Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 72

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 72

संस्कृतभाषायाः  नूतनाध्ययनस्य  द्वि-सप्ततितमः  (७२) पाठः

In the previous lesson I had thought of studying the श्लोकः from first chapter in गीता. But I think study of गीता merits a study by itself. To focus on सुभाषितानि, I would take up this सुभाषितम्  –

अग्निः शेषः ऋणं शेषं शत्रुः शेषस्तथैव च ।

पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत तस्माच्छेषं न कारयेत् ।।

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

अग्निः शेषः ऋणं शेषं शत्रुः शेषः तथा एव च ।

पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत तस्मात् शेषं न कारयेत् ।।

२ समासानां विग्रहाः, शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

२.१ अग्निः “अग्नि” (= fire) इति पुल्लिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.२ शेषः “शिष्” १ प., ७ प., १० उ. (= to leave a remainder) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विशेषणम् “शेष” (= balance) | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.३ ऋणम् “ऋ” १ प., ३ प. (= to raise, to acquire) इति धातुः | तस्मात् नपुंसकलिङ्गि  नाम “ऋण” | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.४ शेषम् “शिष्” १ प., ७ प., १० उ. (= to leave a remainder) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विशेषणम् “शेष” (= balance) | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.५  शत्रुः “शत्रु” (= enemy) इति पुल्लिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.६ तथा (= similarly) अव्ययम् |

२.७ एव (= only) अव्ययम् |

२.८ च (= and) अव्ययम् |

२.९ पुनः (= again) अव्ययम् |

२.१० प्रवर्धेत “प्र + वर्-ध् ” १० उ. (= grow up) इति धातुः |  तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तम-पुरुषे एकवचनम् |

२.११ तस्मात् “तत्” (= that) इति सर्वनाम | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च | प्रायः “तस्मात्” (= therefore) इति अव्ययमपि |

२.१२ न (= no, not) इति अव्ययम् |

२.१३ कारयेत् “कृ” ८ उ. (= to do) इति धातुः | तस्य प्रयोजकम् “कारय” (= to make do, to make happen) | तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तम-पुरुषे एकवचनम् |

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

३.१ शेषः अग्निः पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत | = Remnant fire may kindle again and again.

३.२ शेषं ऋणं (पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत) | = remnant debt may grow again and again.

३.३ तथा एव शेषः शत्रुः च (पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत) | = Likewise enemy (enmity) left over may grow again and again.

३.४ तस्मात् (एतेषां) शेषं न कारयेत् | = Hence (these) should not be left balance.

४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ To decipher the meter –

अग्निः शेषः ऋणं शेषं | वर्णाः ८

2-2 2-2 1-2-2-2

शत्रुः शेषः तथैव च | वर्णाः ८

2-2 2-2 1-2-1-(2)

पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत | वर्णाः ८

1-2 1-2 1-2-2-(2)

तस्माच्छेषं न कारयेत् | वर्णाः 8

2-2 2-2 1-2-1-(2.5)

This is a typical अनुष्टुभ्-छन्दः |

Its लक्षणपदम् is

श्लोके षष्ठं गुरु ज्ञेयं |

Sixth syllable is long (2)

सर्वत्र लघु पञ्चमम् |

Fifth is short (1) everywhere

द्विचतुः पादयोर् र्हस्वम् |

In second and fourth quarter seventh is short (1)

सप्तमं दीर्घमन्ययोः ||

Seventh is long (2) in the other two (i.e. in first and third quarters)

४.२ I came across another version of this subhaaShitam which reads as follows –

ऋण-शेषो-S-ग्नि-शेषश्च शत्रु-शेषस्तथैव च |

पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धन्ते तस्माच्छेषं न रक्षयेत् ||

सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

ऋण-शेषः अग्नि-शेषः च शत्रु-शेषः तथा एव च |

पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धन्ते तस्मात् शेषं न रक्षयेत् ||

Here ऋण-शेषः, अग्नि-शेषः, and शत्रु-शेषः are all three compound words. They are all षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष-समासाः such as

  • ऋणस्य  शेषः = ऋण-शेषः ।
  • अग्नेः शेषः = अग्नि-शेषः and
  • शत्रोः शेषः = शत्रुशेषः

The word शेषः (= balance) is पुल्लिङ्गि  नाम |

प्रवर्धन्ते “प्र + वर्-ध् ” १० उ. (= grow up) इति धातुः |  तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने उत्तम-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

रक्षयेत् “रक्ष्” १ प. (= to protect, to leave balance) इति धातुः | तस्य विध्यर्थे उत्तम-पुरुषे एकवचनम् |

४.३ I just came across another सुभाषितम् where a small-looking enemy is likened to an unextinguished amber. It says –

नोपेक्षितव्यो विद्वद्भिः शत्रुरल्पोऽप्यवज्ञया  |

वन्हिरल्पोऽपि संवृद्धः कुरुते भस्मसाद्वनम् ||

सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

न उपेक्षितव्यः विद्वद्भिः अल्पः अपि अवज्ञया |

वन्हिः अल्पः अपि संवृद्धः कुरुते भस्मसात् वनम् ||

It would be good to do detailed study in a supplement.

४.४ Considering the second phrase, “शेषं ऋणं (पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत) | = remnant debt may grow again and again”, this सुभाषितम् sounds to be an anti-thesis of the “credit-card” economy, which seems to be becoming almost the global culture.

