Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 67

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 67

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य सप्त-षष्टितमः (६७) पाठः ।

Having studied नवमः मन्त्रः of ईशावास्योपनिषत्  in the previous lesson, now दशमः मन्त्रः –

अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्यया अन्यदाहुरविद्यया |

इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नस्तद्विचचक्षिरे || १० ||

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा  |

अन्यत् एव आहुः विद्यया अन्यत् आहुः अविद्यया |

इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नः तद् विचचक्षिरे || १० ||

२ समासानां विग्रहाः, शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः, विश्लेषणानि  च |

२.१ अन्यत् (= different) इति सार्वनामिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.२ एव (= only) अव्ययम् ।

२.३ आहुः “अह्” १ आ. १० उ. (= to say) इति धातुः | तस्य भूतकाले तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

  • Optionally the धातुः is taken to be “ब्रू” (= to say) २ उ. |

२.४ विद्यया “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” | तस्य तृतीया विभाक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.५ अविद्यया |

  • २.५.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.५.२ न (= not) अव्ययम् |
  • २.५.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणम् “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” |
  • २.५.४ अविद्यया “अविद्या” (= what is not knowledge) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि  नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.६ इति (= all this) अव्ययम् |

२.७ शुश्रुम “श्रु” ५ प. (= to hear, to listen to) इति धातुः | तस्य भूतकाले प्रथमपुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

२.८ धीराणाम्  “धीर” (= wise, bold) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

२.९ ये “यत्” (= he, it, those who) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा विभाक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

२.१० नः “अस्मद्” (= I, we) इति प्रथमपुरुषि सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य द्वितीया  विभाक्तिः बहुवचनम् च |

२.११ तद् (= that) इति तृतीय-पुरुषि सर्वनाम | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

२.१२ विचचक्षिरे “वि + चक्ष्” २ प. (= to explain in detail) इति धातुः | तस्य परोक्षभूते तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

विद्यया अन्यत् एव आहुः | =

  • (They) said, “(It is) different from knowledge.

अविद्यया अन्यत् आहुः | =

  • (They) said, “(It is) different from what is not knowledge.

ये नः विचचक्षिरे इति तद् धीराणां शुश्रुम | =

  • Those who explained in detail to us, from those wise (sages), (we) learnt “that” like this.

४ टिप्पणयः |

४.१ श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः terms “विद्या” to mean the practice of “ज्ञानयोग” and “अविद्या” to mean the practice of कर्म-योग” Possibly those who practice कर्म-योग will follow the diktats without questioning “why”. There is some logic in terming such indulgence in a specified practice, without questioning “why”, as “अविद्या”.

४.२ आचार्य विनोबा भावे calls “विद्या” to mean “sensibility” (जाणीव in Marathi) and “अविद्या” to mean a state devoid of sensibility (नेणीव in Marathi). By this definition, “अविद्या” seems to be conceptually similar to the concept of a “null set” in mathematics ! That is some smart logic of आचार्य विनोबा भावे ! No wonder why he was so much respected as being an आचार्य

  • आचार्य विनोबा भावे also makes an interesting observation that तृतीया विभक्तिः employed for the words विद्यया and अविद्यया is actually to be interpreted as being पञ्चमी विभक्तिः । He even explains how such switching of विभक्तिः has been validated in other scriptures also.
  • Such nuances come to notice only when doing word-by-word study. Scriptures like ईशावास्योपनिषत् have to be studied as minutely.
  • The study has to be further carried forward in a spiritual pursuit. But I think one needs His grace to be able to make any progress on the spiritual path.

४.३ Both agree that “That”, which is explained by the sages to the ऋषि is “ईशतत्त्व” or “परमात्मतत्त्व” And “That” is of course different from “विद्या” and also different from “अविद्या”

४.४ Actually these connotations of “विद्या” and “अविद्या” as termed by श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and by आचार्य विनोबा भावे are mentioned by them in their commentaries on the previous नवमः मन्त्रः also. It was only my thinking that these connotations should rather be put forth for deliberation when discussing this दशमः मन्त्रः ।

४.५ This is only a glimpse of how an उपनिषत् becomes a philosophical heavy weight ! Such philosophical statements are admittedly beyond my capacity to make any more elaboration. The ऋषि himself says that this was explained to him by wise sages. To “realise” full import of such heavy-weight philosophical statements, one needs to progress very far on the path of spiritual pursuit. Honestly I do not know, whether I am even at the “start” point of that spiritual path.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

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