, to be satisfied) इति धातुः । तस्य परोक्षभूते उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् ।

२.४ न (= no) इति अव्ययम् ।

२.५ देवाः “देव” (= God) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।

२.६ भेजिरे “भज्” १ आ. (= to resort to) इति धातुः । तस्य परोक्षभूते उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् च ।

२.७ भीमविषेण “भीमविष” (= frightful poison) इति सामासिकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

  • २.७.१ भीमं विषम् = भीमविषम् | कर्मधारयः |
  • २.७.२ भीमम्  “भीम” (= frightful) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  • २.७.३ विषम् “विष” (= poison) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.८ भीतिम् “भी” ३ प. (= to frighten) इति धातुः | तस्मात् भाववाचकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “भीति” (= fear) | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.९ सुधाम् “सुधा” (= nectar) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.१० विना (= without) इति अव्ययम् |

२.११ प्रययुः “प्र + या” २ प. (= to go to, to undertake) इति धातुः | तस्य परोक्षभूते उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् च ।

२.१२ विरामम् “वि + रम्” १ आ. (= to halt, to rest) इति धातुः | तस्मात् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “विराम” (= halt, rest) | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.१३ निश्चितार्थात् “निश्चितार्थ” (= predetermined goal, predetermined objective) इति सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

  • २-१३-१ निश्चितः अर्थः = निश्चितार्थः । कर्मधारयः ।
  • २-१३-२ निश्चितः “निश्चित” (= determined) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २-१३-३ अर्थः “अर्थ” (= objective, goal) इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२.१४ विरमन्ति “वि + रम्” १ आ. (= to halt, to rest) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने उत्तमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

२.१५ धीराः “धृ” १० उ. (= to hold, to bear, to withstand, to stay composed) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विशेषणम् “धीर” (= having capacity to stay composed, to withstand, to sustain, to bear, to stay focused) | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

३.१ देवाः महा-अर्हैः रत्नैः न तुतुषुः | = Gods were not feel pleased with great jewels.

३.२ (ते) भीम-विषेण भीतिं न भेजिरे | = (They) did not resort to (succumb to) fear even by frightful poison

३.३ सुधां विना विरामं न प्रययुः | = (They) did not rest until they got nectar.

३.४ धीराः निश्चितार्थात् न विरमन्ति | = Those who have capacity to stay focused do not rest away from predetermined objectives.

४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ To decipher the meter –

रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः । वर्णाः ११

न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् । वर्णाः ११

सुधां विना न प्रययुर्विरामम् । वर्णाः ११

न निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः ।। वर्णाः ११

रत्नैर्महार्हैस्तुतुषुर्न देवाः |

(2-2-1)-(2-2-1)-(1-2-1) 2-2 इति मात्राः ।

त-त-ज-ग-ग इति गणाः ।

न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् |

(1-2-1)-(2 2-1)-(1 2-1)-2-2 इति मात्राः ।

ज-त-ज-ग-ग इति गणाः ।

सुधां विना न प्रययुर्विरामम् |

(1-2 1)-(2 2 1)-(1-2-1)-2-2

न निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः ||

(1 2-1)-(2-2-1)-(1-2-1) 2-2

First line conforms to इन्द्रवज्रा-वृत्तम् |

Other three lines conform to उपेन्द्रवज्रा-वृत्तम् |

A verse combining two meters of same number of syllables can be called as उपजाति-वृत्तम् |

Or, considering that majority of the quarters conform to उपेन्द्रवज्रा-वृत्तम्, meter of the verse can be called as उपेन्द्रवज्रा-वृत्तम् |

४.२ This verse and also the one in the previous lesson are from नीतिशतकम् by भर्तृहरि | This verse is 81st. A short commentary on the verse is as follows –

४.३ In the first line all विसर्गाः except the last one have become the sound “र्”. That makes some alliteration अनुप्रास । Also in the second line three successive words have starting  sound “भ”. One is left wondering at the poetic capabilities of these poets to compose meaningful verses conforming to meters, weaving alliteration, adding apt illustrations and leading to eternally valid morals, verses which can be sung by anybody even if one does not have a musical voice ! It all becomes so easy to commit them to memory.

४.४ The verse also brings to mind poetic prose of Sarojini Naidu, who was lauded as the Nightingale of India. A few sentences from her obituary to महात्मा गान्धी have stuck in my memory. That obituary was a lesson in a textbook. The lesson was a transcription of her speech relayed on All India Radio soon after Bapuji’s death. She said, “My father do not rest. Do not allow us to rest. Keep us to our pledge. Give us strength to fulfill your promise. May we be Your heirs, your stewards, your descendants, your stewards, …”

Do not allow us to rest. Keep us to our pledge. This is what this सुभाषितम् also emphasizes.

