Supplement to Lesson No. 70

Supplement to Lesson No. 70

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्ततितमस्य  (७०) पाठस्य परिशिष्टम् ।

Many interesting comments received on the lesson make a good study in themselves and merit compiling a supplement.

Comment 1

Oct 29, 2010 Shankara –
Abhyankarji, Are you sure this is a subhashita? I think, this is only a sarasasloka. A subhashita must contain some moral or lesson.
I replied saying – नमो नमः श्रीमन् “शंकर”-महोदय ! मया तु इदम् कस्मिन्श्चित् सुभाषितसन्ग्रहे एव प्राप्तमासीत् । संदेशः तु अस्ति एव, यत् हस्ताक्षरं सुष्ठु एव भवितव्यम् ।

Comment 2 –

October 29, 2010 From Shri. Arvind Kolhatkar, Toronto –
I saw the following verse in your lesson No 70.
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति को न वाचयति।
तस्मादप्यधिको मे यल्लिखति स्वयं न वाचयति॥
The version that I know of the same verse goes as under
चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखितं तत्परो न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥
The first version does not agree with the meter.  The second not only goes with the meter but also has a richer content.

Comment 3 –

2010/10/29 Avinash Sathaye – भृ has basic meaning “to carry”. Compare with भार. Feeding is a derived meaning.
I replied – “भर्ता” इति शब्दः “भृ”-धातुतः एतत् सुष्ठु ज्ञापितम् । धन्यवादाः ।

2010/10/29 Avinash Sathaye – I forgot to add that I can see a deeper meaning in the verse, thus answering the criticism of Shankara.

The first husband is probably a really erudite person writing deep thoughts which are not understandable to others.
The second one, who thinks her husband an improvement was blessed with  the one who did not know what he was talking about.

In other words, if you let go of the idea of bad handwriting, it has a a serious meaning in terms of real knowledge.
Both deep and meaningless things are unintelligible and only a wise person can tell which is better.

Comment 4 –

Mr. Eddie Hadley also commented –

I have discovered something magical.
It is called SANSCRIPT (South Asian Network Software Conferring Relatively Immediate Phonetic Transliteration)
Mr. Hadley added how the lesson appears on applying SANSCRIPT – 

caturaḥ sakhi me bhartā yallikhati ko na vācayati ।

tasmādapyadhiko me yallikhati svayaṃ na vācayati ||
1 sandhi-vicchedān kṛtvā samāsānāṃ padāni ca darśayitvā  |
caturaḥ sakhi me bhartā yat likhati kaḥ na vācayati ।
tasmāt api adhika: me yat likhati svayaṃ na vācayati ||
2 samāsānāṃ vigrahāḥ śabdānāṃ vyutpattayaḥ viśleṣaṇāni ca |

This Supplement as a study of the comments –

While Shri. Shankara questioned eligibility of the verse to be called as a सुभाषितम् he has used an interesting word “sarasashloka” to say, what this verse may be called as. The word renders following analysis –

१ सरसश्लोकः ।
१.१ रसेन सह = सरस । उपपद-तत्पुरुषः ।
१.२ सरसः श्लोकः = सरसश्लोकः । कर्मधारयः ।
१.३ रसेन “रस्” १ प (= to tinkle) also १० उ (= to taste, to relish) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भाववाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम (qualitative masculine noun) “रस” (= what has the quality to cause taste, relish, tinkle) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (instrumental i.e. third case, singular) ।
१.४ सह (= with) अव्ययम् (indeclinable) ।
१.५ श्लोकः “श्लोक्” १ आ (= to praise, to compose in verse, to versify) इति धातुः । तस्मात् करणवाचकं पुल्लिङ्गि नाम (instrumental, masculine noun) “श्लोक” (= a verse) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case singular) ।
१.६ सरसश्लोकः = verse, which has relish in it.

In an earlier lesson, there was some discussion about who a poet is and what poetry is . There it was mentioned that वाक्यम् रसात्मकम् काव्यम् । meaning, if a sentence has relish in it, it becomes poetry !

In poetry नव रसा: nine sentiments are recognized. Well, that gives me a topic for the next lesson !

