Rules of Sandhi अ a + other vowels

I want to compile rules for Sandhi. For example,
अ + अ = आ यथा (१) न + अन्यथा = नान्यथा । (२) च + अविद्याम् = चाविद्याम् । (३) एव + अवशिष्यते = एवावशिष्यते ।
अ + आ = आ यथा (१) गज + आनन = गजानन । (२) च + आत्महनः = चात्महनः ।
अ + इ = ए यथा (१) एव + इह = एवेह । (२) अथ + इदम् = अथेदम् ।
अ + ई =  ए यथा (१) अप + ईक्ष् = अपेक्ष्
अ + उ = ओ यथा (१) वेद + उभयम् = वेदोभयम् । (२) ईशावास्य + उपनिषत् = ईशावास्योपनिषत् ।
अ + ऊ = औ यथा (१)
अ + ऋ = अर् यथा (१) देव + ऋषी = देवर्षी ।
अ + ॠ = यथा (१)
अ + लृ = यथा (१)
अ + लॄ = यथा (१)
अ + ए = ऐ यथा (१) च + एव = चैव । (२) न + एनत् = नैनत् । (३) न + एजति = नैजति ।
अ + ऐ = यथा (१)
अ + ओ = यथा (१)
अ + औ = यथा (१)

Readers are welcome to fill in the blanks, suggest corrections, add comments!


10 thoughts on “Rules of Sandhi अ a + other vowels

  1. Thanks for the efforts,it is really very informative.

    May I request for ‘fill up ‘ type excercise for home learners. such practice would make learners like us (above 20 yrs,working and retired who can not learn by rote but practise on papers , this is very effective ) to get corrected mistakes by practice.

    kindly consider my case, I studied Sanskrit from 6th to 8th standard as one subject and as supplementary to Hindi till 12th. then duing my engineering days it was nowhere. So since my professional life started ,till date I could not do satisfying regarding Sanskrit. Only purchasing one or two books, now and then, reading them to learn the language under disoriented way!! hence time passed and nothing was gained as the pressure of job could not pave the way for Sanskrit. Now since I have started ‘Manthan’, I have started working for setting up an ‘only for sanskrit’ library for young people with some books and following ‘one hour for Sanskrit’ program.

    Now when I write in Sanskrit I find it difficult , who will check for its grammatical mistakes? So can we have such a point where we can download and volunteers can check & identify our mistakes? In the beginning volunteers, later paid.There must be many like me and such facility will be of great help.

    Now not knowing good SAnskrit is very depressing and I think that without Sanskrit life and even deeath will be incomplete. Now this is emergency people like us.


    Govind Gopal

    • श्रीमान् गोविन्द गोपाल महाशय,

      धन्यवादाः भवतः टिप्पणेभ्यः । स्वाध्यायाः “रिक्तस्थानपूरण”-पद्धत्या भवेयुः, एषा भवदीया सूचना स्वागतार्हा खलु ।

      स्वाध्यायानाम् आदर्शाणि उत्तराणि अपि देयानि, इति मनसि जायते ।

      पश्यामि, कथमेतत् अनुष्ठामि ।

      अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः ।

      Dear Mr. Govind Gopal,

      Thanks for your studied comments and suggestion for “fill up” type exercises. These are of course borne out of life-experiences.

      I appreciate it very much that you are compiling a library for Sanskrit. That speaks of your dedication.

      I shall certainly see, how I can put in “Objective” type of exercises and also provide “Model answers”

      SL Abhyankar

  2. Sir,

    I need your blessings in the ‘Only Sanskrit Library’ efforts.

    We need to have good books in the library and names/list of such books from learned people like you will make our center very useful for Sanskritist.

    Once list in hand, I will arrange anyhow.Goddess Saraswati will certainly help us.


    Thanks for your acceptance for the “fill up” type study material.



    • Dear Mr. Govind Gopal,

      Since you have already started off on “Only Sanskrit Library”, it would be interesting to know what you have.

