Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 12

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 12
Having obtained a list of parts of our body in the previous lesson, it would be interesting to look into a list of actions and activities. Interestingly a list of these is together available in 2 “shloka”s in the fifth chapter in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता.
नैव किञ्चित्करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्ववित् |
पश्यञ्शृण्वन्स्पृशञ्जिघ्रन् अश्नन्गच्छन्स्वपञ्श्वसन् ||५-८||
प्रलपन्विसृजन्गृह्णन् उन्मिषन्निमिषन्नपि |
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन् ||५-९||
As usual, we should first break the conjugations, do सन्धिविच्छेदाः To rewrite with सन्धिविच्छेदाः it will be
न एव किम्-चित् करोमि इति युक्तः मन्येत तत्त्व-वित् ।
पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन् अश्नन् गच्छन् स्वपन् श्वसन्  ॥५-८॥
प्रलपन् विसृजन् गृण्हन् उन्मिषन् निमिषन् अपि ।
इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रिय-अर्थेषु वर्तन्ते इति धारयन् ॥५-९॥
There are three words with parts connected by hyphens. But the word किम्-चित् is not a compound word. Here चित् is only a suffix, lending a meaning “… ever” to the main word किम्. Since किम् means “what” and चित् means “…ever”, together किम्-चित् means “whatever”.
By that since we have only two compounds, we should rather decipher them first.
अनुक्रमाङ्कः सामासिक-शब्दः मूलशब्दः अनुक्र. उपसमासः पूर्वपदम् उत्तरपदम् समासविग्रहः समास-प्रकारः शब्दार्थः
तत्त्व-वित् तत्त्ववित् तत्त्व वित् तत्त्वम् वेत्ति इति उपपद-तत्पुरुषः he, who knows the principle(s)
(i.e. the basic truth or the fundamentals)
१.१ तत्त्व तत् त्व (त्व = एवं गुणेन) “तत्” एवं गुणेन उपपद तत्पुरुषः that, which has the quality of being “that”
इन्द्रिय-अर्थेषु इन्द्रिय-अर्थाः इन्द्रियाणि अर्थाः इन्द्रियाणाम् अर्थाः षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः for the purposes of organs
If we look at all words, including those in the समासविग्रहः  there are 5, which are indeclinable, one of them repeated also. Indeclinables are simple to detail, just their meaning. We have already known most of them.
न = no, not, do not, does not
एव = also, at all
इति = like this, hence, thence
अपि = also
एवम् = like this
Lets us now detail the verbs. We shall detail them as per their structure –
अनुक्र. क्रियापदम् मूलधातुः गणः पदम् पदमत्र प्रयोजकः ? प्रयोगः कालः वा अर्थः वा कालार्थस्य प्रकारः पुरुषः वचनम् शब्दार्थः
1 करोमि कृ उ. प. कर्तरी वर्तमान लट् प्रथमः एकवचनम् (I) do
2 वेत्ति विद् प. प. कर्तरी वर्तमान लट् तृतीयः एकवचनम् knows
3 मन्येत मन् ४, ८ आ. आ. कर्तरी विधि लिङ् तृतीयः एकवचनम् should bear in mind
4 वर्तन्ते वृत् उ. आ. कर्तरी वर्तमान लट् तृतीयः बहुवचनम् are
Nouns नामानि, pronounsसर्वनामानि, adjectivesविशेषणानि, which have a common structure can also be given a common name संज्ञा. Let us now detail all संज्ञा:
अनुक्रमाङ्कः संज्ञाशब्दः मूलशब्दः संज्ञाप्रकारः लिङ्गम् विभक्तिः वचनम् शब्दार्थः
किम् किम् सर्वनाम नपुंसकलिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् what
तत्त्वम् तत्त्व सामान्यनाम नपुंसकलिङम् द्वितीया* एकवचनम् principle,
fundamental
तत् तत् सर्वनाम नपुंसकलिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् that
तत्त्ववित् तत्त्ववित् विशेषणम् पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् he, who knows the principle(s)
(i.e. the basic truth or the fundamentals)
गुणेन गुण सामान्यनाम पुल्लिङ्गम् तृतीया एकवचनम् with the quality
इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रिय सामान्यनाम नपुंसकलिङ्गम् प्रथमा बहुवचनम् organs
इन्द्रियाणाम् इन्द्रिय सामान्यनाम नपुंसकलिङ्गम् षष्ठी बहुवचनम् of organs
अर्थाः अर्थ सामान्यनाम पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा बहुवचनम् purposes
इन्द्रियार्थेषु इन्द्रियार्थ सामान्यनाम पुल्लिङ्गम् सप्तमी बहुवचनम् for purposes of organs
All the other words are verbal derivatives धातुसाधितानि, (adjectives विशेषणानि or participles). We can detail them all by a common structure.
अनुक्रमाङ्कः संज्ञाशब्दः मूलशब्दः “धा. वि.”- प्रकारः धातुः गणः पदम् प्रयोजकः वा ? प्रयोगः लिङ्गम् विभक्तिः वचनम् शब्दार्थः
युक्तः युक्त क. भू. युज् युञ्ज् उ. कर्मणी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् the eligible,
one, who is in communion
(with God)
पश्यन् पश्यन् क. व. दृश् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) seeing
शृण्वन् शृण्वन् क. व. शृ उ. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) hearing
स्पृशन् स्पृशन् क. व. स्पृश् उ. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) touching (and feeling)
जिघ्रन् जिघ्रन् क. व. घ्रा प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) smelling
अश्नन् अश्नन् क. व. अश् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) eating
गच्छन् गच्छन् क. व. गम् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) going (moving)
स्वपन् स्वपन् क. व. स्वप् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) dreaming
श्वसन् श्वसन् क. व. श्वस् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) breathing
१० प्रलपन् प्रलपन् क. व. प्र + लप् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) talking
११ विसृजन् विसृजन् क. व. वि + सृज् उ. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) emitting
१२ गृण्हन् गृण्हन् क. व. गृह् १० आ. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) taking
१३ उन्मिषन् उन्मिषन् क. व. उत् + मिष् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) thinking (imagining)
१४ निमिषन् निमिषन् क. व. नि + मिष् प. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) quiet (meditating)
१५ धारयन् धारयन् क. व. धृ १ प. १० उ. कर्तरी पुल्लिङ्गम् प्रथमा एकवचनम् (he, who is) understanding
Having detailed all the words, to get the meaning properly we should put them in proper syntax. Here, I recall the method taught to me by my father. His advice was simple, “Catch hold of all the verbs. All the other words will be related with the verbs. In a complex sentence, one verb will help us identify the main clause and other verbs will help identify the sub-clauses. In a compound sentence, there will always be the conjunctions and accordingly more than one main clauses.”
Relationships of other words can be found by asking seven questions to each verb. Since we have three verbs we can tabulate the seven questions for each verb
Sr. No. Verb who ? to whom ? what ? how ? when ? why ? where ? other adverbs
if any
type of
clause
related with
which word
in which
clause
conjunctions,
if any
Subject Extension of subject Indirect
Object
Direct
Object
Adverb
of manner
Adverb
of time
Adverb
of reason
Adverb
of place
कः ? कम् ? किम् ? कथम् कदा किमर्थम् ? कुत्र ? अव्ययानि अव्ययानि
अनुक्रमाङ्कः क्रियापदम् कर्ता कर्म कर्म क्रि. वि. क्रि. वि. क्रि. वि. क्रि. वि.
करोमि (अहम्) किञ्चित् न एव Noun clause,
object* of
main clause
मन्येत Main इति
मन्येत (स:) (य:) युक्तः तत्त्ववित् पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन् अश्नन् गच्छन् स्वपन् श्वसन् प्रलपन् विसृजन् गृण्हन् उन्मिषन् निमिषन् धारयन् *see clause 1 अपि Main
वर्तन्ते इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेषु Noun clause,
object of verbal
derivative
धारयन् Main इति

