Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 71

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 71

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एक-सप्ततितमः (७१) पाठः |

The experience that different people have known different versions and different meanings of the सुभाषितम्  studied in Lesson No. 70 as discussed also in the supplement, brings to mind this सुभाषितम्

पिण्डे  पिण्डे  मतिर्भिन्ना  |

कुण्डे  कुण्डे  नवं  पयः  |

जातौ  जातौ  नवाचाराः  |

नवा  वाणी  मुखे  मुखे  ||

१  सन्धि -विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा  समासानां  पदानि  च  दर्शयित्वा |

पिण्डे  पिण्डे  मतिः  भिन्ना  |

कुण्डे  कुण्डे  नवं  पयः  |

जातौ  जातौ  नव -आचाराः |

नवा  वाणी  मुखे  मुखे  ||

२  समासानां  विग्रहाः  शब्दानां  व्युत्पत्तयः  विश्लेषणानि  च |

२.१  पिण्डे  “पिण्ड्” १ आ. (= to put together) इति  धातुः  | तस्मात्  नपुंसकलिङ्गि  नाम  “पिण्ड ” (= body, mind, brain, aptitude*) | तस्य  सप्तमी  विभक्तिः  एकवचनम्  च  |

* Apte’s dictionary gives 17+ meanings of the word पिण्ड

२.२ मतिः  “मन् ” ४, ८ आ. (= to think, to hold opinion) इति  धातुः  | तस्मात्  स्त्रीलिङ्गि  नाम  “मति ” (= intelligence, thinking) | तस्य  प्रथमा  विभाक्तिः  एकवचनम्  च  |

२.३ भिन्ना  “भिद्” १ प. (= to divide, to separate) इति धातुः | तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “भिन्न” | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “भिन्ना ” (= different) | तस्य  प्रथमा  विभक्तिः  एकवचनम्  च |

२.४ कुण्डे “कुण्ड ” (= pond) ) इति पुल्लिङ्गि  अथवा नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.५ नवम् “नव” (= new) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.पयः “पयस्” (= water, liquid, milk) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.७  जातौजन्” ४ आ. (= to be born, to spring up, to rise) इति धातुः | तस्मात् स्त्रीलिङ्गि  नाम “जाति” (= birth, caste by birth) | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.८ नवाचाराः |

  • २.८.१ नवः  आचारः  = नवाचारः  | कर्मधारयः |
  • २.८.नवः “नव” (= new) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  • २.८.३ आचारः “आ + चर्” १ प. (= to behave, to conduct) | इति धातुः  | तस्मात् कृतिवचकं पुल्लिङ्गि  नाम “आचार ” (= behaviour, conduct, practice) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  • २.८.४ नवाचाराः “नवाचार” (= new practice) इति सामासिकं पुल्लिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

२.९ नवा “नव” (= new) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.१० वाणी “वाणी” (= speech) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.११ मुखे “मुख” (= mouth) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

3 अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

३.१ पिण्डे पिण्डे मतिः भिन्ना (अस्ति) | = In every (other) mind there is a different thought.

३.२ कुण्डे कुण्डे नवम् पयः (अस्ति) | = Every (other) pond has different water

३.३ जातौ जातौ नवाचाराः (भवन्ति) | = In every (other) caste there is a different practice

३.४ मुखे मुखे नवा वाणी (अस्ति) | = In every other mouth there is a different speech

४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ To decipher the meter –

पिण्डे पिण्डे मतिर्भिन्ना | वर्णाः ८

२-२ २-२ १-२-२-२ मात्राः १५

कुण्डे कुण्डे नवम् पयः | वर्णाः ८

२-२ २-२ १-२-१-२ मात्राः १४

जातौ जातौ नवाचाराः | वर्णाः ८

२-२ २-२ १-२-२-२ मात्राः १५

नवा वाणी मुखे मुखे | वर्णाः ८

२-२ २-२ १-२-१-२ मात्राः १४

This is a typical अनुष्टुभ्छन्दः |

Its लक्षणपदम् is

श्लोके षष्ठं गुरु ज्ञेयम् |

Sixth syllable is long (2)

सर्वत्र लघु पञ्चमम् |

Fifth is short (1) everywhere

द्विचतुः पादयोर् र्हस्वम् |

In second and fourth quarter seventh is short (1)

