Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 54

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 54
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य चतुःपञ्चाशत्तमः (५४) पाठः ।

In lesson # 50, we learnt the सुभाषितम् – अव्याकरणमधीतम् … We have been doing quite some grammatical study of each and every word of every सुभाषितम् | But our study of every सुभाषितम् actually starts with सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा । We have practised quite a lot of these सन्धि-विच्छेदा: and also समासानां विग्रहाः | Yet we have not gone into the details of the rules of सन्धि and समास which are a charming feature of Sanskrit. Here is a verse, which summarizes the rule about when and where सन्धि is compulsory and where it is optional.

संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः ।
नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु (सा) विवक्षामपेक्षते ॥

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

संहिता एकपदे नित्या नित्या धातु-उपसर्गयोः ।
नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु (सा) विवक्षाम् अपेक्षते ॥

२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।

२.१ संहिता “सम् + धा” ३ उ. (= to hold together) इति धातुः । तस्य भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् “संहित” (= held together) स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “संहिता” (= merger) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

संहिता is also known by the masculine noun सन्धिः ।

२.२ एकपदे ।

  • २.२.१ एकम् पदम् यस्य तत् = एकपदम् । बहुव्रीहिः ।
  • २.२.२ एकम् “एक” (= one) इति संख्यावाचकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि ।  तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.२.३ पदम् “पद” (= step, part of a sentence or part of a compound word) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.२.४ एकपदे “एकपद” (= singular part) इति सामासिकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२.३ नित्या “नित्य” (= always valid) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि “नित्या” । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२.४ धातूपसर्गयोः ।

  • २.४.१ धातुः च उपसर्गः च = धातूपसर्गौ । समाहारद्वंद्वः ।
  • २.४.२ धातुः “धातु” (= verbal root) इति पुल्लिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.४.३ उपसर्गः (उपसरणम् गमनम् च अस्य इति = what stays and moves closeby) “उपसर्ग” इति पुल्लिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.४.४ उपसरणम् “उप + सृ” १, ३ प. (= to stay close) इति धातुः । तस्मात् क्रियावाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “उपसरण” (= staying close) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.४.५ गमनम् “गम्” १, प. (= to go) इति धातुः । तस्मात् क्रियावाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “गमन” (= ) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.४.६ उपसर्गः = vhat stays and moves closeby, a prefix
  • २.४.७ धातूपसर्गयोः “धातूपसर्ग” (= verb and prefix) इति सामासिक पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् च ।

२.५ समासे “सम् + अस्”(= to be together) इति धातुः । तस्य प्रयोजकत्वेन “सम् + आस्” (= to put together) । तस्मात् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “समास” (= compound word) । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२.६ वाक्ये  (वाक् अर्थवाही भवति येन तत् = that by which a speech becomes meaningful) “वाक्य” (= sentence) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२.७ तु (= but, however) अव्ययम् ।

२.८ विवक्षाम् (वक्तुम् इच्छा सा विवक्षा = desire to speak) “वच्” २ प.(= to speak) इति धातुः । तस्मात् इच्छात्मकम् स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम “विवक्षा” (= desire to speak) । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२.९ अपेक्षते “अप + ईक्ष्” १ आ. (= to expect) इति धातुः । तस्य लट्-वर्तमानकाले तृतीय-पुरुषे एकवचनम् च ।

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।

संहिता एकपदे नित्या (भवति) । = In a singular word-formation संहिता should be always there. This means that it is compulsory to employ संहिता in formation of every word.

धातु-उपसर्गयोः (संहिता) नित्या (भवति) । = संहिता should be always done in formation of धातु and उपसर्ग This means that it is compulsory to employ संहिता in formation of धातु and उपसर्ग

समासे (संहिता) नित्या (भवति) । = संहिता should be always done in formation of समास This means that it is compulsory to employ संहिता in formation of समास

वाक्ये तु (सा = संहिता) विवक्षाम् अपेक्षते । = However in a sentence संहिता desires (itself) to be so spoken. But that is not compulsory. It is optional. “To be spoken” is desire of संहिता The speaker may or may not honour that desire.

४ टिप्पणयः ।

४.१ By setting the verse into four lines, it would read as –

संहितैकपदे नित्या
नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः ।
नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु
(सा) विवक्षामपेक्षते ॥

Each of the 4 lines has 8 वर्णाः What version of the verse I got had only 7 वर्णाः in the fourth line. I have added on my own (सा) to make 8 वर्णाः in the fourth line also. So the verse now properly conforms to अनुष्टुभ् । Because the modification is done by me, I thought it fit to put it in parenthesis, hence as (सा)

४.२ Under  अनुवादाः I have added to the translation some explanation of what is implied. But the explanations are not at all comprehensive. For comprehensive understanding it would be good to have also explanation of the grammatical terms

  • What is पदम् ? How is संहिता compulsorily employed ?
    What is धातु  ? How is संहिता compulsorily employed ?
    What is उपसर्ग  ? How is संहिता compulsorily employed ?
    What is समास  ? How is संहिता compulsorily employed ?
    What is वाक्य ? How is संहिता optional here ? How would a वाक्य be with and without संहिता ?