क्रि. वि. = क्रियाविशेषणम्

Now we can do अन्वय and paraphrase the meaning – 

(य:) पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन् अश्नन् गच्छन् स्वपन् श्वसन् प्रलपन् विसृजन् गृण्हन् उन्मिषन् निमिषन् अपि इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्ते इति धारयन् युक्तः तत्त्ववित् (स:) (अहम्) किञ्चित् न करोमि एव इति मन्येत |

He, who is eligible (in communion with God), knows the fundamental principles, (whether) seeing, hearing, touching (and feeling), smelling, eating (tasting), moving, dreaming, breathing, talking, emitting (giving), taking (receiving), thinking, (imagining, brimming with thoughts), quiet (meditating), (however) understanding (that) organs are for the purposes of organs (only), should bear in mind, “I do nothing at all”.
Isn’t that a great philosophical statement, something for anybody to bear in mind all the time ?
If there is something to bear in mind and maybe, brood upon for all the time, better learn the verses by heart !

All the philosophy in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता bears out concepts, which are eternally valid for all people.

I always feel pity that श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता is branded as a Hindu scripture, just because it is in Sanskrit. This unwarranted branding has been applied to and suffered by all scriptures in Sanskrit. The religion preached by these scriptures is not Hinduism. Because they enunciate principles which are universally and eternally valid, they speak of a universal religion, Universalism, if one wants to give it an “ism”-name, or as is called in Sanskrit, सनातन-धर्म. Literal meaning of सनातन is eternal and universal. 

To my mind, this सनातन धर्म does not lay down any specific rituals or practices; nor does it seek adoptions or conversions into its fold. One needs to become तत्त्ववित् by intensively brooding and thinking of the principles and grow (!) to become युक्तः Anyone and everyone, who would do that, is automatically at least a student, if not a follower of सनातन धर्म.
सनातन धर्म is a religion for everyone to help oneself. Sanskrit is the language to understand सनातन धर्म.
One should learn Sanskrit to be able to partake in that process of self-elevation and for that, to be able to read and understand श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता by its original text.
This lesson is a simplistic attempt to help people learn Sanskrit and help themselves on and up … !
शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

9 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 12

  1. As a student of sanskrit, looking for a good brush up before i can proceed with M.Phil, this is a very refreshing way of having a go through of the languages..Some perspectives are very fresh and interesting and can be implemented with children also..

