Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 38

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 38

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य अष्ट-त्रिंशः (३८) पाठः ।

महाकवेः कालिदासस्य “मेघदूतम् ”-काव्यात् एकः श्लोकः सप्त-त्रिंशे पाठे पठितः |

In Lesson # 37 we studied a श्लोकः from “मेघदूतम् ” of कालिदास |

अधुना कालिदासस्य “मालविकाग्निमित्रम्”-नाटकात् अयम् श्लोकः

Now for this lesson, this श्लोकः from his drama “मालविकाग्निमित्रम्” –

पात्रविशेषे न्यस्तं गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः |

जलमिव समुद्रशुक्तौ मुक्ताफलतां पयोदस्य ||

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा |

पात्र-विशेषे न्यस्तं गुण-अन्तरं व्रजति शिल्पं आधातुः |

जलम् इव समुद्र-शुक्तौ मुक्ताफलतां पयो-दस्य ||

२. समासानां विग्रहाः शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तयः  विश्लेषणानि च |

१.   पात्र-विशेषे

  1. विशेषं पात्रम् = पात्रविशेषम्, विशेष्य-पूर्वपदीयः कर्मधारयः । तस्मिन् ।
  2. विशेषम् ‘विशेष’ (= special, exclusive) इति विशेषणम् | अत्र नपुम्सकलिङ्गी | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  3. पात्रम् ‘पात्र’ (= receptacle, recipient, thing or person that receives, holds and/or carries) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

i.  Etymology व्युत्पत्तिः of पात्रम् ‘पा’ १ प. and २ प. (= to receive and keep, to protect) इति धातुः | तस्मात् त्र-प्रत्ययेन कर्तृवाचकं        नपुंसकलिङ्गी नाम |
ii.     The begging bowl is a ‘भिक्षा-पात्रम्’ of a beggar.
iii.     A cooking utensil is a पात्रम् in the kitchen
iv.     A student is a पात्रम् which holds knowledge imparted by a teacher.
v.     An actor is a पात्रम्, which holds and carries a role conceived by the dramatist.
vi.     Sculpture carved by a sculptor is a पात्रम् holding and carrying the art.
vii.     Capacity to hold an office is पात्रता (= eligibility) of an officer
viii.     A computer program, which receives data-input is also पात्रम् !

4. पात्रविशेषे ‘पात्रविशेष’ (=special receptacle, thing or person) नपुंसकलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः, एकवचनम् च |

२.   न्यस्तम् ‘नि + अस्’ २ प. (= to put, to place, to impart) इति धातुः | तस्य कर्मणि भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् ‘न्यस्त’ (= placed, imparted, put in) | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गी | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

३.   गुणान्तरम्

अन्यः गुणः = गुणान्तरम्, कर्मधारयः ।
गुणान्तरम्  ‘गुणान्तर’ (= different quality) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

४.   व्रजति ‘व्रज्’ १ प. (= to go to, to attain) इति धातुः | तस्य ‘लट्’-वर्तमाने तृतीय-पुरुषेण एकवचनी क्रियापदम् |

५.   शिल्पम् ‘शिल्प’ (= art, work, knowledge, execution) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

६.   आधातुः “आ + धा” ३ उ. (= to create, impart) इति धातुः | तस्य ‘तृ’-प्रत्ययेन कर्तृवाचकं सामान्यनाम ‘आधातृ’ (= creator, he/she/it, who imparts) | अत्र पुल्लिङ्गेन, षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

७.   जलम् ‘जल’ (= water) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

८.   इव (= just as) अव्ययम् ।

९.   समुद्रशुक्तौ

  1. समुद्रे शुक्तिः = समुद्रशुक्तिः । सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः ।
  2. समुद्रे ‘समुद्र’ (= sea, ocean) इति पुल्लिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  3. शुक्तिः ‘शुक्ति’ (= shell) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |
  4. समुद्रशुक्तौ ‘समुद्रशुक्ति’ (= sea-shell) इति स्त्रीलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

१०.  मुक्ताफलताम्

  1. मुक्ता एव फलम् = मुक्ताफलम् । कर्मधारयः ।
  2. ‘मुक्ताफल’ (= pearl) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य ‘ता’-प्रत्ययेन स्त्रीलिङ्गी भाववाचकं नाम ‘मुक्ताफलता’ (= quality of being a pearl) | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