४.५ This सुभाषितम् underscores laudable characteristics of people with grit and determination. This is explained by the example of how Gods undertook churning of the ocean क्षीरसागरः to get nectar of immortality.

Everything of that exercise of churning of the ocean was of unimaginable proportions. The whole episode is fabulous, like a fable. They used mountain मेरु as the churner. They used the serpent वासुकी to tie around the mountain and to churn the mountain. Fourteen jewels are said to have emanated during the churning. The fourteen jewels are listed in a verse –

लक्ष्मीः कौस्तुभ-पारिजातक-सुरा-धन्वन्तरिश्चन्द्रमा |

गावो कामदुधाः सुरेश्वर-गजो रम्भादि-देवाङ्गना |

अश्वः सप्तमुखो विषं हरिधनुः शङ्खोऽमृतम् चाम्बुधेः |

रत्नानीह चतुर्दश प्रतिदिनम् कुर्युः सदा मङ्गलम् ||

These are not jewels of the ordinary sense. These are all unique by themselves, hence jewels. That is why they are called as महार्ह in the सुभाषितम् of this lesson. As can be noted in the above श्लोक, अमृतम् i.e. nectar is listed last. And getting nectar was the objective of the whole exercise.

The exercise was carried on until the final objective was achieved, not being distracted by the unique “jewels” which emanated also undeterred by the poison, which also emanated. शिव dared to consume the poison. To quell the effect of the poison he tied a snake around his throat and wore the moon on his head. The poison burnt his throat dark blue and he became known as नीलकण्ठ ! Effect of the poison was finally quelled by his uttering रामनाम !

The story has traveled around the world. At the Bangkok airport in Thailand they have erected a marvelous scene with idols of Gods and demons churning the ocean.

४-६ Because churning of the ocean yielded the jewels, an ocean is called also as रत्नाकरः one who makes jewels ! We have studied earlier सुभाषितानि where there was reference of pearls being formed in sea-shells by drops of rain when constellation स्वाति is in the skies.

४.७ The next 82nd सुभाषितम् in नीतिशतकम् is also on the same theme. We can study that in the next lesson.

शुभमस्तु |


4 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 77

  1. This must be a typing mistake.
    …र्महार्हैर्तुतुषु… should have been …र्महार्हैस्तुतुषु…

    The rule of sandhi is:
    A visarga, preceded by any vowel and followed by त् , थ् , स् , changes to स्

    You may also refer to the image of the page that
    you have included where it is correctly printed.

    1. नमो नमः श्रीमन् “किरण परांजपे”-महोदय ! सुष्ठु ज्ञापितं, धन्यवादाः खलु । झटिति एव दोषनिवारणं करोमि । सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

  2. The photograph of the Samudra-Manthana scene at the Bangkok airport reminded me of several things that I had seen in Bangkok when I visited that city some years ago. Among them was a large statue of Lord Shiva in a public square and the story of Ramayana narrated through pictures in the temple of the Emerald Buddha. The ancient capital of Thailand, prior to Bangkok, was called Ayuthaya and the name of the current dynasty is ‘Rama’. The current monarch is Bhumibol Adulyadej ot Bhoomibal Atulyatej. The numerous ‘wats’ or temples of Buddha are exact replicas of similar temples you see everywhere in India.

    Close to where I live in Toront, there is a restaurant of a popular Thai chain. In the dining hall, as a part of the decoration, is a brass moorty of a four-headed god. He is our own Brahmadeva, though the Thai owner had no clue to that fact.

    Some vestiges of the old Hindu practices still survive. It is a tradition that Brahmin priests, of whom a minuscule number is now left, have to beassociated with rituals in the Palace. For an interesting article on Thai Brahmans please see http://www.mahidol.ac.th/thailand/brahmans.html

    1. नमो नमः श्रीमन् “अरविन्द कोल्हटकर”-महोदय ! धन्यवादाः खलु भवता प्रदत्ताय सर्वस्मै विवरणाय । भारतीय-संस्कृत्याः प्रभावः सुदूरपर्यन्तं अद्यापि दृश्यते खलु । संस्कृतभाषायाः प्रसारेण यदि “कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्” एवंविधा संस्कृतिः प्रसृता भवति, तत्सर्वस्य जगतः हिताय भवेत् । तथैव भगवच्चरणयोः प्रार्थना । सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

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