Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 36

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 36

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य षट्-त्रिन्शः (३६) पाठः ।

Dr. Avinash Sathaye of University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA (Web: www.msc.uky.edu/sohum) has been giving invaluable guidance by his critical comments. On seeing the द्वे सुभाषिते in lesson # 34, both speaking about चातकः and मेघः (वारिदः), Dr. Sathaye advanced a suggestion to take up a study of another सुभाषितम्  about चातकः and अम्भोधः । Here it is –

रे रे चातक सावधानमनसा मित्र क्षणम् श्रूयताम् |

अम्भोदा बहवो वसन्ति गगने सर्वेऽपि नैतादृशाः |

केचिद्- वृष्टिभिरार्द्रयन्ति वसुधां गर्जन्ति केचिद्-वृथा |

यम् यम् पश्यसि तस्य तस्य पुरतो मा ब्रूहि दीनं वचः ||

१ सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा |

रे रे चातक स-अवधान-मनसा मित्र क्षणम् श्रूयताम् |

अम्भः-दाः बहवः वसन्ति गगने सर्वे अपि न एतादृशाः |

के-चित् वृष्टिभिः आर्द्रयन्ति वसु-धां गर्जन्ति के-चित् वृथा |

यम् यम् पश्यसि तस्य तस्य पुरतः मा ब्रूहि दीनं वचः ||

२ समासानां विग्रहाः ।

अनुक्र. सामासिक-शब्दः पूर्वपदम् उत्तरपदम् समासस्य विग्रहः समासस्य प्रकारः
स-अवधान-मनसा
१.१ सावधान अवधान अवधानेन सह उपपद-तत्पुरुषः
१.२ सावधानमनसा सावधान मनस् सावधानं मनः (तेन) कर्मधारयः
अम्भोदाः अम्भस् दा अम्भः ददन्ति (ते) उपपद-तत्पुरुषः
वसुधाम् वसु धा वसवः धारयन्ति याम् सा (ताम्) बहुव्रीहिः
वसून् धारयति (ताम्) उपपद-तत्पुरुषः

३ शब्दशः विश्लेषणम् ।

अनुक्र. संज्ञा मूल-संज्ञा संज्ञायाः प्रकारः शब्दार्थः लिङ्गम् (अत्र) विभक्तिः वचनम्
रे अव्ययम् Eh !
चातक चातक सामान्यनाम bird, as explained in Lesson # 34 पु. संबोधन एक.
अवधानेन अवधान सामान्यनाम attention नपुं. तृतीया एक.
सह सह अव्ययम् with
मनसा मनस् सामान्यनाम mind नपुं. तृतीया एक.
मित्र मित्र सामान्यनाम friend नपुं. संबोधन एक.
क्षणम् क्षण सामान्यनाम moment पु. द्वितीया एक.
श्रूयताम् श्रु क्रियापदम् listen
अम्भोदाः अम्भोद सामान्यनाम cloud पु. प्रथमा बहु.
१० अम्भः अम्भस् सामान्यनाम water नपुं. द्वितीया एक.
११ धारयन्ति धृ क्रियापदम् To hold
१२ बहवः बहु सर्वनाम many नपुं. प्रथमा बहु.
१३ वसन्ति वस् क्रियापदम् To stay, recide
१४ गगने गगन सामान्यनाम sky नपुं. सप्तमी एक.
१५ सर्वे सर्व सर्वनाम all पु. प्रथमा बहु.
१६ एतादृशाः एतादृश विशेषणम् like this पु. प्रथमा बहु.
१७ के-चित् = के + चित् (किम्) + चित् सर्वनाम some पु. प्रथमा बहु.
१८ वृष्टिभिः वृष्टि सामान्यनाम raining स्त्री. तृतीया बहु.
१९ आर्द्रयन्ति आर्द्रय् क्रियापदम् To make wet
२० वसुधाम् वसुधा सामान्यनाम earth स्त्री. द्वितीया एक.
२१ गर्जन्ति गर्-ज् क्रियापदम् To thunder
२२ वृथा वृथा अव्ययम् In vain
२३ यम् यत् सर्वनाम who पु. द्वितीया एक.
२४ पश्यसि दृश् क्रियापदम् To see
२५ तस्य तत् सर्वनाम he पु. षष्ठी एक.
२६ पुरतः पुरतः अव्ययम् In front of
२७ मा मा अव्ययम् Do not
२८ ब्रूहि ब्रू क्रियापदम् To speak
२९ दीनम् दीन विशेषणम् poor, begging नपुं. द्वितीया एक.
३० वचः वचस् सामान्यनाम talk नपुं. द्वितीया एक.