११.  पयोदस्य

  1. पयः ददाति = पयोदः, उपपद-तत्पुरुषः ।
  2. पयः ‘पयस्’ (= water) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः, एकवचनम् च |
  3. ददाति ‘दा’ १ प. अत्र ३ उ. (= to give) इति धातुः | तस्य लट्-वर्तमाने, तृतीय-पुरुषेण एकवचनम् च |
  4. पयोदस्य ‘पयोद’ (= cloud, because cloud gives water) इति पुल्लिङ्गी सामान्यनाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च |

३ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।

अनुक्र. अन्वयाः अनुवादाः
समुद्रशुक्तौ पयोदस्य जलम् मुक्ताफलतां (व्रजति) इव Just as water from the cloud becomes a pearl in a sea-shell
पात्रविशेषे न्यस्तं आधातुः शिल्पम् गुणान्तरं व्रजति । (art, knowledge, execution) imparted to a special receptacle or recipient (thing or person) assumes a different quality

५ टिप्पणयः ।

1 This सुभाषितम् is an utterance by the dance-teacher, who taught dance to मालविका, the heroine of the play मालविकाग्निमित्रम् ।
2 Obvious by the सुभाषितम् is the pleasure a teacher would enjoy, when the student (disciple) is special. My father was a teacher. He used to mention a proverb, शिष्यादिच्छेत् पराजयम् | Teach in such manner that your disciple will excel you ! Pleasure in being left behind ? 

I remember a quote of a choreographer of Hindi films, who said, “To choreograph a dance number for Madhuri Dikshit to perform is such a pleasing experience !” She said exactly what महाकविः कालिदासः says here of course so much poetically !

3 An artist and his art, a teacher and the disciple these are all very charming mutual relationships. A student should also be so ardent, that it should be a pleasure for the teacher to impart the knowledge. Would it not be so sad, if the teacher keeps feeling that he is wasting his time and effort in teaching a disinterested, indifferent, dumb student ?
4 There is an interesting श्लोकः in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता – 

देवान् भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः |

परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ || 3-11 ||

Here also mutual benevolence परम् श्रेयः both for Gods and devotees is mentioned. Note, benevolence for Gods also !

5 There is a poetic axiom here, that raindrops falling in a sea-shell become pearls. In fact the axiom more completely presumes that the raindrops should be of rains which fall when constellation नक्षत्रं in the sky is स्वाति |
6 According to the astronomical almanac, स्वाति-नक्षत्रं will be there approximately in second half of October (अश्विन-मासः) months. Rains in October अश्विन-मासे वर्षा is a rare phenomenon. The poetic axiom thus sets difficult or challenging conditions for formation of pearls, that too in sea-shells, not in shells on river beds !
7 The word पात्रम् was seen earlier in Lesson # 35 in श्लोकौ 17-20 and 17-22 in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता । There the word was mentioned to detail सात्विकम् and तामस् दानम् respectively. It comes to mind that here कालिदासः has sort of coined a definition of the word पात्रम् | आधातुः शिल्पम् यत्र न्यस्तं भवति, तत् पात्रम् | Donation of a donor is also आधातुः शिल्पम् ! Receiver of the donation, a person, a thing or even a cause or even the mind of a student or a computer-program is पात्रम् ! wow !! 

In टिप्पणयः in Lesson # 35, I had expressed reservation, whether the meaning considered there for the word पात्रम् was satisfactory ! I think a very, very good definition evolves from this श्लोकः by कालिदासः !

