|१||तत्त्व-दर्शिनः||तत्त्व-दर्शिन्||तत्त्व||दर्शिन्||तत्त्वं दर्शयति इति||उपपद-तत्पुरुषः||he, who shows (explains)
the (underlying) principle
|२||तत्त्वम्||तत्त्व||तत्||त्व||“त्व” इति भावः
“तत्” भवितुं यद्भावः तदेव तत्त्वम्
|उपपद-तत्पुरुषः||“That”, which has the
Characteristics of “That”
|३||परिप्रश्नेन||परिप्रश्न||सामान्यनाम||पु.||तृतीया||एक.||by (sympathetically) enquiring|
|४||सेवया||सेवा||सामान्यनाम||स्त्री.||तृतीया||एक.||by doing service|
|८||ज्ञानिन:||ज्ञानिन्||सामान्यनाम||पु.||प्रथमा||बहु.||those who know|
|९||तत्त्वदर्शिनः||तत्त्वदर्शिन्||सामान्यनाम||पु.||प्रथमा||बहु.||those, who explain “the principle|
|१०||तत्त्वम्||तत्त्व||सामान्यनाम||नपुं.||द्वितीया||एक.||the (underlying) principle|
|११*||प्रणिपातेन||प्रणिपात||सामान्यनाम||पु.||तृतीया||एक.||by intensive, thorough analysis|
|१२*||परिप्रश्नेन||परिप्रश्न||सामान्यनाम||पु.||तृतीया||एक.||by circumspect enquiry
(by circumspect questioning of logic)
* Meanings of words प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन and सेवया given at २, ३ and ४ are rather the conventional meanings. Meanings given at ११, १२ and १३ are rather deeper meanings. How those meanings are obtained will need more detailed analysis of the words.
get to know
|२||उपदेक्ष्यन्ति||क्रियापदम्||उप + दिश्||६||उ.||प.||न||कर्तरी||भविष्य.||तृतीय-||बहु.||will guide
|४||भवितुम्||धा. अव्ययम्||तुम्||भू||१||प.||प.||न||कर्तरी||–||–||for being (to be)|
वाक्य-क्र. वाक्यम् १ (त्वम्) तत् (ज्ञानम्) प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया विद्धि | २ ज्ञानिन: तत्त्व-दर्शिनः ते ज्ञानं उपदेक्ष्यन्ति | By taking cognisance of अवग्रह २.१ ज्ञानिन: तत्त्व-दर्शिनः ते अज्ञानं उपदेक्ष्यन्ति |
६.२ By considering the sentence in second line as गौणवाक्यम्
वाक्य-क्र. वाक्यम् १ ज्ञानिन: तत्त्व-दर्शिनः ते (यत्) ज्ञानं उपदेक्ष्यन्ति, २ तत् (त्वम्) प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया विद्धि | By taking cognisance of अवग्रह १.१ ज्ञानिन: तत्त्व-दर्शिनः ते (यत्) अज्ञानं उपदेक्ष्यन्ति,
From 6.1 – Get to know that, by bowing, by (sympathetically) enquiring, by service.Those who know (and) who (can or would) show (or explain) will guide (will advise) (will instruct) the knowledge to you.
From 6.2 – By bowing, by (sympathetically) enquiring, by service, get to know that (knowledge), (which) those who know (and) who (can or would) show (or explain) will guide (will advise) (will instruct) to you.
8. Some deliberation
As mentioned in the foot-note to table “३ संज्ञानाम् विश्लेषणम्”, we need to deliberate on, what analysis of the words प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन and सेवया would lend the meanings given at ११, १२ and १३.
The word प्रणिपातेन has two prefixes प्र and नि. As was mentioned in an earlier lesson, every prefix has a meaning of significance.प्र means (stands for) प्रकर्षेण meaning intensively.नि means (stands for) नितान्तम् meaning “to the ultimate detail” or “thoroughly”.Root word in पातेन is पातः or पातनम् meaning “fall or break-down or analysis”Together, प्रणिपातेन means “by intensive, thorough analysis”.In the theory of education, such intensive, thorough analysis has been acknowledged by educationists as the first step in the process of learning, acquiring knowledge, “getting to know it”.For example, in textbooks of geometry, we have the illustration of “bisecting a given line segment”. Implicit in the illustration are the steps, which are to be understood by analytical view of the illustration.When taking an analytical view, questions may arise, rather, questions should arise. For example, there is the step, “draw arcs from one end-point with radius larger than half the length of the line-segment.” That is where the second word परिप्रश्नेन should be understood. This word also has the prefix परि. This stands for “all round”. Human mind is susceptible to fall into the trap of single-track thinking. The prefix परि gives a caution against that ! परिप्रश्नेन means “by all-round (or circumspect) questioning (of the logic)”There is a popular acronym OTA in the theory of education. OTA = Observation, Thinking, Action. The word प्रणिपातेन exactly details what is to be observed. Likewise, the word परिप्रश्नेन comprehensively and summarily details, what and how good all-round, the “thinking” should be. A student ought to be inquisitive, questioning, daring to question so-called conventions.
