Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 51

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 51
संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकपञ्चाशत्तमः (५१) पाठः ।

Having spoken in the previous lesson, about the importance of study of व्याकरणम् I do realise how little I know of Sanskrit and of course so much less of its grammar. I remain ever-obliged to learned people who have been offering valuable comments and giving great guidance in this project of mine, this project to relearn Sanskrit. Fortunately there is a सुभाषितम् which exactly expresses my experience in this project  –
यदा किञ्चित्झोऽहं गज इव मदान्धः समभवम्
तदा सर्वज्ञोऽस्मीत्यभवदलिप्तं मम मनः
यदा किञ्चित् किञ्चित् बुधजनसकाशादवगतम्
तदा मूर्खोऽस्मीति ज्वर इव मदो मे व्यपगतः ॥
१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

यदा किञ्चित्झः अहम् गजः इव मद-अन्धः समभवम्
तदा सर्वज्ञः अस्मि इति अभवत् अलिप्तम् मम मनः
यदा किञ्चित् किञ्चित् बुध-जन-सकाशात् अवगतम्
तदा मूर्खः अस्मि इति ज्वरः इव मदः मे व्यपगतः ॥
२ समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः विश्लेषणानि च ।
१ यदा (= when) अव्ययम् ।.
२ किञ्चित्झः
  • २.१ किञ्चित् झः = किञ्चित्झः । कर्मधारयः
  • २.२ किञ्चित् “किम् + चित्” (= little, somewhat) इति सार्वनामिकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र अव्ययस्वरूपि ।
  • २.३ झः “झ” (= sleeping, drowsy, inattentive, negligent) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • २.४ किञ्चित्झः “किञ्चित्झ” (= somewhat negligent)  इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३ अहम् “अस्मद्” (= I, we pronouns of first person, common in all genders) इति प्रथम-पुरुषि सर्वनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
४ गजः “गज” (= elephant) इति पुल्लिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
५ इव (= like, similar to) अव्ययम् ।.
६ मद-अन्धः ।
  • ६.१ मदेन अन्धः = मदान्धः । तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ६.२ मदेन “मद्” ४ प. (= to be intoxicated) । इति धातुः । तस्मात् “अ”-प्रत्ययेन पुल्लिङ्गि भाववाचकम् नाम “मद” (= intoxication, ego, pride) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • ६.३ अन्धः “अन्ध” (= blind) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • ६.४ मदान्धः “मदान्ध” (= blind due to intoxication) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
७ समभवम् “सम् + भू” १ प. (= to become) इति धातुः । तस्य लङ्-प्रथम-(अनद्यतन)-भूते प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
८ सर्वज्ञः ।
  • ८.१ सर्वम् जानाति = सर्वज्ञः । उपपद-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • ८.२ सर्वम् “सर्व” (= all, everything) इति सार्वनामिकम् विशेषणम् । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • ८.३ जानाति “ज्ञा” ९ उ. (= to know) इति धातुः । तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
  • ८.४ सर्वज्ञः “सर्वज्ञ” (= all-knowing) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
९ अस्मि “अस्” २ उ. (= to be) इति धातुः । तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
१० इति (= thus) अव्ययम् ।
११ अभवत् “भू” १ प. (= to be) इति धातुः । तस्य लङ्-प्रथम-(अनद्यतन)-भूते तृतीयपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।
१२ अलिप्तम् ।
  • १२.१ न लिप्तम् = अलिप्तम् । नञ्-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • १२.२ लिप्तम् “लिप्” ४ प्. (= to coat, to paste, to attach) इति धातुः । तस्मात् कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् “लिप्त” (= attached) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • १२.३ अलिप्तम् = unattached, aloof, disinterested, indifferent
१३ मम “अस्मद्” (= First pronoun I, we) इति प्रथम-पुरुषि सर्वनाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
१४ मनः “मनस्” (= mind) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
१५ बुध-जन-सकाशात् ।
  • १५.१ बुधः जनः = बुधजनः । कर्मधारयः ।
  • १५.२ काशेन सह = सकाशम् । उपपद-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • १५.३ बुध-जनस्य सकाशात् = बुध-जन-सकाशात् । षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  • १५.४ बुधः “बुध्” १ उ. ४ आ. (= to know) इति धातुः । तस्मात् “अ”-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणम् प्रायः पुल्लिङ्गि “बुध” (= knowing, knowledgeable)। तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • १५.५ जनः “जन” (= person, people) इति पुल्लिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • १५.६ काशेन “काश्” ४ आ. (= to appear, to be visible) इति धातुः । तस्मात् “अ”-प्रत्ययेन पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “काश” (= appearance) । तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
  • १५.७ सह (= with) अव्ययम् । सम्बन्धितस्य शब्दस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः ।
  • १५.८ सकाशात् “सकाश” (= visible with) इति विशेषणम् । प्रायः पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य पञ्चमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च । सकाशम् तथा सकाशात् द्वे अपि प्रायः क्रियाविशेषणे अव्यये इव प्रयुज्येते ।
  • १५.९ बुध-जन-सकाशात् = by being seen with knowledgeable people, in the company of knowledgeable people, from wise people
१६ अवगतम् “अव + गम्” १ प. (= to go under, to understand) इति धातुः । तस्य कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् “अवगत” (= understood, learnt) । अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
१७ मूर्खः “मूर्ख” (= foolish, fool) इति विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
१८ ज्वरः “ज्वर” (= fever) इति पुल्लिङ्गि सामान्यनाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
१९ मे “अस्मद्” (= First pronoun I, we) इति प्रथम-पुरुषि सर्वनाम । तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च
२० व्यपगतः “वि + अप + गम्” १ प. (= to drive away) इति धातुः । तस्य कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकम् विशेषणम् “व्यपगत” (= driven away, removed) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।

