Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 69

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 69 

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य नवषष्टितमः (६) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson there was the mention of the quotation “मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय”

The complete मन्त्र is –

असतो मा सद्गमय ।
तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय ।

मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय ।

(अनृतान्मा ऋतं गमय)

१ सन्धिविच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा

असतः मा सत् गमय ।

तमसः मा ज्योतिः गमय ।

मृत्योः मा अमृतम् गमय ।

अनृतात् मा ऋतम् गमय ॥

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानाम् व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

.१ असतः ।
  • ..१ न सत् = असत् । नञ्तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ..२ न (= no, not) अव्ययम् ।
  • ..३ सत् अस्२ प. (= to be, to exist) इति धातुः । तस्मात् वर्तमानकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् सत्” (= existing, real, true) adjectival, present tense, derivative from the verbal root । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि ।
  • ..४ असतः असत्” (= non-existent, unreal, untruth, falsehood) इति सामासिकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.२ मा अस्मद्” (= I, we pronouns of first person) इति उत्तमपुरुषि सर्वनाम । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Second case, singular
.३ सत् अस्२ प. (= to be, to exist) इति धातुः । तस्मात् वर्तमानकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् सत्” (= existing, real, true) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि neuter । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
.४ गमय गम्१ प. (= to go to, to reach, to realize, to understand) इति धातुः । तस्य प्रयोजकस्य (= to make one go to, to lead) आज्ञार्थे द्वितीयपुरुषे एकवचनम् । Second person, singular of imperative of causative
.५ तमसः तमस्” (= darkness) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम neuter common noun तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.६ ज्योतिः ज्योति” (= flame, light) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम feminine common noun । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । nominative (first) case, singular
.६ मृत्योः मृ१ आ. (= to die, to decease) इति धातुः । तस्मात् क्रियावाचकम् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम मृत्यु” (= death) masculine noun indicating action । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case, singular
.७ अमृतम् ।
  • .१ न मृतम् येन तत् (= that, which does not cause death i.e. that which prevents death,rather, forever)। नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः ।
    ..२ मृतम् मृ१ आ. (= to die, to decease) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् मृत” (= dead) adjectival derivative of past tense । अत्र मृतम् (= मृत्युः) एतदर्थेन नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम Here, the adjective is used in the sense of the noun.The adjectival derivative is of neuter gender । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Nominative (First) or accusative (second) case, singular
  • ..३ अमृतम् अमृत” (= nectar) इति सामासिकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम compounded neuter common noun। तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । Nominative (first) case, singular.

.८ अनृतात् ।

  • ..१ न ऋतम् = अनृतम् । Compound word meaning not straightforward, not chaste नञ्तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ..२ ऋतम् ” (= to come forth) इति धातुः । तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् ऋत” (= straightforward) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • ..३ अनृतात् अनृत” (= not straightforward, vicious) इति सामासिकम् विशेषणम् adjectiival derivative of past tense । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि here neuter । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । ablative (fifth) case singular
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च । 

 

 

  • मा असतः सत् गमय । = Lead me from untruth to truth
  • मा तमसः ज्योतिः गमय । = Lead me from darkness to light
  • मा मृत्योः अमृतम् गमय । = Lead me from death to immortality
  • मा अनृतात् ऋतम् गमय । = Lead me from viciousness to chastity
४ टिप्पणयः ।

.A mantra has a rhythm of its own. There does not have to be a meter.

.I am somewhat confused of the प्रथमा अथवा द्वितीया विभक्तिः of the words सत्, अमृतम् and ऋतम् Since in the second line ज्योतिः is in प्रथमा विभक्तिः the other words should also be considered to be in प्रथमा विभक्तिः But प्रथमा विभक्तिः makes the grammar itself awkward, more so, the English translation becomes quite awkward. I have tried to make the translation as close to the Sanskrit grammar, primarily by considering all these words to be of द्वितीया विभक्तिः But then प्रथमा विभक्तिः of the word ज्योतिः becomes a problem.

