Supplement to Lesson # 52 of Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach
This supplement is prompted by following comments from Dr. Avinash Sathaye –
Your version has a missing word and hence the shortage in आर्या .
The second line should be:
प्रकृतिरियं सत्त्ववतां न खलु वयस्तेजसो हेतुः ॥
Also, I see your discussion:
२.९ सत्त्ववताम् “सत्” (= existent, inherent) इति विशेषणम् । तस्मात् “त्व”-प्रत्ययेन भाववाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “सत्त्व” (= goodness, inherent trait) । तस्मात् “वत्”-प्रत्ययेन “सत्त्वम् अस्य अस्ति इति” विशेषणम् “सत्त्ववत्” (= having inherent trait) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।
४.३ The word सत्त्ववताम् is interesting. Although etymologicaly “सत्त्ववत्” (= having inherent trait) the trait is commonly understood to be positive aspect of one’s character. But more comprehensive meaning of सत्त्ववताम् considering that the trait can be positive or negative is so seen in the following श्लोकौ in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता –
I think in this context it is not one of the three गुण but describes a kind of spirited nature, one with recognition of his own power.
It is the recognition of one’s own existence in a proud sense.
Finally, the meaning of the punchline:
न खलु वयस्-तेजसः हेतुः = Age and capability have no consideration.
should really be:
Indeed age does not determine virility!
The analysis of वयस्-तेजसः is incorrect.
These are two words वयः तेजसः The first is nom. sing. and the second is gen. sing.
I neglected to add that this one is also from भर्तृहरि !
My responses to these comments –
On comment (1-A)
Since the सुभाषितम् sings well even without the two मात्राs from खलु I thought it is some different version out of 9 varieties of आर्या meter. With the word खलु however, it becomes आर्या meter itself. Thanks, Dr. Sathaye !
On comment (1-B)
Since it is rather compulsory to have सन्धि of पदानि in a सामासिक शब्दः, I thought वयस्-तेजसः should be treated as a सामासिक शब्दः | But yes, वयः and तेजसः are also two different words.
That leads to overhauling of the lesson right from
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।
Here itself, the second line should rather be put as –
प्रकृतिः इयं सत्त्ववतां न खलु वयः तेजसः हेतुः ॥
२.११.३ तेजः “तिज्” १ आ. (= to bear, to be capable, to shine) इति धातुः । तस्मात् “अस्”-प्रत्ययेन भाववाचकम् नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम “तेजस्” (= capability, brightness)। तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
we can add “तेजस्” (= virility)
In fact this shade of meaning of “तेजस्” really brings the twist to also the
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।
I had suggested the अन्वय as
न वयस्-तेजसः हेतुः = Age and capability have no consideration.
Now with “तेजस्” (= virility) the अन्वय can rather be
वयः तेजसः हेतुः न खलु = Age is not really the definitive element for virility.
Or as Dr. Avinash Sathaye has suggested “Indeed, age does not determine virility!”
On comment (2)
Comment of Dr. Avinash Sathaye is his urge that anyone writing about सुभाषितानि must acknowledge gratitude to the genius of भर्तृहरि | Indeed !
Best known literature of भर्तृहरि are his सुभाषितानि composed in three sections on three subjects – नीति शृङ्गार वैराग्य a hundred on each subject hence called as नीतिशतकम् शृङ्गारशतकम् and वैराग्यशतकम् respectively. Together these are called as भर्तृहरित्रिशतकम् |
In a way these three subjects make the trinity of all human activity, called also as धर्म अर्थ काम
It can be readily seen that नीति, शृङ्गार and वैराग्य connote धर्म अर्थ and काम though not in the same order. Rather,
शृङ्गारशतकम् dwells upon the subject of काम That is obvious.
नीतिशतकम् should be considered as dwelling on अर्थ because अर्थ is the objective of working life of a person. And नीति advocates how that phase of life should be lived.
Ultimate aim of human life should be spiritual up-liftment. That is the objective of the concept of धर्म also. That cannot be achieved without renunciation i.e. वैराग्य. Renunciation वैराग्य should not necessarily mean going to the forests, going “away from the mad, mad, mad world !” Renunciation should start with cultivation of mind, maybe, starting with मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूः as advocated in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता |
Out of भर्तृहरित्रिशतकम् | the most popular one is of course नीतिशतकम् | by obvious logic.
Here again, the word शतकम् is not to be understood to mean exactly the number 100 Even for a जप for repetition and counting of a शतकम् the जपमाला has 108 beads, not just 100. Every शतकम् of भर्तृहरि also has 108 सुभाषितानि not just 100 !
This number 108 has both an auspicious and mathematical significance.
Mathematically, it is a multiple of 18, with just a “0” between 1 and 8. But you can put any number of zeros between 1 and 8, every such number is divisible by 18. So, the significance starts with 18.
श्रीमन्-महाभारतम् has 18 पर्व-s
Number of अध्याय-s in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता are 18.
The total army that fought the महाभारत war was 18 अक्षौहिणी |
Number of मन्त्र-s in ईशावास्य-उपनिषत् are 18.
The adoration बिरुदावली of a शङ्कराचार्य often has an adoration as श्रीमत् 108 or श्रीमत् 1008, possibly connoting the status of a शङ्कराचार्य |
It was worthwhile to compose this as a Supplement to Lesson # 52 rather than noting comments of Dr. Avinash Sathaye and my responses to those comments by way of “comment notes”.
Most important part was to express my own gratitude to the genius of महामुनि भर्तृहरि | and also to Dr. Avinash Sathaye for all his valuable comments !