Both Mr. Aravind Kolhatkar and Mr. Avinash Sathaye suggest that one can and should read deeper meaning.

Since Mr. Aravind Kolhatkar has given a different version, I would first like to do detailed study of that version.

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखितं तत्परो न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यत्-लिखितं तत् पर: न वाचयति।
न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयं अपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च |

I think it should be alright to detail only what is new/different.

2.1 Considering comment of Dr. Avinash Sathaye –
भर्ता “भृ” १, ३ उ. (= to carry, to feed, to bear, to support, to foster, to cherish) इति धातुः (verb) । तस्मात् कर्तृवाचकं विशेषणम् “भर्तृ” (= one, who carries along, feeds, supports, fosters, cherishes, hence, husband) ।  अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (nominative i.e. first case, singular) |

2.2 यल्लिखितम्

  • 2.2.1 This can be deciphered either as a सन्धि यल्लिखितम् = यत् + लिखितम् or
  • 2.2.2 as a समास
    येन लिखितम् = यल्लिखितम् । तृतीया तत्पुरुषः ।

Since version given by Mr. Kolhatkar has यल्लिखितं in place of यल्लिखति I was wondering how the syntax अन्वय would be.
Taking यल्लिखितम् = यत् + लिखितम् as a सन्धि the syntax becomes meaningful, as यत् (अनेन) लिखितम् i.e. by assuming (अनेन) to be implicit.
That assumption does not become necessary if it is deciphered as a समास “येन लिखितम् = यल्लिखितम् ।”
Deciphering as a समास also matches well with परलिखितम् in the second line.
2.3 परलिखितम् |

  • 2.3.1 परेण लिखितम् = परलिखितम् । तृतीया तत्पुरुषः ।
  • 2.3.2 परेण “पर” (= the other) इति सर्वनाम (pronoun) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि (here, masculine) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च (instrumental i.e. third case, singular) ।
  • 2.3.3 परलिखितम् = written by other(s)

2.4 वाचयति ।
This can be deciphered to have two derivations –

  • 2.4.1 वाचयति Verb formed from noun “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) इति धातुः (verb) | तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले उत्तमपुरुषे एकवचनम् च (present tense, third person, singular) |
  • 2.4.2 वाचयति as causative of verb “वच्” २ प. (= to speak) | As causative the meaning would be “to make speak, to cause a speech, to prompt or provoke comment”

I guess, that the “deeper meaning”, which is suggested by both Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar and Dr. Avinash Sathaye, really hinges on interpreting this word “वाचयति” !
“यल्लिखितम् तत् वाचयति = whatever is written prompts or provokes comment.” is a concept which largely applies to all scriptures. What is written always has a deeper meaning.
One who writes only such writings is certainly an “erudite” person, as rightly said by Dr. Avinash Sathaye.

The second line as given by Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar न वाचयति परलिखितं स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति seems to speak of a person who does not bother to read what is written by others nor what is written by himself.
What can that be meaning ?

  • Either the person is not a man of letters
  • Or he is a person, happy in his own world, possibly, happy being engrossed in deep meditation and totally disinterested in worldly arguments !
  • He may choose to speak or write off and on, but would not like to spend further effort in commenting or explaining the meaning of what he has written. He would let the world bother about it !

The second line in the version given by Shri. Aravind Kolhatkar has good import. But, I think, it misses the clarification, that the second line is by the friend of the lady in the first line. Also it misses the poetic charm, the satire, the punch implicit in तस्मादप्यधिको मे ।

Comment 5 –

In response to this supplement Mr. Kiran Paranjape promptly contributed his comment to say –

The version that I know of this is:

चतुरः सखि मे भर्ता यल्लिखति तत्परो न वाचयति।
तस्मादप्यधिकं मे स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति॥

It goes well with the meter, too.

Obviously this version from Mr. Paranjape combines good points of both the earlier versions !

One who “reads” वाचयति, would end up discovering ! And Mr. Eddie Hadley has discovered SANSCRIPT !
He added a punch-line at the bottom of his message “Seek, ye shall find !”