यदा अहम् मद-अन्धः गजः इव किञ्चित्झः समभवम् = When I became somewhat inattentive like an intoxicated elephant
तदा सर्वज्ञः अस्मि इति मम मनः अलिप्तम् अभवत् = my mind became indifferent (to learning), (thinking) that I know it all
यदा बुध-जन-सकाशात् किञ्चित् किञ्चित् अवगतम् = When I started understanding little by little in the company of the wise
मूर्खः अस्मि इति ज्वरः इव मे मदः व्यपगतः = (Realising) how foolish I was, my intoxication (ego, pride), (which had afflicted me) like a feverish malady, started going away. My intoxication started getting removed
४ टिप्पणयः ।

१ अत्र प्रत्येकस्मिन् पादे सप्तदश अक्षराणि । तेषां मात्राः ततः गणाः च –
  • 1.1 यदा कि-ञ्चित्झोऽहं- गजइ-व मदा-न्धः सम-भ-वम् (Note, to identify गणाः ‘-‘ is used to separate every set of three syllables)
  • १-२-२ २-२-२     १-१-१ १-१-२ २-१-१ १ २
  • य-माता मा-तारा    न-सल स-लगं  भा-नस ल ग
  • गणाः – य, म, न, स, भ, ल, ग ।
  • एतत् शिखरिणी वृत्तम् । अस्य लक्षणम् – “रसैर्रुद्रैश्छिन्ना यमनसभलागा शिखरिणी ।”
  • 1.2 Actually the second line is defective. It has only 16 syllables. I have been sensing it to be defective. There has been suggestions that I should provide an audio clip for every lesson. To give a try to that suggestion I tried to recite this and sensed quite some difficulty in rendering it properly. When I started investigating the problem, I realised the defect that there is one syllable short.
  • तदा सर्वज्ञोऽस्मीत्यभवदलिप्तं मम मनः
  • १-२-२ २-२-२ १-१-१ १-२-२ १-१-१ २
  • There have to be five short syllables in succession. Here there are only four.
  • 1.3 I have been also uncomfortable with the word अलिप्तम् as is being seen in the available version. Would ego overwhelm the mind or will it make the mind unattached ? Mind being unattached is actually good. श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता advises all through that all karma should be done unattached. I would rather put in the missing syllable as नु and let the line read as