सप्तमं दीर्घमन्ययोः ||

Seventh is long (2) in the other two (i.e. in first and third quarters)

४.२ Doubled सप्तमी विभक्तिः of the same word पिण्डे पिण्डे, कुण्डे कुण्डे, जातौ जातौ and मुखे मुखे is typically a विग्रहः of अव्ययीभाव-समासः such as

प्रतिदिनम् = दिने दिने |

A सामासिक word such as प्रतिदिनम् becomes an adverb in the sentence. So, even for its form being similar to that of a noun, it becomes indeclinable अव्ययम् | Hence the name अव्ययीभावः ।

Here, doubled सप्तमी विभक्तिः is employed idiomatically to connote “in every other”, for example पिण्डे पिण्डे = In every other mind

४.३ This सुभाषितम् is a poetic statement of the English proverb “Many people, many minds”.

४.४ From another perception, this सुभाषितम् adores the creativity of the Supreme in creating such a multitude of personalities, not only different in their looks but also different in their characters, even when the basic features of the species remain same – two hands, two legs, one nose, two eyes, two ears, etc.

४.५ This सुभाषितम् also brings to mind the famous story of seven blind men, who touched different parts of an elephant and came out with seven different answers of what the animal was ! पिण्डे पिण्डे मतिर्भिन्ना !

४.६ By yet another perception, this सुभाषितम् underscores “variety is the spice of life”  !

४.७ In a way, this सुभाषितम् suggests a caution that one should not approach any discussion with preconceived notions of what the reactions can be on any given topic.

४.८ The line जातौ जातौ नवाचाराः is provocative – provoking a comment on caste-based social structure. Hinduism is most criticized for the caste-based social structure, it is supposed to have endorsed and promoted for hundreds and thousands of years.

But as a student of sociology, I really wonder whether there can ever be anywhere a true “class-less” society ! Even when communist thinkers gave the clarion call “Workers of the world unite !” inherent therein was recognition of at least two classes the “bourgeois” and the “workers” In Hindi there is a proverb, “हाथकी पांचो उङ्गलिया समान नही होती” (Five fingers of the hand are not equal.)

One reasoning or justification given by अर्जुन why he lost the motivation to fight the battle was –

दोषैरेतैर्कुलघ्नानां वर्णसंकरकारकैः |

उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ।।१-४३।।

I think, it will be good to analyse this श्लोकः in a separate lesson.

४.९ But this phrase जातौ जातौ नवाचाराः also provokes a thought on how the character of a person develops. Basically since जातौ is सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च locative case, singular of the word जाति it also has the meaning “birth”. Hence it also has an individualistic meaning. Every born being has different traits is another meaning of जातौ जातौ नवाचाराः That is the genesis of this thought – “how the character of a person develops”. Obviously there are many influences, which build up one’s character.

  • genetic heredity,
  • remnants from past life as is contended and detailed in the sixth chapter in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता  – तत्र तं बुद्धिसंयोगं लभते पौर्वदेहिकम् …।।६-४३।।
  • environment around one, especially
    • “Man is known by the company he keeps”
    • economic status of the family
    • societal concepts prevailing in the society
  • education and training – both of skills and of knowledge
  • one’s own aptitudes

Is there any good reference presenting a summary view of all the factors that influence the mould of character or build-up of personality ? Some hint is available in स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा । कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात् करिष्यस्यवशो ऽ पि तत् ।। १८-६०।।

४.१० I am strongly inclined to think that caste-based society came to prevail primarily because the educational system was not open enough for one to get trained in such faculty, which suited one’s aptitudes the best. A warrior’s son became a warrior, whether he was good at weaponry or not. Caste-based social structure is of course a vitiated social structure. Such vitiation can take roots anytime, anywhere, if the educational system would have a vitiated structure. If quality education is so costly, that only the rich can afford it, the next society is bound to have a class of educated elite.

४.११ I am also confused about the outcry against child-labor. If I think of it as “on-the-job” training, the whole thought-process gets a different perception altogether ! I have known small kids doing helping jobs in road-side garages and daring to open the engine of at least a motor-bike, if not of a car, without inhibitions, hesitations or reservations !

४.१२ Maybe, in expressing these thoughts I am indulging in नवा वाणी मुखे मम |

शुभमस्तु ।


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