Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 31

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 31

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य एकत्रिंशः (३१) पाठः ।

As mentioned in the previous lesson, we shall now study the following श्लोकः in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता which contains the advice to acquire equanimity between likeable or dislikeable speech प्रियः or अप्रियः वादः –

समदुःखसुखः स्वस्थः समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः |

तुल्यप्रियाप्रियो धीरः तुल्यनिन्दात्मसंस्तुतिः || 14-24 ||

Actually the sentence starting with this श्लोकः becomes complete in the next श्लोकः, which is –

मानापमानयोस्तुल्यः तुल्यो मित्रारिपक्षयोः |

सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते || 14-25 ||

१. सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

 

सम-दुःख-सुखः स्व-स्थः सम-लोष्ट-अश्म-काञ्चनः |

तुल्य-प्रिय-अप्रियः धीरः तुल्य-निन्दा-आत्म-सं-स्तुतिः || 14-24 ||

 

मान-(अप)मानयोः तुल्यः तुल्यः मित्र-अरि-पक्षयोः |

सर्व-आरम्भ-(परि)त्यागी गुण-अति-इतः सः उच्यते || 14-25 ||

 

२. समासानां विग्रहाः, शब्दार्थाः, अन्वयार्थाः, भावार्थाः च ।

This type of detailing is called as भाष्यम्. Some of the famous भाष्याणि on श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता are

  1. “शाङ्कर-भाष्यम्” by आदिशङ्कराचार्यः CE 788-820
  2. by रामानुजाचार्यः, CE 1017-1137
  3. saint ज्ञानेश्वर who delivered in CE 1290, more than 700 years ago his भावार्थदीपिका to a Marathi audience. In Maharashtra this भाष्यम् is revered as a वेदः and is better known as “ज्ञानेश्वरी”
  4. “Geetaa as it is” by स्वामी प्रभुपाद, who founded the हरे कृष्ण movement
  5. “गीतारहस्य” by Lokamaanya Tilak, authored by him when he was jailed by the British for 6 years from 1907 to1913 in Mandaalay, which is in present Myaanmaar
  6. “Geetaa as a philosophy of God-Realisation” by “गुरुदेव” रानडे, 1886-1957 a philosopher saint of great acclaim.

The difference between शब्दार्थाः, अन्वयार्थाः and भावार्थाः should be understood as –

शब्दार्थाः = literal meaning of the words

अन्वयार्थाः = meaning of words and phrases in a given context

भावार्थाः = meaning revealing on deep deliberation



1 सम-दुःख-सुखः = दुःखे वा सुखे वा समः ।

  • दुःखे = (when) in sorrow
  • वा = or
  • सुखे = (when) in happiness
  • समः = equanimous

2 स्व-स्थः = स्वस्मिन् स्थितः ।

  • स्वस्मिन् = at oneself
  • स्थः = तिष्ठति इति = stays at
  • Hence स्वस्थः = stays at oneself, meaning “stays unperturbed”

3 सम-लोष्ट-अश्म-काञ्चनः =  अश्मानां वा  काञ्चनस्य वा लोष्ट: यस्मै समः, सः ।

  • लोष्टः = lot of
  • अशमः = stone
  • काञ्चनम् = gold
  • समः = equanimous
  • Hence सम-लोष्ट-अश्म-काञ्चनः = equanimous with lots of stones or with lots of gold

4 तुल्य-प्रिय-अप्रियः = प्रियेषु वा अप्रियेषु तुल्यः ।

  • प्रियेषु = at like-ables or at love-ables
  • वा = or
  • अप्रियेषु = यानि प्रियाणि न, तेषु = at those which are not love-ables or at those, which are not like-ables, i.e. at unloveables or at dislikeables
  • तुल्यः = balanced
  • Hence तुल्य-प्रिय-अप्रियः = balanced at likeables or dislekeables or at love-ables or unlove-ables

5 धीरः = bold, meaning one, who can face anything and everything with a steadfast mind

6 तुल्य-निन्दा-आत्म-सं-स्तुतिः ।

  • तुल्य = balanced
  • निन्दा = abuses, adverse comments
  • आत्म = self
  • सं = comprehensive, total
  • स्तुतिः = praise
  • So, तुल्य-निन्दा-आत्म-सं-स्तुतिः = balanced at abuses or adverse comments by others or balanced at total or comprehensive praise of oneself by others