४ धातुसाधितानां विश्लेषणम् ।

No dhaatusaadhitam here.

५ क्रियापदानां विश्लेषणम् ।

अनुक्र. शब्दः धातुः गणः पदम् (अत्र) प्रयोजकः ? प्रयोगः कालः / अर्थः (ल-कारः) पुरुषः वचनम्
श्रूयताम् श्रु प. (आ.) कर्तरि लोट् (आशिषे) तृतीय एक.
धारयन्ति धृ १० उ. (प.) कर्तरि लट् (वर्त.) तृतीय बहु.
वसन्ति वस् प. कर्तरि लट् (वर्त.) तृतीय बहु.
आर्द्रयन्ति आर्द्रय् १० प. कर्तरि लट् (वर्त.) तृतीय बहु.
गर्जन्ति गर्-ज् प. कर्तरि लट् (वर्त.) तृतीय बहु.
पश्यसि दृश् प. कर्तरि लट् (वर्त.) द्वितीय एक.
ब्रूहि ब्रू उ. (प.) कर्तरि लेट् (वेदे / आज्ञार्थः) द्वितीय एक.

६ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।

अनुक्र. अन्वयाः अनुवादाः
1 रे रे मित्र चातक क्षणम् स-अवधान-मनसा श्रूयताम् | Eh, friend चातक, listen attentively for a while
2 गगने बहवः अम्भोधाः वसन्ति | There are many clouds in the sky
3 सर्वे अपि एतादृशाः न (सन्ति) All of them are not like this (not like what will satisfy your thirst)
4 के-चित् वृष्टिभिः वसु-धां आर्द्रयन्ति | Some of them wet the earth with the rains
5 के-चित् वृथा गर्जन्ति | Some thunder in vain
6 यम् यम् पश्यसि, To every cloud, which you see
7 तस्य तस्य पुरतः दीनम् वचः मा ब्रूहि | Do not speak a begging talk in front of everyone

७ टिप्पणयः ।

1 I have changed the structure of Table 3, to give शब्दार्थाः nearer to मूल-संज्ञा, just next to संज्ञायाः प्रकारः | 

Also for the column लिङ्गम् in this table, I have added (अत्र). This helps to explain लिङ्गम् relevant to the context especially for pronouns and adjectives.

2 The poet has used the phrase न एतादृशाः  very charmingly to imply (not like what will satisfy your thirst) 

आर्द्रय् meaning “To make wet” is an interesting verb formed from an adjective आर्द्र meaning “wet”. In Sanskrit we have nouns, adjectives, indeclinables obtained from verbs and verbs obtained from nouns, adjectives, even from sounds. Poets coin their own verbs such as बुद्-बुदायते to say bubbling happens.

One wonders why people would think that Sanskrit is a dead language, not adaptive to reforms. Even कालिदासः himself is said to have taken liberty to introduce reforms, where people had to grant them, saying, निरङ्कुशाः कवयः “no restraint for poets !” Of course that would be admissible to great poets like कालिदासः |

3 We have one more synonym for cloud, अम्भोधः
4 द्वे सुभाषिते in Lesson # 34 were addressing the cloud, requesting the cloud to quench the thirst of चातक, when the time would be appropriate, without being indifferent to the important aspect of charity to be in right time. 

There again, in “गर्जसि मेघ …” the चातक bird was himself addressing the cloud.

In “वितर वारिद ….” The poet was addressing the cloud.

In this one here, it is again the poet addressing not the cloud, but the चातक.

The messages and the morals are neither for the cloud nor for the चातक.