    • धन्यवादाः “आनन्द श्रीवल्ली”-महोदय !
      भवदीयः सन्देशः अतीव उत्साहवर्धकः खलु ।
      तत्रैव अधिकतः सन्तोषकारकः यतः अयं सन्देशः एताविधेन विद्वज्जनेन प्रेषितः यः “एम्. फिल्.”-इति सुगणितां पदवीं प्राप्तुमिच्छति ।
      सत्येन तु अस्य उपक्रमस्य भूमिका स्वाध्यायस्यैव । जालपुटन्यासेन प्रोत्साहनानि, टीकाः, आलोचनानि मार्गदर्शनानि प्राप्य स्वाध्यायः रोचकः एव भवति ।
      पुनरपि धन्यवादाः ।
      सस्नेहम्
      अभ्यंकर-कुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः
      “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

      • Abhyankar Mahodaya,
        Namaskarams.. Seeing your reply to my message, I feel very inspired to keep regularly updating and viewing these posts. However I feel extremely humbled by your words and feel that just because I wish to pursue my M.Phil next year, does not in anyway qualify my “Yogyataa”. I hope to enhance and further do justice to my studies by dwelling more in this bountiful deva bhaasha.
        Praying to the Almighty and all the elders to bless me with that vidya..
        Namaskarams again,
        Srivalli Anand

      • Sir,

        Your lessons have been very interesting. I wish I had such a teacher in my High School.

        I am very much interested in learning sanskrit. I feel at the moment I have basic knowledge.

        I have been watching video lessons from Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, AIR news.
        I am also trying to follow your lessons.

        If possible, please suggest me a routinue which will make me improve my knowledge in sanskrit.
        I am doing PhD in Germany at the moment.

        Regards,
        Dhananjaya

      • नमो नमः श्रीमन् “धनञ्जय शर्मा”-महोदय !
        I am impressed by your passion to study Sanskrit, even when pursuing a hard task of doing PhD that too in an away country as Germany.
        Regarding your question asking suggestion for a routine, which will help improve knowledge in Sanskrit, I think it helps to recite a few shloka-s or stotra-s everyday.
        It becomes as much better if one has understood those shloka-s in as much detail as possible. Then it becomes अर्थवाहि पठनम् Such अर्थवाहि पठनम् makes memorising also easy and interesting.
        It is with such idea only that in many of my early lessons, I ardently suggested committing the verses to memory.
        As more Sanskrit will soak in, knowledge of Sanskrit will automatically improve. Such has been my personal experience. The whole idea of the blog is to share that experience.
        सस्नेहम् ,
        अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः |
        “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

  2. Mr Abhyankar
    Your way of exposition shows a deep Pedagogic quality by excellence and I did show already to some colleagues of mine at least for them to see this so high quality.
    Anyway, in front of this I can see how much I must put in order – in my mind – and, sometimes, is much difficult to re-order than to learn for the first time. It is difficult but what I admire is that with your way this difficulty seems to easier surpassed.
    My deep admiration.

  3. mahodaya,

    you go into very interesting detail in a wonderful way. This is really wonderful.

    When you say that श्वसन् belongs to gaNa 1 as well as 2, how does that happen? What are the different properties involved? If you have dwelt upon this in a later chapter, I will catch up eventually.

    -ashish

    • नमो नमः श्रीमन् “आशिष महाबल”-महोदय ! Frankly, I do not have any clear idea of why a specific धातुः has declensions in different गणाः and also why either only परस्मैपदी or only आत्मनेपदी or उभयपदी i.e. both परस्मैपदी and आत्मनेपदी

      When it comes to deciphering a word by its धातु, I make it a point to refer to the dictionary. A धातु would also have different meanings in different gaNa-pada combinations.

      To save the write-up from confusion from all the details of a word, especially when there are too many meanings, I select only that meaning, which is relevant to the context. I know that such treatment does become subjective. But if a word e.g. भग as in भगवान् has 18 different meanings I have to cut it short.

      Recently there is a suggestion that I should suggest some exercises at the end of every पाठ Now with your comment it comes to mind, that I should put forth स्वाध्याय for people to make further study of such words.

      Maybe, for lesson 12 the स्वाध्याय can be – 1) Study the word श्वसन् in more detail from the dictionary. 2) What more “actions” would make the list from these श्लोकाः more comprehensive ? 3) Note, that in 3-40 it is said that actions have their genesis either by body-organs or by sentiments or by thoughts. Optionally in 18-15 it says manifestation of actions happen by gestures, by speech or internally in the mind. Study these and similar श्लोकाः

      I hope, you would like this स्वाध्याय for Lesson 12 I shall be happy for your suggestions also. सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

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