7 मान-(अप)मानयोः तुल्यः ।

  • तुल्यः = balanced
  • मान-(अप)मानयोः =
  • मान = respect
  • (अप)मान = dishonour
  • मान-(अप)मानयोः तुल्यः = balanced at respect or dishonour

8 तुल्यः मित्र-अरि-पक्षयोः ।

  • तुल्यः = balanced
  • मित्र = friend
  • अरि = enemy
  • पक्ष = side
  • Hence तुल्यः मित्र-अरि-पक्षयोः = balanced whether friend or foe is on the sides

9 सर्व-आरम्भ-(परि)त्यागी ।

  • सर्व = all
  • आरम्भ = beginning, start-off, commencement
  • (परि) = wholesome, circumspect, all-round
  • त्यागी = one, who renounces
  • Hence सर्व-आरम्भ-(परि)त्यागी means one who renounces wholesomely all beginnings, means one, who does not (ever) hold that something new is beginning at any time, which further means that कर्माणि keep emanating from one कर्म to the other.

In the eighth chapter the definition of karma itself is given as

भूत-भावोद्भव-करो विसर्गः कर्मसंज्ञितः || 8-3 ||



This line merits a clearer understanding. Without that clarity, it will not be possible to understand the significance of सर्व-आरम्भ-(परि)त्यागी. Let us get to understand this line in || 8-3|| soon after completing the word-by-word understanding of these two verses ||14-24 || and ||14-25||, which are on hand.

10 गुण-(अति)इतः

  • गुण = quality, characteristics which may be saatvika i.e. chaste or raajasa i.e. average or taamasa i.e. unchaste
  • (अति) = excessively, beyond
  • इतः = gone
  • So, गुण-(अति)इतः means one, who has gone beyond the influence of गुणाः, i.e. beyond being सात्विक or राजस or तामस ।

Interestingly in || 14-5 || of this fourteenth chapter it is clarified that –

सत्वं-रजस्-तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः |

निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम्  || 14-5 ||

What is mentioned here is –

All types of qualities – whether सत्वम्  chaste, रजस् average or तमः unchaste – they all cause a binding of the अव्ययम्, of that which is basically unchangeable, imperishable, constant, but has influence of the गुणाः on having become देहिनम् i.e. embodied

The ultimate objective advocated in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता is that one should aspire to reach a state, which is beyond the binding of bodily existence.

Interestingly, even chaste qualities are qualities and hence would cause the binding. Hence the advice is to go beyond all types of qualities, to aspire for गुणातीत state

11 सः = he

12 उच्यते = is called

अन्वयाः ।

(यः) सम-दुःख-सुखः, स्व-स्थः, सम-लोष्ट-अश्म-काञ्चनः, तुल्य-प्रिय-अप्रियः, धीरः, तुल्य-निन्दा-आत्म-सं-स्तुतिः, मान-(अप)मानयोः तुल्यः, मित्र-अरि-पक्षयोः तुल्यः सर्व-आरम्भ-(परि)त्यागी (भवति) सः गुण-अतीतः उच्यते ।

अनुवादाः ।

He,

  • who is (or has become) equanimous between sorrows or happiness,
  • who is (or has become) steadfast by himself,
  • who is (or has become) equanimous between heaps of stones or of gold,
  • who is (or has become) balanced of likeables or unlikeables,
  • who has boldness (or forbearance to take things as they come),
  • who is (or has become) balanced between praise or hate,
  • who is (or has become) balanced between respects or dishonour,
  • who is (or has become) balanced between friends and foes,
  • who has given up all concept that anything begins at all

is called as one who has transcended all qualitativeness.

टिप्पणयः ।

I thought it good to do away with the usual tabulations of “समासानां विग्रहाः” “शब्दानां विश्लेषणम्”, “धातुसाधितानां विश्लेषणम्” “क्रियापदानां विश्लेषणम्” at least for this lesson. As would have been noticed, almost every other word in these two verses is a सामासिक-शब्दः । It is better to study them in good enough detail than by using the usual tabular structure. This way, it has been possible to present the study with many more details than just the grammar and शब्दार्थः । In the course of detailing the study, it has become possible to also quote related other references.

As noted earlier we should also study –

भूत-भावोद्भव-करो विसर्गः कर्म-संज्ञितः || 8-3 ||

We shall take this up in Lesson 32

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

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