४.५ Most pathetic evidence of “शेषं ऋणं (पुनः पुनः प्रवर्धेत) | = remnant debt may grow again and again” is how a system of bonded labour evolved in societies of old.

४.६ The word “शत्रु” in the third phrase seems to be quite challenging, especially when it comes to following the advice of the सुभाषितम् that no remnant of enmity should be left over.

There can be various ways of ending an enmity.

  • There can be amicable settlement of the issues.
  • A judgement from the court may settle the matter
  • If two enemies fight a duel, the result of the fight may decide

The situation becomes complex, when there is enmity between two dominions. Also, their enmity may often not be a very obvious enmity. Enmity could just be lack of friendly relationship, say, between India and Pakistan. Enmity between two dominions would also not mean that every citizen of one dominion has enmity with every other citizen of the other dominion. In such a case, when does one say that enmity is settled with no remnant ? Enmity between India and Pakistan seems to be more an enmity at the political level than at the level of daily life of the citizens of respective dominions.

Although Iraq war officially ended, a new government formed and installed, the victors pursued finding out where Saddam Hussein was. Finally he was found from a bunker, tried and sentenced and executed. Even after all this, one is not sure whether the enmity has ended. There are bomb-blasts taking place in Iraq even today, more than 3 years after the war was officially over.

The situation in Afghanistan is no different.

Fortunately situation in Sri Lanka seems to have been resolved once and for all and for good.

One wonders how militant outfits emerge and gather strength. Maybe, these outfits draw people into their ranks willingly or forcibly or by enticements or by being brain-washed साम-दाम-दण्ड-भेद. In as much as the fact becomes that they gain strength, they become public menace and “internal enemies”. Maybe the Naxalite menace in India is a living example.

Any militancy, especially when it is politically motivated and in many cases, externally fuelled, will be difficult to settle by peaceful means.

In महाभारत दुर्योधन was the incorrigible. It had to be only the war. And श्रीकृष्ण declared to अर्जुन in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता –

कालोऽस्मि लोक-क्षयकृत् प्रवृद्धः |

लोकान् समाहर्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः |

ऋते ऽ पि त्वां न भविष्यन्ति सर्वे |

येऽवस्थिताः प्रत्यनीकेषु योधाः || ११-३२||

“न भविष्यन्ति सर्वे” (= all will perish = नैको शत्रुः शेषः) was the objective very clear in श्रीकृष्ण’s mind, obviously.

४.७ This सुभाषितम् also brings to mind the story in the forty-seventh chapter of the biography of श्री साई-बाबा  of शिरडी. The story narrates how Baba commanded a cobra to let go of a frog. Baba narrated to the tramp, who was watching, the story of their enmity in the previous births .

Here is the link to the complete story – http://www.saibaba.org/satcharitra/sai47.html

४.८ The above story reminds of another cardinal advice scripted in वाल्मिकी-रामायणम्, the advice, given by श्रीराम to विभीषण when रावण finally fell.

मरणान्तानि वैराणि निर्वृत्तं नः प्रयोजनम् |

क्रियतामस्य संस्कारो ममाप्येष यथा तव ||६-१०९-२५||

४.९ In the biography of श्रीगजानन-महाराज of शेगांव, in the eleventh chapter there is a quotation similar to this सुभाषितम्, which, as re-adopted by me in अभंग meter in मराठी, reads – स्वामीनी म्हटले | हत्या ऋण वैर | प्रायश्चित्त यांचे | टळेल ना ||

In the biography originally composed by दासगणू महाराज in ओवी  meter it is written – तो अवघा ऐकून | महाराज वदले हंसून | हत्या वैर आणी ऋण | हें कोणासी चुकेना ||

४.१० Considering the last phrase of this सुभाषितम्, although I have added in parenthesis (एतेषाम् = of these), to suggest that remnants of these, i.e. of fire, of debt and of enemy should not be left balance, there are a couple of good सुभाषित-s, worth studying. There can be many matters, which should not be left half-done. The सुभाषित-s discuss those.

So, we have some good hints for further study.

शुभमस्तु |


2 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 72

  1. Dear Sri Abhayankarji,
    I really appreciate the ammount of effort that you are putting into the preparation of the lessons in this manner. It is awsome. It helps tremendously the aspirants to enter into the heart of Sanskrit language and literature. I just wanted to express my feeling after going throught the various lessons that you have posted.

    Just a quick question…is it appropriate to use the word anuvaada to mean translation? In my opinion the bhaashaantara will be more appropriate than anuvaada, although most of the Sanskrit knowers use the word anuvaada. Let us think about it…

    bahushah dhanyavaadaah

    1. नमो नमः महोपाध्याय “संपदानन्द मिश्र”-महोदय ! Thanks for bringing out that there is a difference between अनुवादः and भाषान्तरम् । To my understanding,

      – if the translation is closest to a literal translation, it should be called भाषान्तरम् । – If there is a deviation from literal translation, and if it is more like a freelance adaptation summarizing the meaning, it should be called as अनुवादः

      अनुवादः allows a latitude not to be exact and literal. So, by calling a translation-exercise as अनुवादः one is playing safe from objections as “this translation is not correct” 🙂

      Luckily we have in Sanskrit, two words with such fine distinction and inherent security from criticism ! Calling a translation as अनुवादः is sort of a “disclaimer”, to say that “do not take the translation to be exact”.

      धन्यवादाः ! सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

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