8 The word इव gives out the काव्यालङ्कारः here. इव connects a relationship of similarity between two instances. Such poetic adornment is उपमालङ्कारः . Between the two instances, one is a statement उपमेयम् and the other, its example उपमानम् | आधातुः शिल्पम् गुणान्तरं व्रजति is the statement. पयोदस्य जलम् मुक्ताफलतां (व्रजति) is its example.
9 The meter here is आर्या | लक्षणपदम्  of आर्या-वृत्तम् is – 

यस्या: पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रा तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

अष्टादश द्वितीये चतुर्थे पञ्चदश सार्या ||

I would dare to give, shall I say, a better analysis (?) of आर्यावृत्तम् –

I think each line in this meter should be considered as having three sections. For example, here –

1-1 पात्रविशेषे न्यस्तं (pause)  21 – 122 – 22 = 12

1-2 गुणान्तरं व्रजति (pause)  1212 – 111 = 9

1-3 शिल्पमाधातुः |                 21-222 = 9

2-1 जलमिव समुद्रशुक्तौ (pause)1111 – 12122 = 12

2-2 मुक्ताफलतां (pause) 22-112 = 8

2-3 पयोदस्य ||                              1221 = 6

In लक्षणपदम्

1-1 यस्या पादे प्रथमे (pause) 22 22 112 = 12

1-2 द्वादश मात्रा (pause) 211 22 = 8

1-3 तथा तृतीयेऽपि |              12 1221 = 9

2-1 अष्टादश द्वितीये (pause) 2212122 = 12

2-2 चतुर्थे पञ्च- (pause) 122 – 21 = 8

2-3 दश सार्या ||                  11 – 22 = 6

We had in Lesson # 3

1-1 शरदि न वर्षति गर्जति   111 – 1 – 211 – 211 = 12

1-2 वर्षति वर्षासु              211 – 221 = 9

1-3 निःस्वनो मेघः              212 – 22 = 9

2-1 नीचो वदति न कुरुते    22 – 111 – 1 – 112 = 12

2-2 न वदति सुजनः              1 – 111 – 112 = 8

2-3 करोत्येव                            1221 = 6

As can be seen, first line of लक्षणपदम्

यस्या: पादे प्रथमे द्वादश मात्रा तथा तृतीयेऽपि |

i.e. fisrt and third पादौ to have द्वादश १२ मात्राः is validated everywhere.

Considering the second line of लक्षणपदम्, patterns in पात्रविशेषे… and शरदि न वर्षति …. have better matching 8 मात्राः in 2-2 and 6 मात्राः in 2-3, than the pattern in लक्षणपदम्. In fact लक्षणपदम् somehow does not seem to rhyme properly. Even 8 in 1-2 and 9 in 1-3 do not sum up to अष्टादश द्वितीये 18 in second quarter.

Also चतुर्थः पादः, i.e. 2-2 plus 2-3 should have 8 + 6 = 14 मात्राः, not पञ्चदश as mentioned in लक्षणपदम् |

Basically however, the concept of a meter वृत्तम् also called as छन्दः sets a definite rhyming style, so much so, that anyone can sing the verse, regardless, whether one has musical voice or not !

That is how वेदाः got passed on from generation to generation and stayed alive over thousands of years even when, it is said, they were not written down at all.

10 संस्कृतम्  has been criticized that it demands lot of recitation and memorizing. 

But it stayed alive over thousands of years with all its charm and glory and wisdom, primarily by virtue of that ! A proverb does say, “There is no shortcut to success !”

I think, the problem is from the materialistic outlook, craving to have as much as possible, as fast as possible.  Often the discretion for means to be fair may as well be compromised.

I feel uncomfortable, when people seem to be wanting to master संस्कृतम् as fast as possible. To my mind, संस्कृतम् is to be absorbed and enjoyed क्षणशः कणशः also अजरामरवत् | That is the basic thought of these lessons for “Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach” संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनम् by studying good sayings सुभाषितानि | Let us carry on absorbing the morals and enjoying संस्कृतम्.

I am sure, संस्कृतम् will grow in our mind and we shall also have a richer, healthier, more and more संस्कृतम् मनः cultured mind !

If that would not happen after learning संस्कृतम् however much, it will be what श्रीकृष्णभगवान्  said in the last श्लोकः in tenth chapter –

अथवा बहुनैतेन किम् ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन |

If not, what use will it be for you, Arjuna, by your knowing all this much ?

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

One thought on “Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 38

  1. I am amazed with the evolution of this course. I see the things evolving in a great deepness but with a rather simplicity. Of course, I am amazed with my understanding once that is the first time I can put the things together in the matter of Sanskrit. I deeply thank you.

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