      For a good bibliographic index, I would recommend you to get list of publications available from Gitapress, Gorakhpur. They have their bookstores at many places apart from HQ at Gorakhpur.

      Mr. Himanshu Pota at Canberra, Australia has a library of his own. He hosts the blog I am marking Cc to him, so that you will have his ID and can interact with him.

      I also have ID “Sanskrit Bhasha” , It seems they run an organisation Sanskrita Bharati, which may have a branch near to you.

      Mr. GSS Murthy , also has uploaded quite some study material, especially declensions of nouns and verbs.

      Chitrapur Math has some 100-odd lessons at their website.

      These days, internet has such an ocean of knowledge that an INDEX of WEBSITES which can help learn Sanskrit will itself become very, very useful. You can check up They offer webtools and hyperlinks. One link “pustakaalayam” where they declare “million books collection for free – books that will change your life”. This includes PaaNinee’s “aShTaadhyaayee” !!

      This website also has a link on “vaartaaH” and “akaashwaaNi” where one can listen to Sanskrit News every day.

      Mr. Bipin Jha , doing doctoral studies at IIT, Mumbai also hosts on the internet an eNewsletter “Jaanhavi”

      A swamy “bhaarateeya” hosts a blog

      A whole lot of Sanskrit documents are available at “sanskritdocuments…”

      Wikipaedia also has webpages in Sanskrit.

      Last but not the least, every Sanskrit library must have a dictionary. I am fascinated by one by Apte. It is not just a dictionary, but an encyclopaedia, wherein for a word like Kunti, her biographical sketch also is given!!

      Chandamama Publications in Chennai publish their magazine in Sanskrit also. There is a daily “Sudharma” published from Bangalore. You can subscribe for these. I am presently in US so cannot give the addresses or references, which are left back in Mumbai. Maybe, Mr. Himanshu Pota will help on this also, since he was magnanimous to subscribe for me.

      NCERT’s textbooks for Sanskrit for standards V to X are available for free download at their website.

      I think it has become a good bibliographic index already!! Thanks for motivating me to compile this. I guess, Mr. Himanshu Pot and Mr. Bipin Jha will also like this compilation and can add to it.

      Regards, SLA

  3. Dear Mr. Sharat,
    प्रिय “शरत्”-महोदय
    Since you have gmail, you can copy -> paste as a message to yourself. And maybe, you can view it offline in outlook
    यतः भवान् “जी-मेल्”-जालचलित्रम् उपयोजति, मम जालपुटे उपलब्धान् पाठान् स्वयं प्रति सन्देशरूपेण मोचयित्वा “बाह्यदर्शन”-प्रणालिं उपयुज्य, भवति “अंतर्जाल”-माध्यमे न भूते अपि द्रष्टुम् शक्नोति ।
    Secondly you can make a Google document and save it, preferably as a PDF file
    अथवा “गूगल्”पद्धतिं अनुसृत्य पाठानाम् पृष्ठान् जनयित्वा तेषाम् “पी-डी-एफ्”-विधान् पृष्ठसंचयान् कर्तुम् शक्नोति भवान् ।
    Surest way to copy paste and save the files will be by first downloading BARAHA PAD and then COPY -> PASTE into BARAHA PAD.
    “बरह-पॅड्”-पद्धतिम् संगणके निक्षिप्य तु मम जालपुटानाम् प्रतिकृतयः निश्चितरूपेण भवन्ति ।
    In all the three options, you can as well increase the font size for better visibility / legibility.
    त्रिषु अपि पद्धतिषु अक्षराणां आकारम् वर्धयित्वा वाचनम् सुलभम् कर्तुमपि शक्यम् ।
    These are three options that come to mind. I hope this helps.
    एताः त्रिः प्रकाराः मनसि आगताः । इदम् सहाय्यकारी भवति इति आशा ।
    Please let me know which one works, so that it will be useful for anyone else also.
    एतेभ्यः कश्चित् प्रकारः भवते रोचते, तत् कृपया मह्यम् ज्ञातव्यम्, यतः तत् ज्ञानम् कस्मै अन्यस्मै अपि उपयोगी भवति ।
    Maybe I shall incorporate it as a foot-note at the end of every lesson.
    तथाविधम् उल्लेखम् प्रत्येकस्य पाठस्य अन्ते दातुमपि शक्यम् ।
    श्रीपादः ।

  4. प्रिय “श्रीपाद”-महोदय

    I’m giving an example to the below sandhi rule.
    अहं अधः एकं सन्धि न्यायस्य उपमानं यच्छामि । (pardon & correct my mistakes!)