I find that the word “discover = remove the cover, unfold” is very interesting.
In ईशावास्योपनिषत् it says “तत् त्वं पूषन्नपावृणु” (= find that out by removing the cover)

Although Dr. Avinash Sathaye suggests leaving aside the thought that the सुभाषितम् speaks of the importance of good handwriting, there is a background, why I focused on the handwriting aspect. We noticed that my grandson does not have as good a handwriting. But good handwriting has been hereditary in our family. What a handwriting my father had ! Every line, simply a lace of pearls ! Hand-writings of my son and myself have also been fairly good. Certainly we want that my grandson should carry that “creed” in his i.e. fourth generation too ! So, I took up this सुभाषितम् to impress on him the importance of good handwriting ! Does not this सुभाषितम् do that in an amusing tone also ? My grandson is both amused and impressed !

Basically what is वाचनम् (= reading) from “वाच्” १० प. (= to read) ?
वाचनम् (= reading) is not just running our eyes over the text. Every reading must register a thought in our mind.
Every writing should also cause वाचनम् (= reading) !
I would not have been re-reading my lessons myself. But such thought-provoking comments really make me re-read and compose this supplement
स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयमपि वाचयति !🙂
I am deeply obliged for all the comments !

शुभमस्तु |



4 thoughts on “Supplement to Lesson No. 70

  1. The version that I have suggested has three loving but simple-minded wives gossiping and trying to suggest that their own husbands are the most learned among all.

    The first one says, “Friend, my husband is so learned that none can read (understand) what he writes.” The second one tries to better this by saying that her husband is so learned that he does not (has no need to) read what others write. The third one, simple-minded that she is, tries to surpass the other two by saying that her husband is so learned that he cannot read what he himself writes! (In this version यल्लिखितम् has to be construed as येन लिखितम्.)

    The Kiran Paranjpe version has this last sense but only two girls talking.

    I believe even those who are not aware of the full verse, still use the phrase स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति to describe someone who is either an ignoramus or has execrable penmanship.

    • धन्यवादाः श्रीमन् “अरविन्द कोल्हटकर”-महोदय, भवतः स्पष्टीकरणाय, यत् भवता सूचिते संस्करणे तिसृणां स्त्रियाणां संभाषणं मन्तव्यम् । सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

  2. This verse brought up three long-forgotten verses. I believe the first one is from Bhattikavya, which attempts to illustrate grammar through kavya.
    यद्यपि बहु नाधीषे तथापि पठ पुत्र व्याकरणम्।
    स्वजनो श्वजनो माऽभूत् सकलं शकलं सकृत् शकृत्॥

    “Son, even if you do not learn much, yet, do study grammar, so that स्वजन (a relative) does not become श्वजन (a dog), nor सकल (the whole) शकल (a broken piece) and सकृत् (one time) शकृत् (ordure). “

    The second, I think by an anonymous author, is about an otherwise less-known poetess of the name of VikaTanitambaa. It describes her husband as

    काले माषं सस्ये मासं वदति सकाशं यच्च शकासम्।
    उष्ट्रे लुम्पति शं वा रं वा तस्मै दत्ता विकटनितम्बा॥

    “VikaTanitambaa is given to him who, speaking about time, uses (the word) माष (the sesame grain) and speaking of a grain मास , instead of सकाश (nearby) says शकास, (and who) in saying उष्ट्र (the camel) either drops the श or the र.”

    (This verse, ridiculing VikaTanitambaa’s husband, also displays the male jealousy towards a female poet, as learning was supposed to the field reserved for males. Who would happily choose the name of VikaTanitambaa for herself? Of course, she also had her admirers. A verse has the following)

    के वैकटनितम्बेन गिरां गुम्फेन रञ्जिताः।
    निन्दन्ति निजकान्तानां न मौग्ध्यमधुरं वचः॥

    • धन्यवादाः श्रीमन् “अरविन्द कोल्हटकर”-महोदय यत् भवता दुर्लभं, अवश्यं संग्रहणीयम् श्लोकत्रयं सूचितम् । मनसि जायते यत् समयेन एतेषां श्लोकानामपि विश्लेषणम् कर्तव्यम् । सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

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