Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 3

Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach
Lesson 3

Glossary 3
No. English Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 in post-rainy season sharadi शरदि
2 no, not, does not na
3 rains varShati वर्षति
4 thunders garjati गर्जति
5 during rainy season varShAsu वर्षासु
6 quiet, noiseless niH-svanaH नि:स्वनः
7 cloud meghaH मेघः
8* noiseless cloud niHsvano meghaH निःस्वनो मेघः
9 mean-minded, lowly neechaH नीचः
10 talks, prattles vadati वदति
11* (the) lowly prattles neecho vadati नीचो वदति
12 does kurute कुरुते
13 good person,
gentleman
sujanaH सुजनः
14 does karoti करोति
15 only eva एव
16* does only karotyeva करोत्येव

Here we have three conjugations. The conjugated phrases are marked by *

(6) + (7) = (8) नि:स्वनः + मेघः = निःस्वनो मेघः

(9) + (10) = (11) नीचः + वदति = नीचो वदति

(14) + (15) = (16) करोति + एव = करोत्येव


In the first two conjugations two words haven’t really merged into each other. But the visarga (:) at the ending of the first word has become ओ
निःस्वन् + अः –> निःस्वन् + ओ = निःस्वनो
नीच् + अः –> नीच् + ओ = नीचो

In the third one करोति + एव = करोत् + इ + एव = करोत् + य् + एव = करोत्येव

Here vowel इ merges into vowel ए to become य् + ए. Then we have merging of त् + य् + ए becoming त्ये
There is no need to become unduly over-conscientious of this explanation of the third one. Even if you say करोति एव, करोति एव at some speed, you will realise that it does become करोत्येव. So, rules of conjugation are all logical and natural. Thanks to the sages like PaaNinee that naturally happening pronunciations also have been refined, structured into rules. The very name of the language “Sanskrit” means refined. It is these refinements which have made the language chaste. There is no other language in the world, which can match the chastity of Sanskrit.
Word #15 एव is not new. It was there in glossary 1. It is repeated just for the sake of convenience.


Exercises 3
From the words 1 to 16 in the glossary, prepare the following phrases –


No. Phrase Sanskrit in
transliteration
Sanskrit in
Devanagari
1 cloud, in post-rainy season, not, rains, thunders __________  __________ ___________ __________  __________  _________
2 quiet (noiseless) cloud, during rainy season, rains
__________  ___________  ________ __________  __________  ________
3 the lowly person, prattles, not, does __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________
4 not, talks, gentleman, does only __________  __________  _________ __________  __________  ________


In the glossary, you have the word “cloud” only once. You have to use it both in phrases (1) and (2). Likewise the word “not” is to be used at three places.

For the English word “does” we have in the glossary two Sanskrit words कुरुते and  करोति. They are interchangeable. Or even any one of the two can be used at both the places. But to keep the matter simple, in phrase 3, I have put “does” independently after “not”. In phrase 4, I have put it together “does only” as in the glossary. Use the glossary. So you will know which fits better where.

Now you can write down two-two phrases in one line. By that it becomes a good two-line verse, a good saying a सुभाषितम् !!


Here it is, how it reads –

sharadi na varShati garjati varShati varShAsu niHsvano meghaH

neecho vadati na kurute na vadati sujanaH karotyeva

शरदि न वर्षति गर्जति वर्षति वर्षासु निःस्वनो मेघः ।

नीचो वदति न कुरुते न वदति सुजनः करोत्येव ॥


Say it aloud. You will appreciate what musical rhythm is built in here by the poet, having composed it with quite some Onamatopoeia. Doesn’t that make it so easy to commit it to memory ? And there is of course a message, a moral, explained with an example of a very commonplace experience. To derive moral out of a commonplace experience is again refinement. Language itself is a refined language. Poetry shall of course be !

I am sure you will like this good saying सुभाषितम्. Learn it by heart.


You may think that for every lesson, I advise, “Learn it by heart”. But this is all poetry, music and easy knowledge, wisdom, eternal wisdom, saturated and condensed in such short verses. Why not learn it by heart ?

More the wisdom you have within your memory bank, wiser you will be. So learning Sanskrit is not just learning another language. It is enriching ourselves with all that wisdom you have in the literature of Sanskrit. That is my basic idea of “Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach”. How do you like that ?

Also, once you remember the verses, your vocabulary is also automatically building up. You do not have to make any separate effort to mug up words and their meanings. If the verse is understood along with its meaning, it is so many birds in one stone!


शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-


6 thoughts on “Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach – Lesson 3

  1. Hare Krsna! I was triying to translate it nicely but I don’t seem to find a good translation. Can you please translate this subhashitam into English?

    • नमो नमः श्रीमन् “डेनिएल्”-महोदय !
      हरि ॐ !
      I think good translation would need rearranging the words to suit English syntax and English style.
      (1) cloud, in post-rainy season, not, rains, thunders = In post-rainy season a cloud (only) thunders, it does not rain.
      (2) quiet (noiseless) cloud, during rainy season, rains = During rainy season, a quiet (noiseless) cloud (also) rains.
      (3) the lowly person, prattles, not, does = A lowly person prattles, though he does not do much (or) though he does nothing
      (4) not, talks, gentleman, does only = A gentleman does and does not talk (or) a gentleman is busy doing than talking.
      Does this sound okay ?
      सस्नेहम् ,
      अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः |
      “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

  2. महात्मन
    is it शरदि या शरधि ?
    can the top line be re-aligned like this…
    शरदि न वर्षति गर्जति meaning during autumn it does not rain (nor ) thunder
    निः स्वनः मेघः वर्षासु वर्षति meaning during rainy season quiet cloud rains

    if it is शरधि I do not know how it fits?
    Can you please enlighten me?
    धन्यवाधा
    चन्द्रशेखरन

    • नमो नमः “चन्द्रशेखरन्”-महोदय !
      प्रायः तमिळ्-भाषिकेभ्यः “शरदि” वा “शरधि” वा एताविधा अक्षरोच्चारण-शङ्का जायते, यतः तमिळ्-लिप्यां “त्, थ् द्, ध्” एतेषु उच्चारेषु लेखन-भिन्नता न भवति । “मेनन्” इति उपनाम तु केरळ-प्रदेशे भवति न तु तमिळनाडु-प्रदेशे । किम् भवान् केरळ-प्रदेशे तमिळ्-भाषिकः ?
      तथाविधः दोषः “धन्यवाधा” एताविधे भवल्लेखने पुनरपि संजातः दृश्यते । एषः शब्दः “धन्यवादाः” एवम् भवितव्यः ।
      “शरधि” इति शब्दस्य अर्थः शब्दकोशे “a quiver” एवम् प्रदत्तः अस्ति । एताविधः अर्थः तु अस्मै सुभाषिताय अप्रस्तुतः खलु ।

      भवतु ।
      सस्नेहम् ,
      अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः |
      “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।”

  3. I Translated it as “Mega shardi na varshati garjati niswana megaha varshasu varshati.Neechovadati na kurute.sujanaha karoteva na vadati.When I saw the final version the beauty of the language comes out.
    Thanks

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