Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 66

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson No. 66

संस्कृतभाषायाः   नूतनाध्ययनस्य  षट्-षष्टितमः  (६६) पाठः ।

In the previous lesson, there was the mention of विद्याभ्यसनं व्यसनम् . There is a thought-provoking advice in ईशावास्योपनिषत् about what all should be learnt as विद्याभ्यसनम् The advice is in a triplet of मन्त्राः 9th 10th and 11th We shall have to study them one by one. Here is नवमः मन्त्रः –

अन्धं  तमः  प्रविशन्ति  येऽविद्यामुपासते  |

ततो भूय इव ते तमः य उ विद्यायां रताः || ९ ||

१ संधि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति ये अविद्यां उपासते ।

ततः भूयः इव ते तमः ये उ विद्यायां रताः || ९ ||

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

२.१  अन्धम्  “अन्ध” (= blind) इति विशेषणम्  | अत्र नपुम्सकलिङ्गि | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.२  तमः “तमस्” (= darkness) इति नपुम्सकलिङ्गि नाम |  तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.३ प्रविशन्ति “प्र + विश्” ६ प. (= to enter) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम्  |

२.४ ये  “यत्” (= he, it) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि  | तस्य प्रथमा  विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |

२.५ अविद्याम्  |

  • २.५.१ न विद्या = अविद्या | नञ्-तत्पुरुषः |
  • २.५.२ न (= not) अव्ययम्  |
  • २.५.३ विद्या “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणं “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” |
  • २.५.४ अविद्याम् “अविद्या” (= what should not be learnt) इति सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.६ उपासते | ”उप + आस्”  २ आ. (= to sit near, to practice, to indulge in) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे बहुवचनम् |

२.७ ततः (= then, therefore, further, furthermore) अव्ययम् |

२.८ भूयः (= again, also) अव्ययम् |

२.९ इव (= as if, like that) अव्ययम् |

२.१० ते “तत्” (=he, it) इति संबन्धसूचकं सर्वनाम | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।

२.११ उ (= uh) अव्ययम् |

२.१२ विद्यायाम्  “विद्” २ प. (= to know, to learn, to understand) इति धातुः | तस्मात् विध्यर्थि विशेषणं “विद्य” (= what should be learnt, what should be known) | स्त्रीलिङ्गि  “विद्या” | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

२.१३ रताः “रम्” २ आ. (= to enjoy) इति धातुः | तस्मात् भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणं “रत” (= engaged) | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि |  तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च ।

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च |

ये अविद्यां उपासते (ते) अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति | = those who indulge in what should not be learnt, enter blinding darkness.

ततः ये विद्यायां रताः उ ते भूयः तमः (प्रविशन्ति) इव | = Furthermore, those who are engaged in what should be learnt, uh ! they also (enter into) darkness of sorts!

४ टिप्पणयः  |

४.१ श्रीमान् आदिशन्कराचार्यः and आचार्य विनोबा भावे both call every stanza in ईशावास्योपनिषत् as “मन्त्रः”. Every syllable in a मन्त्र has a weightage मात्रा of its own ! Weightages are related to stress exerted and time spent in the pronunciation of the syllable. Weightages are three (1) unstressed अनुदात्त (2) stressed उदात्त or (3) elongated प्लुत Every syllable has to be pronounced by its appropriate weightage. In this manner every मन्त्र gets a rhythm of its own. The rhythm has the capacity to cause reverberations in all the surrounding environment. The reverberations have the capacity to “cleanse” the environment !

Every quotation in वेदाः is a मन्त्रः ।

An उपनिषत् is also called as वेदान्त. So every quotation in an उपनिषत् is also a मन्त्र.

ईशावास्योपनिषत् is वेदान्त of यजुर्वेद.

४.२ The ऋषि whosoever composed this ईशावास्योपनिषत् speaks in this मन्त्र ९ about two classes of people – (1) those who indulge in what should not be learnt and (2) those who stay engaged in what should be learnt. The मन्त्र is thought-provoking because the ऋषि makes the statement that both classes of people enter darkness. The statement is thought-provoking, especially because it says, those who stay engaged in what should be learnt also enter into darkness.

विनोबाजी interprets this as suggesting that one should know, at least for complete knowledge even that what should not be learnt.

I think the statement can be clearer with some example. I have thought of this example. How to stay healthy is something what should be learnt. Conversely how to fall sick is something which should not be learnt. But knowledge and practice of staying healthy will be incomplete without the knowledge of what makes us fall sick. So, knowledge of what should not be learnt yet becomes complimentary to the knowledge of what should be learnt. Maybe the proverb “Half knowledge is dangerous” has this logic only ! Knowing only what should be learnt becomes half knowledge.

How to stay healthy and what can make us fall sick are two sides, positive and negative, of the same field of knowledge. For complete knowledge there should be knowledge of both the sides.

Possibly a good example of positive and negative is in the field of photography. In old style of photography, they would put a film in the camera. Click of the camera would expose the film to light reflected by the object. “Developing” the exposed film would make a negative. The negative is used to expose another coated paper. Coating on this other coated paper would also suffer exposure. Washing the coating would reveal the positive image. Thus positive image emerges by intelligent use of the negative !!

All digital screens also, before images appear on them, are dark. That darkness, negativity becomes positive when images appear.

४.३ Complete, more comprehensive significance of this मन्त्र will emerge after studying the other two मन्त्र-s also.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

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