The explanations could be more convincing with illustrative examples, right ?

४.३ What is पदम् ? Every word in a sentence is a  पदम् In a sentence in Sanskrit every other word is derived from the seed form बीजम् of the पदम् । So every word in a sentence in Sanskrit is like a sapling which has grown up from a seed.

Here also the word संहिता is a word in a sentence. It is also derived as detailed at 2.1. The seed बीजम् is सम् + धा rather only धा In the process of derivation, in the growth of the sapling, one step is its adjectival form संहित To make feminine from this adjectival form, a suffix आ is added So derivation of संहिता is संहित + आ = संहिता

By its simple looks संहिता is just one word एकपदम् But संहिता is inherent in its derivation. So, संहिता एकपदे नित्या ।

Explanation of What is पदम् ? can also be seen from another angle. The most respected and acknowledged grammarian of Sanskrit grammar is पाणिनी He is respected and acknowledged for his अष्टाध्यायी in which he composed some 4000 crisp statements called as aphorisms सूत्राणि ।
About पदम् the पाणिनीसूत्रम् is सुप्तिङ्तम् पदम् । (१।१।१४)

What is implicit in this सूत्रम् is that every पदम् will have one suffix प्रत्यय or the other सुप् or तिङ् । In the formation of a पदम् the प्रत्यय has to merge. The perfect merger will happen by संहिता Thus again, संहिता एकपदे नित्या ।

About संहिता in general पाणिनी defines it as परः सन्निकर्षः संहिता (१।४।१०९) The closest mutual union [of sounds] is [called] संहिता

४.४ For explanation of What is धातु ? What is उपसर्ग ? How is संहिता compulsorily employed in these ? it would be good to recall the सुभाषितम् we studied in Lesson # 21 उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते । प्रहाराहारसंहारविहारपरिहारवत् ॥ There it was also mentioned that उपसर्ग may be used as none, one or many. A simple example of how संहिता is compulsorily employed would be a word प्रत्युपकार Here we have two prefixes प्रति and उप । To use them together we have to use them with their proper merger i.e. संहिता which is प्रति + उप = प्रत्युप । Hence it is well said here in this verse धातु-उपसर्गयोः (संहिता) नित्या ।

४.५ To understand What is समास ? How is संहिता compulsorily employed ? we have the compound word in this verse धातूपसर्गयोः It has two parts धातु and उपसर्ग | The word धातूपसर्गयोः has सप्तमी विभक्तिः द्विवचनम् This declension is applied to the complete compound word. So the two parts धातु and उपसर्ग must compulsorily be mentioned by their proper merger धातु + उपसर्ग = धातूपसर्ग So in any समास also proper merger संहिता is compulsory समासे (संहिता) नित्या ।

४.६ However in a sentence संहिता is not compulsory. For example, here we have two words written with संहिता

संहितैकपदे = संहिता + एकपदे
विवक्षामपेक्षते = विवक्षाम् + अपेक्षते
They are in two different sentences. In their respective sentences, it becomes optional to write them with संहिता or separately. But they were written with संहिता for it to be a good verse, hence to fulfill requirements of अनुष्टुभ् ।

४.७ As can be seen, in achieving a proper merger संहिता we have to focus on  how the ending of one part and beginning of another part will merge.

In धातु + उपसर्ग = धातूपसर्ग ending of first part धातु is उ and beginning of second part is also उ
The merger here is actually of उ + उ = ऊ
If we look minutely into the syllabic composition, we can see that here we have
धात् + (उ + उ)-पसर्ग = धात् + ऊ-पसर्ग = धातूपसर्ग ।

४.८ Ending of the first part will either be a vowel स्वरः such as उ or a consonant व्यञ्जनम् such as म् as in विवक्षाम् or an aspiration विसर्गः as in प्रथमः + अध्यायः = प्रथमोऽध्यायः ।
But we have the vowels

  • अ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  • ऋ ॠ लृ
  • ए ऐ ओ औ

And we have the consonants

  • क् ख् ग् घ् ङ्
  • च् छ् ज् झ् ञ्
  • ट् ठ् ड् ढ् ण्
  • त् थ् द् ध् न्
  • प् फ् ब् भ् म्
  • य् र् ल् व्
  • श् ष् स्
  • ह् ळ्

४.९ With all these vowels and consonants, there will be so many permutations and combinations possible, right ?

Study of संहिता is like study of chemistry. In chemistry we study chemical reactions such as, NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O

In study of संहिता also, we write equations to say what sound will result when one ending sound is followed by another beginning sound !

The list of vowels and consonants is like the periodic table of elements !

In Sanskrit the topic of संहिता is of course delineated very scientifically.  Study of Sanskrit will be incomplete without the study of संहिता with the requisite scientific attitude !

४.१० I can be writing the sub-title of the third section of each lesson “अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च” as “अन्वयानुवादाः” i.e. as a समास where सन्धि would be compulsory. But since basically, I did not resort to समास, whether to employ सन्धि or not became optional🙂

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

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