    अ + ई = ऐ यथा (१) दार + ईषण = दारैषण । (२) पुत्र + ईषण = पुत्रैषण । (३) धन + ईषण = धनैषण ।

    भानुः ।

    • नमो नमः श्रीमन् “भानु कुप्प”-महोदय ! I was wrong to say अ + ई = ऐ । Actually अ + ई = ए as in अप + ईक्ष् = अपेक्ष् । Even your examples should be पुत्र + ईषणा = पुत्रेषणा etc. Actually I am working on a spreadsheet where I am trying to compile tables of rules of स्वर-सन्धयः and also their examples.

      I want to extend the spreadsheet to cover rules of व्यञ्जन-सन्धयः and विसर्ग-सन्धयः also.

      The spreadsheet is in a fairly in a raw state. But I am sharing it with you. You can open “Documents” option in the menu-bar of your “gmail”-page and see the spread-sheet by the file-name संहिता-तालिकाः ।

      I think I must delete the post “Rules of Sandhi अ a + other vowels” because there seem to be other mistakes also.

      Thanks for making me re-visit that post and making me notice the errors. सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।” स्थापित-दूरभाष-क्रमाङ्कः +91 22 2849 5365 चलितभाष-क्रमाङ्कः +91 98330 72044

      • श्रीमन् “श्रीपाद”-महोदय !

        Thanks for pointing out my mistake. This lead me do some reading (Thomas Egenes -Introduction to Sanskrit – Part 1) and I found the same.

        अ आ + इ ई -> ए

        I thought the following URL on sandhi rules might be useful for your spreadsheet compilation.

        Best Regards,
        Bhanu Kuppa

      • नमो नमः श्रीमन् “भानु कुप्प”-महोदय ! The “sandhi-handbook” is great ! I noticed a small difficulty, that the author has used acronyms, which are not explained properly. For example, on Page 4 Rule 3 says – SV अ आ + DSV –> SVE It seems, SV = Simple Vowel; DSV = Dissimilar Simple Vowel; SVE = Semi-Vowel Equivalent In my spreadsheet I am trying to make it just direct and simple like, an algebraic equation a + b = c So all “a”-s are in rows; all “b”-s in columns and “c”-s in corresponding cells, where “a”-row and “b”-column meet.

        Did you see my spreadsheet ? If yes, what is your reaction ? I would like to know, please.

        धन्यवादाः, सस्नेहम् , अभ्यंकरकुलोत्पन्नः श्रीपादः | “श्रीपतेः पदयुगं स्मरणीयम् ।” स्थापित-दूरभाष-क्रमाङ्कः +91 22 2849 5365 चलितभाष-क्रमाङ्कः +91 98330 72044

  5. नमो नमः श्रीमन् “श्रीपाद”-महोदय !

    I too thought about the acronym difficulty, but I found some good examples in that sandhi handbook. Thanks for decoding the acronyms!

    The spreadsheet is really fantastic. I found it very easy and useful like a ready reckoner with examples available right below in another table. Do you think will it be useful to put the examples in an algebraic expression too showing the original words? Like Ex: न + इति = नेति ।

    Also, I want to revisit and correct my previous example. I was wrong to use ईषण (hastening, speed), instead of एषण (seeking for, wishing, desire). Then the example would be correct (पुत्र + एषण = पुत्रैषण । ) for a different sandhi rule. I remember my elders saying the correct way to spell is पुत्रैषण not पुत्रेषण ।

    Best Regards,
    Bhanu Kuppa

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