This style of addressing someone else, when the message is meant for another (for us all !) is called as अन्योक्तिः (=अन्यस्मै उक्तिः, चतुर्थी-तत्पुरुषः, meaning “address to someone else”)

Sanskrit poetry is full of such literary ornaments अलङ्काराः ।

5 In Lesson # 34, mention was also made of different meters used for composing poetry. 

Different meters are also suited to different moods. But some meters can be suitable for more-than-one different moods. Some moods can be expressed in more-than-one different meters also.

गर्जसि मेघ … was in मात्रासमक meter

वितर वारिद … was in द्रुत-विलम्बित

This one is in शार्दूलविक्रीडित ।

6 शार्दूलविक्रीडित is a meter with a definite pattern of syllabic weightages – 

19 syllables in each line

Since syllables can be either of 1 or 2 weightage, the pattern of syllabic weightages in शार्दूलविक्रीडित is 2-2-2, 1-1-2, 1-2-1, 1-1-2, 2-2-1, 2-2-1, 2

For easier identification of the patterns one looks at a line in groups of 3 syllables. Here we have 6 groups गणाः of syllables and an ending syllable of weightage 2

गणाः of different patterns are also given names

1-1-1     is न-गणः, 1-1-2 is स-गणः 1-2-1 is ज-गणः 1-2-2 is य-गणः

2-1-1 is भ-गणः  2-1-2 is र-गणः 2-2-1 is त-गणः 2-2-2 is म-गणः

A stand alone syllable of weightage 1 is called ल an acronym for लघु meaning small.

A stand alone syllable of weightage 2 is called ग an acronym for गुरु meaning large.

(पाणिनी is said to have composed)* a simple phrase य-मा-ता-रा-ज-भा-न-स-ल-गं which helps to remember all the permutations of गण-patterns and also their names.

For example, य-मा-ता is pattern 1-2-2 which is य-गणः, the beginning letter of this group of three.

By itself य-मा-ता-रा-ज-भा-न-स-ल-गं is not at all a meaningful word. But as a सूत्रम् it is so intelligently composed encoding names of all गणाःcombining therein their patterns also !

The शार्दूलविक्रीडितम्  meter has गणाः – म, स, ज, स, त, त, ग |

To facilitate remembering this feature of शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् there is also a one-liner containing the gaNaaH of the meter –

सूर्याश्वैर्यदि  मः सजौ सततगाः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् |

द्रुतविलंबित meter वृत्तम् in “वितर वारिद वारि दवातुरे ।” has गणाः – न, भ, भ, र and
is explained by the one-liner “द्रुतविलंबितमाह नभौ भरौ ।”

The one-liners are also in the exact meters !

मात्रासमक meter of गर्जसि मेघ is a meter not structured by गणाः, but by total value of syllabic weightages मात्राणां संख्या in each line. मात्रासमक is a मात्रा-वृत्त not an अक्षरवृत्त

मात्राणां संख्या in  मात्रासमक is 16.

One can see structure and refinement in almost every other aspect of Sanskrit language. Sanskrit is Sanskrit by virtue of all these.

What is detailed here is just a glimpse of Sanskrit prosody.

* Mention of (पाणिनी is said to have composed) is based on such mention in a 19th-century book by Mr. Charles Phillip brown

7 Such encoding of wisdom combined with poetic fervor is just marvelous, rarely found in literature of other languages. Is it not a speciality of Sanskrit ? 

We did study इन्द्र-वायुर् … लीलावती’s coding of solution of magic squares, right ?

8 द्वे सुभाषिते in Lesson # 34 both addressing the cloud readily brought to mind the famous poem मेघदूतम् by महाकविः कालिदासः | One श्लोकः therein is a good satire on human nature, especially how people engrossed in amorous thoughts seem to lose all discretion of the surroundings. 

I would like to take up that for study in the next lesson.

9 Marvellous combination of wisdom and enjoyment becomes a compelling reason to pursue learning Sanskrit, learning it, re-learning it and re-learning it, and re-learning it …. !

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

2 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 36

  1. This is a brilliant approach!! Thank you so much. I am going to look through the previous lessons and glean what I can. I am not a very systematic learner, but if I go through all the lessons, I am sure it will leave at least a trace of Sanmskrta samskaara,which will benefit me. Thanks again. DKM Kartha

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