  • ..The translation derives only by considering द्वितीया विभक्तिः
.In (.) for the word “मा”, I am mentioning it as being of उत्तमपुरुष In Sanskrit grammar
  • The pronouns of the English third person – He, She, It, They are called as being of प्रथमपुरुष
  • The second person pronoun “you”, both singular and plural is called as being of मध्यमपुरुष or द्वितीयपुरुष
  • the pronouns of the English first person – I, we – are called as being of उत्तमपुरुष or तृतीयपुरुष
  • Declension tables for verbs are also quoted in such order.
 

  • A suggestion came forth, that the grammar of each word should also be given in English, and not just in Sanskrit text using Devanagari script. If I should give grammar in English as per terminology of English grammar, I should give Sanskrit grammar as per Sanskrit terminology. This will cause a great change of mentioning “first person” as per English grammar and calling the same pronoun as being of उत्तमपुरुष or तृतीयपुरुष as per terminology of Sanskrit grammar. The converse will also happen. For the first-person pronouns, I shall rather use the term उत्तमपुरुष instead of तृतीयपुरुष This may help to avoid, at least partially, the confusion.

४.४ The fourth line is not often quoted. I do not know whether it is there in the original text. I even do not know which the original text is. But I did come across the fourth line also, sometime, somewhere. As such, it does make the mantra more comprehensive, since truth and falsehood in the first line are certainly different from chastity and viciousness in the fourth line.
.Here darkness is ignorance and flame or light is knowledge.
  • .५.१ प्रज्वालितो ज्ञानमयः प्रदीपः ।
  • .५.२ Even in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता
यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्जुन ।
ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात् कुरुते तथा ॥४३७॥
सर्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन् प्रकाश उपजायते ।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्यात् विवृद्धम् सत्त्वमित्युत ॥१४११

.Death मृत्यु: and immortality अमृतम् are also in the idiomatic sense. “Even if one dies, one’s name should live.”

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

3 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 69

  1. At the beginning of this course I felt an empathy that became strong and strong. Each time a lesson appears I, quickly, copy it and paste in an empty word document for immediately study it and prepare myself to teach this to my daughter. But because all of the material is so well good chosen, sometime ago I did decide to let my child (7 years old), go ahead of me and do all. She is learning alone the Sanskrit. But together with the Sanskrit she has also the Swedish, the Portuguese, the Spanish, the French, the English and, of course, the school… well, I don’t intend to teach or let her learn everything she wants and less the Hebrew, my mother language.
    This is the first time, I can remember, I see a language course with a fantastic selection of texts in parallel to a very well presented grammar but, what is important, in the enough proportions for to bare in mind. All are inner the proportions and this I know for sure because even knowing the number of languages I know, I am one of the worst person for languages: thank you Deva because my daughter is in the mother’s line in this subject.
    For this I want to thank you a lot in advance and I am sure that a child is always a good way to test the pedagogic of the matters (but in Devanagari hahahahaha)

    • नमो नमः ! I don’t have words to express how astounded I am, by knowing the capacity of a 7-year old girl, being able to learn Sanskrit also, in addition to “…the Swedish, the Portuguese, the Spanish, the French, the English and, of course, the school… and the Hebrew, ….” !! She is extraordinarily बहुश्रुता {bahushrutaa = बहु श्रुतं यया सा = one, who has listened to (learnt) a lot} !! May God bless her ! शुभमस्तु ! Has God bestowed such vast capacity in the brain of every person ? God won’t be partial, right ? I guess, brains of all of us have such capacity. It all depends on how we shall let it blossom. Your daughter is an outstanding example of God’s creation, particularly His creation of the human brain !! ॐ श्रीपरमात्मने नमः !!!

  2. This translation of this verse has given me a new meaning. I , with my very little exposure to this ocean of sanskrit was under the impression,
    Asataha maa.. where asataha is prathama bahuvachanam of asat. and Maa is in the sense of the avyaya Maa (dont.), so Asataha maa, sat gamya; tamasa maa jyothirgamaya. It was quite difficult for me to explain mrityoho..since i was unable to understand this.. Thanks for Abhyankar Ji to explain this.

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