For the example of bisecting a given line-segment, a student may raise questions – “Why the radius larger than half the length ?” or for the next step, for arcs from the other end-point, “Why with the same radius ?”.
The example taken is of course a very simple example. So, the questions may sound unintelligent. But at advanced stages of learning, every question will be significant. Even seemingly silly questions may lead to revolutionary knowledge. That is why the prefix परि in परिप्रश्नेन.I remember a very thought-provoking quotation “प्रश्नेष्वेव उत्तराणि” “Answers are in the questions themselves !”But answers should be verified. Hence सेवया, meaning “put it into service”, “A” = Action in OTA. It comes to mind that one can do verification in three ways – Exercise with it, Experiment with it, Experience it – 3 “E”s !!! There is a famous question in the realm of philosophy and spiritual awakening, कोऽहम् (= कः अहम्) ? How can any other person give a definitive answer to this question ? There has to be the exercise of deep meditation. And the answer may dawn at the culmination of the superlative experience of self-realisation !Does it now appeal that तत् (त्वम्) प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया विद्धि | summarises in a single line, in 16 letters, the theory of learning as one part of the theory of education ? Does it not apply to learning of any topic of any subject ? And the sequence of the words प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया is exactly the sequence in OTA !
Other part of theory of education is teaching. Second line details that. It lays down two essential eligibility criteria for teachers – ज्ञानिन: तत्त्वदर्शिनः They ought to be knowledgeable. Apart from being knowledgeable, they should have the skills of transmitting their knowledge. It would be readily appreciated that every knowledgeable person does not necessarily have the skill of transmitting the knowledge.
Even for teachers having the skill to transmit, there is the cardinal guideline on how the knowledge should be transmitted. That guideline is in the word उपदेक्ष्यन्ति, more so in the prefix उप, which stands for “near”. What is implied is “be with the student, take him as near to the zenith, as appropriate, but beware not to hold his finger right up to the zenith. No, absolutely not !” From some stage ahead, the student must trek the path by himself.
The word उपदेक्ष्यन्ति is a declension of the verb उप + दिश्. Noun from उप + दिश् is उपदेशः which means “advice”. Teacher is गुरुः. His advice is गुरूपदेशः. The boundary limit of how much and in what manner, to what extent गुरुः should render गुरूपदेशः is set in the prefix उप !So, the whole theory of education – learning and teaching in just two lines – 32 letters !It would be wrong to close this discussion without discussing Baba’s suggestion of the अवग्रह ! That अवग्रह gives totally converse meaning to what a teacher should teach. Without the अवग्रह, the meaning becomes that “teachers should impart knowledge”. With the अवग्रह, the meaning becomes that teachers should advice on “what is not knowledge” !
Again, in the theory of learning, it is acknowledged that knowledge is self-same. It will reveal to any inquisitive mind. It is still taught by all teachers, maybe, because you do not want everyone to keep reinventing the wheel. But a good teacher is really concerned for the pitfalls and stumbling blocks on the path of knowledge. All those pitfalls and stumbling blocks are अज्ञानम्. Who else, if not the teacher should lead the student across the अज्ञानम् ? Wasn’t Baba really smart in asking an innocent sounding question, “Would an अवग्रह fit in there ?” Not only that it fits in, it must fit in there. It ought to be there !
There is great justification in making this statement “It ought to be there !” I came across a श्लोकः in a स्तोत्रम् prayer to Lord दक्षिणामूर्तिः It readsगुकारस्त्वन्धकारो वै, रुकारस्तन्निवर्तकः । अन्धकारनिवर्तित्वात् गुरुरित्यभिधीयते ॥Maybe, we can study this in detail sometime later. But quickly, it means, “गु” stands for darkness (of ignorance) “रु” is the remover of darkness. The remover of darkness is hence called as “गुरु:”. This श्लोकः is a “definition” of the word “गुरु:”. By his innocent sounding suggestion, Baba hinted exactly that, didn’t he ?
Maybe, when व्यासमुनिः dictated and श्रीगणेशः noted down, श्रीगणेशः did write it with the अवग्रह. But because it does not get pronounced, in the passage of time as “out of sight, out of mind”, the अवग्रह is lost in available texts. We should consider ourselves fortunate that श्रीसाईबाबा has blessed us by revealing it again !
Very humbly I submit this write-up at the sacred feet of श्रीसाईबाबा !