Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 29

Learning Sanskrit by fresh approach – Lesson 29

संस्कृतभाषायाः नूतनाध्ययनस्य नव-विंशतितमः (२९) पाठः ।

As mentioned in lesson # 27, in the context of good speech, we should also discuss the सुभाषितम् –

सत्यम् ब्रूयात् प्रियम् ब्रूयात् न ब्रूयात् सत्यमप्रियम् |

प्रियम् नानृतं ब्रूयात् एष धर्मः सनातनः ||

In lesson # 27 I had mentioned the last part as “एतत् सज्जन-लक्षणम्” Actually it should read as above.

१. सन्धि-विच्छेदान्  कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा ।

सत्यम् ब्रूयात् प्रियम् ब्रूयात् न ब्रूयात् सत्यम् अ-प्रियम् |

प्रियम् न अन्-ऋतं  ब्रूयात् एषः धर्मः सनातनः ||

२. समासानां विग्रहाः ।

अनुक्र. सामासिक-शब्दः पूर्वपदम् उत्तरपदम् समासस्य विग्रहः समासस्य प्रकारः
अप्रियम् प्रिय प्रियम् न नञ-तत्पुरुषः
अनृतम् अन् ऋत न ऋतम् नञ-तत्पुरुषः

३. शब्दशः विश्लेषणम् ।

अनुक्र. संज्ञा संज्ञायाः प्रकारः मूल-संज्ञा लिङ्गम् विभक्तिः वचनम् शब्दार्थः
सत्यम् सामान्यनाम सत्य नपुं. द्वितीया एक. truth
ब्रूयात् क्रियापदम् should speak
प्रियम् विशेषणम् प्रिय नपुं. द्वितीया एक. likeable
ऋतम् विशेषणम् ऋत नपुं. द्वितीया एक. Appropriate, truthful
एषः सर्वनाम एतत् पु. प्रथमा एक. this
धर्मः सामान्यनाम धर्म पु. प्रथमा एक. Code of Righteous conduct
सनातनः विशेषणम् सनातन पु. प्रथमा एक. Eternal, perpetual

४ धातुसाधितानां विश्लेषणम् ।

There is no धातुसाधितम् in this verse.

५ क्रियापदानां विश्लेषणम् ।

अनुक्र. शब्दः धातुः गणः पदम् (अत्र) प्रयोजकः ? प्रयोगः कालः / अर्थः पुरुषः वचनम्
ब्रूयात् ब्रू उ. (प.) कर्तरि विध्यर्थः तृतीय एक.

६ अन्वयाः अनुवादाः च ।

अनुक्र. अन्वयाः अनुवादाः
(मनुजः) सत्यम् ब्रूयात् । (Man) should speak the truth
(मनुजः) प्रियम् ब्रूयात् । (Man) should speak likeable
(मनुजः) अप्रियम् सत्यम् न ब्रूयात् । (Man) should not speak the truth, which is not likeable
(मनुजः) प्रियम् (इति) अनृतम् न ब्रूयात् । (Man) should not speak likeable, which is not appropriate or truthful
एषः सनातनः धर्मः (अस्ति) । This is the eternal code of righteous conduct

७ टिप्पणयः ।

1 It comes to mind that this सुभाषितम् underlines the importance of composing one’s thoughts and strategizing how to say, what one wants to say. Conforming to this eternal code of righteous conduct, there would be need to strategize every utterance. Alternatively one may have to cultivate one’s habits only in such manner that no improper utterance would ever get uttered. Would that not be so very difficult and challenging ? Maybe such habit can develop only after long practice of वाङ्ग्मयं तपः !
2 I had read that the oath to be taken by one in the witness box in courts of law is “I shall tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but truth”.
3 On strategies of what to speak, what not speak, there would be occasions when one may have to deliver the bitter truth in the interest of larger good. One such instance was when (I think in सुन्दर-काण्डम् in श्रीरामायणम्) विभीषणः had to disagree with रावण the demon king to release सीता from captivity to save the kingdom. He prefaced what he wanted to say by saying, 

सुलभाः पुरुषा राजन् सततं प्रियवादिनः ।

अप्रियस्य तु पथ्यस्य वक्ता श्रोता च दुर्लभः ।।

It would be good to take up this for the next lesson.

4 There is the story for children of a king who got so much impressed by the art of singing that he ordered that everybody will speak only musically. The king had a parrot. The parrot was very much a pet of the king. But one day the parrot died. People were worried how to break the news to the king, that too musically. Somehow the prime minister dared and sang the news to the king, using all the आलापाः longish notes, etc. When the meaning dawned on the king’s mind, he got annoyed with the Prime Minister why he had to sing with all those longish notes. But soon the king realized his own mistake of his orders. There is another proverb in Sanskrit, “राजा कालस्य कारणम्” !

शुभमस्तु ।


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