तदा सर्वज्ञोऽस्मीत्यभवदनुलिप्तं मम मनः ।

2 Everyone knows of the single-letter word ॐ called as एकाक्षर ब्रह्म and also known as प्रणव । This सुभाषितम् introduces us to another, rather uncommon, single-letter word “झ” a wholesome adjective !
3 The word मदः has two shades of meaning. It is very commonly used for intoxication of an elephant. Its other meaning is pride or ego, which is a vice. In this सुभाषितम् it is used with both the meanings. In the first line it is intoxication of an elephant. In the last line it is false ego, which should be banished.
4 Pride is a vice. False pride is more so. Major vices, enemies are six षड्रिपु = काम-क्रोध-लोभ-मद-मोह-मत्सर In श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता they are mentioned as अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् (१८-५३)  अहंकार = मद
5 The word अवगतम् is interesting. It means “understood”. Actually अव means “under, down” गतम् means “gone”. Together अवगतम् etymologically means “gone down” or “gone under”. But by implication it means gone down “into the deep mind”, hence understood. The English word “understood” or “understand” has the etymology of under + stand. By implication “under” means “gone down into the mind” and stands there. Is it not interesting that etymology and implied meaning of the words अवगतम् and “understood” should be identical ? The words are of two languages which have their genesis so far away from each other geographiclly and even historically yet have such commonality ! But there is some difference also. In English, words “understand” and “undergo” have different meaning. अवगतम् is etymologically closer to “undergone” and by implied meaning is closer to “understood”. Or, since “undergone” means what is experienced, अवगतम् can be understood to imply “experienced and accordingly understood” So अवगतम् is combined effect of experience and registering the moral of that experience, i.e. understanding – so अवगतम् is combination of undergoing and understanding.
6 The words अवगतम् and व्यपगतम् bring forth another evidence of how उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते ।
7 By using अवगतम् and व्यपगतम् at the ending of third and fourth lines, the poet has managed to have similar sounding ending of successive lines. This is also a poetic decoration of composing poetry. Decoration by having similar sounding ending of successive lines is called as पादान्त-यमक-अलङ्कार
8 In the third line we also have किञ्चित् किञ्चित् a successively repetitive sound. This is called as  अनुप्रास अलङ्कार (= onomatopoeia ?) We had a good example of it in वितर वारिद वारि दवातुरे (Lesson # 34) or also in शरदि न वर्षति गर्जति वर्षति वर्षासु (Lesson # 3)
9 Apart from a सुभाषितम् being a सुभाषितम् i.e. a good saying, we can see and appreciate a range of poetic skills also in evidence.
  • 9.1 Composing verses in a particular meter is poetic skill.
  • 9.2 Using successively repetitive sounds and line-endings with similar sounds is also poetic skill.
  • 9.3 Saying something else to mean something different is also poetic skill. For example the poet here has taken the blame on himself in saying that he was overcome by ego and thought that he knew it all. But such overpowering of one’s mind by one’s own ego can happen to anybody. So, although the poet has taken the blame upon himself, he is communicating a moral, which is appropriate for anybody.  This is अन्योक्ति-अलङ्कार । Note अन्योक्ति = अन्यस्मै उक्तिः । (= talking to somebody different though implying some another).
  • 9.4 In saying गजः इव मदान्धः the poet has used for himself the simile of an intoxicated elephant. An elephant is a huge animal. Overpowering of one’s mind by one’s own ego is a huge influence, as huge as an elephant. Elephant also connotes huge strength. If an elephant gets intoxicated, how huge that effect is ! Ego also overpowers – a huge effect ! This usage of a simile is also a poetic decoration उपमा अलङ्कार In उपमा अलङ्कार there is similarity between two things – one उपमान the object and one उपमेय the subject. Here मदान्धः गजः is the उपमान and अहम् is उपमेय
  • 9.5 Skill as in 9.1 is called as छन्द or वृत्तालङ्कार The word छन्द literally meaning a fancy. It is fanciful to compose a verse in a particular meter, right ? It is of course also a skill. Whole of मेघदूतम् is 600+ lines They are all in मन्दाक्रान्ता
  • 9.6 Skill as in 9.2 based on words, letters and their sounds are called as शब्दालङ्कार The word शब्द literally has both the meanings “word” and “sound”. Here we see two शब्दालङ्कार-s यमक and अनुप्रास
  • 9.7 Skill as in 9.3 and 9.4 are called as अर्थालङ्कार This अलङ्कार is based on how the “meaning” अर्थ is conveyed.
  • 9.8 How to appreciate decorations अलङ्कार-s in a poetry has also been systematised ! It is to be appreciated by छन्द by शब्दालङ्कार and by अर्थालङ्कार There is a wide range in each one of these modes of decorations ! With so many adornments, every सुभाषितम् is so much well bedecked !
  • 9.9 Adornment seems to be a part of Indian culture. All Gods are richly adorned and have many hands and faces also🙂 In the eleventh chapter in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता overwhelmed by the unknown and unseen form of श्रीकृष्ण having thousands of hands, अर्जुन pleads to श्रीकृष्ण to assume back his normal form with four hands तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते । (११-४६) Even a demon like रावण had ten faces. Greatness of श्रीराम is also because he defeated and killed a demon as fierce as रावण one having ten faces ! In another सुभाषितम् a poet saysरामरावणयोर्युद्धम् रामरावणयोरिव । The fight between राम and रावण can be compared only with a fight between राम and रावण meaning “there is no fight equal to that fight ! What a poetic way of saying about a fight !
10 Systematisation is संस्करणम् That is the heart of संस्कृतभाषा There is systematisation through and through. Take any aspect. You find systematisation. It starts right from the script. All vowels are in a sequence of their own. Is not English, rather Roman, alphabet so much dispersed ? Vowel “a” is at 1st place “e” at 5th place, “i” at 9th place, “o” at 15th and “u” at 21st place ! There is also “y” usable both as a vowel or as a consonant at 25th place. This is not to criticise the Roman alphabet. But this comparative study does bring out how संस्कृतभाषा has systematisation of every aspect of a language as a language.
11 In studying a सुभाषितम् we get to learn both – the good saying for the goodness of its meaning and also  संस्कृतभाषा for the beauty of its nuances and the systematisation. That is why every lesson is संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनम् ।
शुभमस्तु |
-o-O-o-

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